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1.
Tech Coloproctol ; 28(1): 73, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38918256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient selection is extremely important in obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) and rectal prolapse (RP) surgery. This study assessed factors that guided the indications for ODS and RP surgery and their specific role in our decision-making process using a machine learning approach. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of a long-term prospective observational study on female patients reporting symptoms of ODS who underwent a complete diagnostic workup from January 2010 to December 2021 at an academic tertiary referral center. Clinical, defecographic, and other functional tests data were assessed. A supervised machine learning algorithm using a classification tree model was performed and tested. RESULTS: A total of 400 patients were included. The factors associated with a significantly higher probability of undergoing surgery were follows: as symptoms, perineal splinting, anal or vaginal self-digitations, sensation of external RP, episodes of fecal incontinence and soiling; as physical examination features, evidence of internal and external RP, rectocele, enterocele, or anterior/middle pelvic organs prolapse; as defecographic findings, intra-anal and external RP, rectocele, incomplete rectocele emptying, enterocele, cystocele, and colpo-hysterocele. Surgery was less indicated in patients with dyssynergia, severe anxiety and depression. All these factors were included in a supervised machine learning algorithm. The model showed high accuracy on the test dataset (79%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms assessment and physical examination proved to be fundamental, but other functional tests should also be considered. By adopting a machine learning model in further ODS and RP centers, indications for surgery could be more easily and reliably identified and shared.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal , Defecação , Prolapso Retal , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prolapso Retal/cirurgia , Prolapso Retal/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Constipação Intestinal/cirurgia , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Síndrome , Defecação/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Prospectivos , Defecografia/métodos , Seleção de Pacientes , Algoritmos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos
2.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 60 Suppl 1: S30-S41, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38940015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constipation is among the most common symptoms prompting a consultation with a paediatric gastroenterologist. While most patients will respond to lifestyle and dietary changes and conventional therapy, some may require diagnostic studies. AIM: To review the diagnostics studies used to evaluate children with functional constipation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: There is no evidence to support the routine use of abdominal X-rays in the evaluation of paediatric constipation. Colon transit by radiopaque markers (ROM) should be indicated when medical history does not match clinical findings, to guide colon manometry (CM) performance and to discriminate between faecal incontinence from functional constipation and non-retentive faecal incontinence. Colon scintigraphy may be useful as an alternative to ROM. Lumbar spine MRI may be indicated to evaluate for spinal abnormalities. The role of defecography has not been properly evaluated in children. Anorectal manometry in children is indicated primarily to evaluate anal resting pressure, presence and quality of the recto-anal inhibitory reflex and simulated defecation manoeuvres. The CM is indicated to guide surgical interventions after failing medical therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The goal of these studies is to identify treatable causes of constipation. Most of these studies are designed to evaluate anatomy, transit and/or colon/rectum motility function and are primarily indicated in those who fail to respond to conventional therapy.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal , Manometria , Humanos , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico , Criança , Manometria/métodos , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Defecografia/métodos , Colo/fisiopatologia , Colo/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 83(5): 179-183, 2024 05 25.
Artigo em Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783618

RESUMO

Patients with chronic constipation (CC) usually complain of mild to severe symptoms, including hard or lumpy stools, straining, a sense of incomplete evacuation after a bowel movement, a feeling of anorectal blockage, the need for digital maneuver to assist defecation, or reduced stool frequency. In clinical practice, healthcare providers need to check for 'alarm features' indicative of a colonic malignancy, such as bloody stools, anemia, unexplained weight loss, or new-onset symptoms after 50 years of age. In the Seoul Consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of chronic constipation, the Bristol stool form scale, colonoscopy, and digital rectal examination are useful for objectively evaluating the symptoms and making a differential diagnosis of the secondary cause of constipation. If patients with CC improve to lifestyle modification or first-line therapies, the effort to determine the subtypes of CC is usually not considered. On the other hand, if conventional therapeutic strategies fail, diagnostic testing needs to be considered to distinguish between the different subtypes of functional constipation (normal-transit constipation, slow transit constipation, or defecatory disorder) because these subtypes of constipation have different therapeutic implications and a correct diagnosis is critical. In the Seoul consensus, physiological testing is recommended for patients with functional constipation who have failed to respond to treatment with available laxatives (for a minimum of 12 weeks and recommended a therapeutic regimen) or who are strongly suspected of having a defecatory disorder. The Seoul consensus contains statements of physiological testing, including balloon expulsion test, anorectal manometry, defecography, and colon transit time.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal , Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Doença Crônica , Manometria , Colonoscopia , Exame Retal Digital , Defecografia , Trânsito Gastrointestinal
4.
World J Urol ; 42(1): 321, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744781

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Utilize magnetic resonance defecography (MRD) to analyze the primary pelvic floor dysfunctions in patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) associated with pelvic organ prolapse (POP), and in SUI patients with asymptomatic POP. METHOD: We performed MRD in both SUI and POP subjects. As a primary analysis, the functional MR parameters were compared between the isolated POP and POP combined SUI groups. As a secondary analysis, the functional MR data were compared between the POP combined SUI and the SUI with asymptomatic POP (isolated SUI) groups. RESULTS: MRD noted the main characteristics of SUI combined moderate or severe POP, including the shorter closed urethra length (1.87 cm vs. 2.50 cm, p < 0.001), more prevalent urethral hypermobility (112.31° vs. 85.67°, p = 0.003), bladder neck funneling (48.28% vs. 20.51%, p = 0.020), lower position of vesicourethral junction (2.11 cm vs. 1.67 cm, p = 0.030), and more severe prolapse of the posterior bladder wall (6.26 cm vs. 4.35 cm, p = 0.008). The isolated SUI patients showed the shortest length of the closed urethra (1.56 cm vs. 1.87 cm, p = 0.029), a larger vesicourethral angle (153.80° vs. 107.58°, p < 0.001), the more positive bladder funneling (84.85% vs. 48.28%, p = 0.002) and a special urethral opening sign (45.45% vs. 3.45%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with SUI accompanying POP primarily exhibit excessive urethral mobility and a shortened urethral closure. SUI patients with asymptomatic POP mainly show dysfunction of the urethra and bladder neck, characterized by the opening of the urethra and bladder neck and a shortened urethral closure.


Assuntos
Defecografia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse , Humanos , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/diagnóstico por imagem , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/diagnóstico por imagem , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/complicações , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Adulto
5.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 67(S1): S70-S81, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiographic imaging of the abdomen and pelvis plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of ileal pouch disorders with modalities including CT, MRI, contrasted pouchography, and defecography. OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic review of the literature and describe applications of cross-sectional imaging, pouchography, defecography, and ultrasonography. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database. STUDY SELECTION: Relevant articles on endoscopy in ileal pouches published between January 2003 and June 2023 in English were included on the basis of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. INTERVENTION: Main abdominal and pelvic imaging modalities and their applications in the diagnosis of ileal pouch disorders were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Accuracy in characterization of ileal pouch disorders. RESULTS: CT is the test of choice for the evaluation of acute anastomotic leaks, perforation, and abscess(es). MRI of the pelvis is suitable for the assessment of chronic anastomotic leaks and their associated fistulas and sinus tracts, as well as for the penetrating phenotype of Crohn's disease of the pouch. CT enterography and magnetic resonance enterography are useful in assessing intraluminal, intramural, and extraluminal disease processes of the pouch and prepouch ileum. Water-soluble contrast pouchography is particularly useful for evaluating acute or chronic anastomotic leaks and outlines the shape and configuration of the pouch. Defecography is the key modality to evaluate structural and functional pouch inlet and outlet obstructions. Ultrasonography can be performed to assess the pouch in experienced IBD centers. LIMITATIONS: This is a qualitative, not quantitative, review of mainly case series and case reports. CONCLUSIONS: Abdominopelvic imaging, along with clinical and endoscopic evaluation, is imperative for accurately assessing structural, inflammatory, functional, and neoplastic disorders. See video from symposium .


Assuntos
Bolsas Cólicas , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Bolsas Cólicas/efeitos adversos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Proctocolectomia Restauradora/efeitos adversos , Proctocolectomia Restauradora/métodos , Defecografia/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Pouchite/diagnóstico por imagem , Pouchite/diagnóstico , Pouchite/etiologia , Fístula Anastomótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Fístula Anastomótica/etiologia , Fístula Anastomótica/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia
6.
Diagn Interv Radiol ; 30(4): 220-227, 2024 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375767

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this case-control study, we aimed to evaluate how muscle volume affects pelvic floor function by analyzing the levator ani muscle (LAM) using volumetric segmentation in addition to standard magnetic resonance (MR) defecography assessments. METHODS: We enrolled 85 patients with varying degrees of pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) and 85 age- and gender-matched controls in this retrospective study. All patients had MR defecography images, while all controls had pelvic MR images obtained for other reasons. Group comparisons were performed using independent samples t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. The receiver operating curve (ROC) was constructed to establish a cut-off value for a normal LAM volume. Interrater reliability was assessed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Volumetric measurements revealed that the control group had higher LAM volumes, and the ROC curve analysis indicated a cut-off value of 38934.3 mm3 with a sensitivity of 0.812 and specificity of 0.8 for PFD assessment using LAM volumetric measurement. Gender did not significantly affect LAM volume in the control group. CONCLUSION: Alongside the useful structural and functional information acquired from MR defecography images, volumetric analysis, and three-dimensional reconstructions of LAM may help to improve the accuracy of the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Diafragma da Pelve , Humanos , Feminino , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Diafragma da Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Adulto , Idoso , Defecografia/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Int Urogynecol J ; 35(3): 537-544, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38197952

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Magnetic resonance defecography imaging techniques have been used widely to study pelvic floor function and diagnose pelvic organ prolapse (POP). The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the H-line to detect bladder descent compared with the current landmark, the pubococcygeal line (PCL). METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, patients who underwent MR defecography in our medical center and were diagnosed with moderate to severe cystocele by radiological measurements were recruited. One rest image and one maximum evacuation image for each subject were used for the following measurements: bladder base perpendicular distance from the genital hiatus (GH), indicative of clinically significant bladder descent, PCL as the current radiological reference line, and the H-line, or minimal levator hiatus line, indicative of pelvic floor muscle and connective tissue support. Subjects were categorized as having clinically significant cystocele if the "bladder base" reached within 1 cm or lower of the GH (stage II or higher cystocele). A comparison was performed to assess differences and predictive capabilities of the reference lines relative to the GH measure. RESULTS: Seventy subjects were included, 30 with clinically significant bladder descent based on distance to GH. Women with bladder descent were older (64.0 ± 11.8 vs 51.2 ± 15.6, p < 0.001), had increased parity (3 [1-7] vs 2 [0-5], p = 0.009), and had a bladder that descended lower than the H-line at rest (1.9 ± 0.5 vs 2.2 ± 0.4, p = 0.003) and evacuation (-2.4 ± 1.6 vs -0.7 ± 1.1, p < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that age, length of the H-line at evacuation, the perpendicular distances between the H-line and the lowest bladder point at rest, and the PCL to the lowest bladder point at evacuation significantly correlated with bladder descent. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to identify a measurement threshold to diagnose clinically significant cystocele for both measurements, bladder base to the H-line: -1.2 (80.0, 72.5) area under the curve (AUC) 0.82, and bladder base PCL: -3.3 (77.8, 79.5) AUC 0.86. CONCLUSION: Our data support the application of using the minimal levator hiatus plane and specifically the H-line as a reliable landmark to diagnose bladder descent using MR defecography imaging.


Assuntos
Cistocele , Bexiga Urinária , Humanos , Feminino , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Defecografia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Diafragma da Pelve , Cistocele/diagnóstico por imagem , Cistocele/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
8.
Urogynecology (Phila) ; 30(2): 153-160, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37737745

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: More information is needed to guide referring subspecialists on the appropriate patient evaluation before magnetic resonance defecography (MRD). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate how often health care providers perform digital rectal examination (DRE) before ordering MRD to investigate causes of bowel and pelvic floor complaints. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort review, including MRD performed on female patients at an integrated health care system from 2016 through 2020. The primary outcome was the presence or absence of documented rectal examination in the year before defecography by the referring provider or 6 months prior by a primary care physician or pelvic floor physical therapist. We hypothesized that the overall rate of rectal examination would be high and unaffected by the referring provider's subspecialty. RESULTS: Three hundred-four defecography tests were performed, with 209 patients (68.8%) referred by gastroenterology providers and 95 (31.2%) from other specialties. Gastroenterologists performed DRE in 32.8% of patients, in contrast to 84.4% of patients referred by other specialties ( P < 0.001). When comparing subspecialties that most commonly refer patients for MRD (gastroenterology, colorectal surgery and urogynecology), there was a statistically significant difference between gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons ( P < 0.001) as well as urogynecologists ( P < 0.001) but no difference in the rate of rectal examination between colorectal surgeons and urogynecologists ( P = 1.00). CONCLUSIONS: At our single integrated health system, the rate of DRE before MRD testing varied significantly by specialty. Our findings highlight the need for better understanding of DRE utility in the algorithms for evaluation of bowel and pelvic floor disorders.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Defecografia , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Exame Retal Digital
9.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 49(1): 249-257, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37979005

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sigmoidocele, which is a type of obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS), is a peritoneal hernia of the pelvic floor that has been seldom studied individually. This study investigated the anatomic characteristics of sigmoidocele based on imaging features. METHODS: This retrospective cohort population comprised adult patients with ODS who underwent defecography between December 2017 and July 2020. Sigmoidocele was classified based on existing criteria. Novel radiological parameters including the vertical distance descended by the sigmoid colon from rest to maximum straining (RMS) and from the inferior border of the sigmoid colon to the superior border of the rectum at maximum straining (MSR) were measured. RESULTS: Among 275 patients with sigmoidocele, 251 (91.6%) were female. The mean age was 51.53±12.99 years. We classified 26, 205, and 44 cases as grades I, II, and III, respectively. Patients with more severe sigmoidocele had greater sigmoid colon mobility (RMS: 19.13±8.54 mm, 34.45±14.51 mm, and 48.70±20.05 mm for grades I, II, and III, respectively; p < 0.001) and more pronounced compression of the rectum by the sigmoid colon at maximum straining (MSR: 35.23±8.44 mm, 26.33±13.29 mm, and 15.18±18.00 mm, respectively; p < 0.001). We regrouped the patients based on sigmoid colon alignment. Type L patients had the most severe constipation. CONCLUSION: Our study presents a novel sigmoidocele classification. The anatomic appearance and location of the herniated sigmoid colon observed using fluoroscopy during defecation may help improve the clinical awareness of ODS caused by sigmoidocele.


Assuntos
Defecação , Defecografia , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Defecografia/métodos , Constipação Intestinal/complicações , Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hérnia/complicações , Hérnia/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome
10.
Radiologie (Heidelb) ; 63(11): 799-807, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37783986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvic floor plays a key role in imaging complex pelvic floor dysfunction. The simultaneous detection of multiple findings in a complex anatomic setting renders correct analysis and clinical interpretation challenging. OBJECTIVES: The most important aspects (anatomy of the pelvic floor, three compartment model, morphological and functional analysis, reporting) for a successful clinical use of dynamic MRI of the pelvic floor are summarized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review of the scientific literature on dynamic pelvic MR imaging with special consideration of the joint recommendations provided by the expert panel of ESUR/ESGAR in 2016. RESULTS: The pelvic floor is a complex anatomic structure, mainly formed by the levator ani muscle, the urethral support system and the endopelvic fascia. Firstly, morphological changes of these structures are analysed on the static sequences. Secondly, the functional analysis using the three compartment model is performed on the dynamic sequences during squeezing, straining and defecation. Pelvic organ mobility, pelvic organ prolapse, the anorectal angle and pelvic floor relaxation are measured and graded. The diagnosis of cystoceles, enteroceles, rectoceles, the uterovaginal as well as anorectal decent, intussusceptions and dyssynergic defecation should be reported using a structured report form. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive analysis of all morphological and functional findings during dynamic MRI of the pelvic floor can provide information missed by other imaging modalities and hence alter therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Defecografia , Diafragma da Pelve , Humanos , Defecografia/métodos , Diafragma da Pelve/anatomia & histologia , Diafragma da Pelve/patologia , Retocele/diagnóstico , Retocele/patologia , Hérnia/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
11.
Radiologie (Heidelb) ; 63(11): 827-834, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37831101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance defecography (MRD) plays a central role in diagnosing pelvic floor functional disorders by visualizing the entire pelvic floor along with pelvic organs and providing functional assessment of the defecation process. A shared understanding between radiology and surgery regarding indications and interpretation of findings is crucial for optimal utilization of MRD. OBJECTIVES: This review aims to explain the indications for MRD from a surgical perspective and elucidate the significance of radiological findings for treatment. It intends to clarify for which symptoms MRD is appropriate and which criteria should be followed for standardized results. This is prerequisite to develop interdisciplinary therapeutic approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted, including current consensus guidelines. RESULTS: MRD can provide relevant findings in the diagnosis of fecal incontinence and obstructed defecation syndrome, particularly in cases of pelvic floor descent, enterocele, intussusception, and pelvic floor dyssynergia. However, rectocele findings in MRD should be interpreted with caution in order to avoid overdiagnosis. CONCLUSION: MRD findings should never be considered in isolation but rather in conjunction with patient history, clinical examination, and symptomatology since morphology and functional complaints may not always correlate, and there is wide variance of normal values. Interdisciplinary interpretation of MRD results involving radiology, surgery, gynecology, and urology, preferably in the context of pelvic floor conferences, is recommended.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico , Cirurgiões , Feminino , Humanos , Defecografia/métodos , Diafragma da Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Diafragma da Pelve/cirurgia , Diafragma da Pelve/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Retocele/diagnóstico por imagem , Retocele/cirurgia , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/diagnóstico por imagem , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/cirurgia , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/patologia
12.
Tech Coloproctol ; 27(10): 859-866, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37212926

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Determine predictors of success for transvaginal rectocoele repair (TVRR). Primary aim is to establish predictors of successful treatment analysing patients' characteristics, baseline symptoms, pelvic floor test results and pre-operative conservative treatment. METHODS: Retrospective single institution study in a tertiary referral centre for pelvic floor disorders. 207 patients underwent TVRR for symptomatic rectocoele. Information about symptoms related to obstructive defaecation, anal incontinence and vaginal prolapse, results of pelvic floor investigations, multimodality conservative management and variation in surgical technique have been recorded. Symptom related information have been collected at surgical follow-up. RESULTS: 115 patients had residual symptoms after surgical repair of rectocoele, while 97 were symptoms free. Factors associated with residual symptoms after surgical repair are previous proctological procedures, urge AI symptoms, absence of vaginal bulge symptoms, use of transanal irrigation and having a concomitant enterocoele repair during procedure. CONCLUSION: Factors able to predict a less favourable outcome after TVRR in patients with concomitant ODS are previous proctological procedures, presence of urge AI, short anal canal length on anorectal physiology, seepage on defaecating proctography, use of transanal irrigation, absence of vaginal bulge symptoms and enterocoele repair during surgery. These information are important for a tailored decision making process and to manage patients' expectations before surgical repair.


Assuntos
Incontinência Fecal , Retocele , Feminino , Humanos , Retocele/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Constipação Intestinal/cirurgia , Defecografia , Incontinência Fecal/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 35(8): e14592, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37036403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with obstructed defecatory symptoms (ODS) are commonly referred to either gastroenterologists (GE) or colorectal surgeons (CS). Further management of these patients may be impacted by this choice of referral. METHODS: An online survey of specialist practice was disseminated to GE and CS in Australia and New Zealand. A case vignette of a patient presenting with ODS was described, with multiple subsequent scenarios designed to delineate the responder's preferred approach to management of this patient. KEY RESULTS: A total of 107 responders participated in the study, 62 CS and 45 GE. For a female patient with ODS not responding to pharmacological treatment, GE were more likely than CS to refer patients for anorectal manometry, while CS were more likely to refer for dynamic imaging. A quarter of CS and GE referred patients directly to pelvic floor physiotherapy, without any pre-treatment testing. Knowing the result of dynamic imaging, especially if a rectocele was demonstrated, substantially influenced management for both of the specialties: GE became more likely to refer the patients for CS consultation and less likely to refer directly for biofeedback or physiotherapy and CS were more likely to opt for an operative pathway over conservative management than they were prior to knowledge of the imaging findings. The majority (>75%) of GE and CS did not find it necessary to obtain a gynecological consultation, even in the presence of a rectocele. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: Practice variation across medical specialties affects diagnostic and management recommendations for patients with ODS, impacting treatment pathways. Our findings provide an incentive toward establishing interdisciplinary, uniform, management guidelines.


Assuntos
Retocele , Cirurgiões , Humanos , Feminino , Retocele/terapia , Retocele/cirurgia , Constipação Intestinal/cirurgia , Canal Anal/cirurgia , Defecografia/métodos , Defecação
14.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 48(4): 1203-1214, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36745205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the anorectal physiological factors associated with rectocele formation. METHODS: Female patients (N = 32) with severe constipation, fecal incontinence, or suspicion of rectocele, who had undergone magnetic resonance defecography and anorectal function tests between 2015 and 2021, were retrospectively included for analysis. The anorectal function tests were used to measure pressure in the anorectum during defecation. Rectocele characteristics and pelvic floor anatomy were determined with magnetic resonance defecography. Constipation severity was determined with the Agachan score. Information regarding constipation-related symptoms was collected. RESULTS: Mean rectocele size during defecation was 2.14 ± 0.88 cm. During defecation, the mean anal sphincter pressure just before defecation was 123.70 ± 67.37 mm Hg and was associated with rectocele size (P = 0.041). The Agachan constipation score was moderately correlated with anal sphincter pressure just before defecation (r = 0.465, P = 0.022), but not with rectocele size (r = 0.276, P = 0.191). During defecation, increased anal sphincter pressure just before defecation correlated moderately and positively with straining maneuvers (r = 0.539, P = 0.007) and defecation blockage (r = 0.532, P = 0.007). Rectocele size correlated moderately and positively with the distance between the pubococcygeal line and perineum (r = 0.446, P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Increased anal sphincter pressure just before defecation is correlated with the rectocele size. Based on these results, it seems important to first treat the increased anal canal pressure before considering surgical rectocele repair to enhance patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Defecação , Retocele , Humanos , Feminino , Retocele/diagnóstico por imagem , Retocele/cirurgia , Defecação/fisiologia , Defecografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Manometria , Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 48(4): 1237-1245, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36809560

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The authors sought to test if there was a difference in key pelvic floor measurements obtained during MR defecography at-rest, i.e., H-line, M-line and anorectal angle (ARA), before and after rectal gel administration. The authors also sought to determine if any observed differences would affect the interpretation of the defecography studies. METHODS: Institutional Review Board approval was obtained. An abdominal fellow retrospectively reviewed the images of all patients who underwent MRI defecography at our institution from January 2018 through June 2021. The H-line, M-line and ARA values were remeasured on T2-weighted sagittal images, with and without rectal gel for each patient. RESULTS: One hundred and eleven (111) studies were included in the analysis. 18% (N = 20) of patients satisfied the criterion for pelvic floor widening before gel administration based on H-line measurement. This increased to 27% (N = 30) after rectal gel (p = 0.08). 14.4% (N = 16) met the M-line measurement criterion for pelvic floor descent before gel administration. This increased to 38.7% after rectal gel (N = 43) (p < 0.001). 67.6% (N = 75) demonstrated an abnormal ARA prior to administration of rectal gel. This decreased to 58.6% (N = 65) after rectal gel administration (p = 0.07). The overall reporting discrepancies incurred by the presence or absence of rectal gel were 16.2%, 29.7% and 23.4% for H-line, M-line and ARA, respectively. CONCLUSION: The instillation of gel during MR defecography can cause significant changes to the observed pelvic floor measurements at-rest. This in turn can influence the interpretation of defecography studies.


Assuntos
Defecografia , Diafragma da Pelve , Humanos , Defecografia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Diafragma da Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
16.
Int Urogynecol J ; 34(2): 507-515, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403883

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Conventional defecography and MRI defecography can be requested as an additional test for diagnosing and differentiating the type of posterior compartment prolapse and/or obstructive defecation disorders. The objective of this study was to determine the added value of conventional defecography, conventional defecography and MRI defecography for clinical decision-making on treatment for patients with posterior compartment prolapse. METHODS: Four gynecologists were asked to fill in their treatment plan per patient for 32 cases for three different steps. Step 1 consisted of information on the anamnesis and physical examination (POP-Q). Step 2 consisted of Step 1, including conventional defecography (group A) or MRI defecography (group B). In Step 3, all gynecologists received the information on Step 1 including both conventional defecography and MRI defecography. Data analysis solely focused on the assessment of changes in the gynecological treatment plan of the posterior compartment. RESULTS: After Step 2 a change in treatment plan occurred in 37% and 48% of the women in groups A and B, respectively. Accordingly, after Step 3 (including all imaging data), a change in treatment plan occurred in 19% and 52% of the women in groups A and B, respectively. A change within the surgery group (when a different type of surgery was selected) was seen for a total of 11 cases in group A and 20 in group B in all steps combined. CONCLUSIONS: Both conventional defecography and MRI defecography had an large effect on the treatment plan for patients with posterior compartment prolapse. The dedicated added value of the imaging modality individually cannot be concluded yet.


Assuntos
Defecografia , Prolapso Retal , Humanos , Feminino , Defecografia/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Constipação Intestinal , Tomada de Decisão Clínica
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35582728

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this retrospective study was to try to find correlations between different diagnoses established by clinical examination, anorectal manometry and MRI-defecography and, the association with psychiatric disorders. METHODS: 44 patients (median age 53.81 years) presenting with intestinal motility disorders and who underwent clinical, biological and psychiatric examination, dynamic defecographic-MRI (resting, squeezing, straining, defecation and evacuation phases), anorectal manometry, colonoscopy. MRI was performed using the 1,5 T. RESULTS: MRI-defecography revealed the following changes: anismus (16), rectocele (12), pelvic floor dysfunction (6), peritoneocele (2), cervical-cystic-ptosis (1), rectal prolapse (6), and in 1 case the examination was normal. Hypertonic anal sphincter (16) and lack of defecation reflex (12) at anorectal manometry correlated with anismus in all patients at MRI-defecography. Lack of inhibitor anal reflex (6) was associated with rectocele (4), cervix-cysto-ptosis (1) and peritoneocele (2). Anxiety (11), depression (6) and anxiety-depressive disorders (10) were found in 27/44, somatization disorders in 9/44 and no psychiatric changes in 8/44 cases. CONCLUSION: As multiparous women are at risk for outlet obstruction constipation, MRI-defecography is suggested in this category. There is good correlation between diagnosis using anorectal manometry and MRI-defecography in patients with terminal constipation and anismus. Lower defecation dysfunction is often associated with psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Defecação , Retocele , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retocele/diagnóstico , Defecografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
18.
Radiographics ; 43(1): e220119, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36459493

RESUMO

MR defecating proctography (MRDP) is a noninvasive examination that can be used for evaluating posterior compartment disorders. MRDP has several advantages over conventional fluoroscopic defecography. These benefits include high-contrast resolution evaluation of the deep pelvic organs, simultaneous multicompartmental assessment that is performed statically and dynamically during defecation, and lack of ionizing radiation. MRDP also provides a highly detailed anatomic evaluation of the pelvic floor supportive structures, including direct assessment of the pelvic floor musculature and indirect assessment of the endopelvic fascia. As the breadth of knowledge regarding anatomic and functional posterior compartment disorders expands, so too does the advancement of noninvasive and surgical treatment options for these conditions. High-quality MRDP examinations, with key anatomic and functional features reported, guide treatment planning. Reporting of MRDP examination findings with use of standardized terminology that emphasizes objective measurements rather than subjective grading aids consistent communication among radiologists, clinicians, and surgeons. Familiarity with commonly encountered posterior compartment pelvic floor pathologic entities that contribute to posterior compartment disorders and awareness of the essential information needed by surgeons are key to providing an optimal multidisciplinary discussion for planning pelvic floor dysfunction treatment. The authors provide an overview of the basic concepts of the MRDP acquisition technique, the anatomic abnormalities of posterior compartment pelvic floor pathologic entities associated with defecatory disorders, and recently developed interdisciplinary MRDP reporting templates and lexicons. In addition, the associated imaging findings that are key for surgical treatment guidance are highlighted. © RSNA, 2022 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Assuntos
Defecografia , Diafragma da Pelve , Humanos , Diafragma da Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Radiologistas , Exame Físico
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(50): e31682, 2022 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550796

RESUMO

Three-dimensional high-resolution anorectal manometry (3DHRAM) is a new technique that can explore anorectal disorders and provide interesting topographic data for the diagnosis of pelvic floor disorders such as paradoxical puborectalis syndrome (PPS). Our object was to evaluate whether 3DHRAM can reliably diagnose PPS already diagnosed with X-ray defaecography, which is considered to be the gold standard. All patients being tested in our department for dyschezia by 3D-HRAM and X-ray defecography were eligible for the study. The 3DHRAM results were compared with X-ray defecography. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for various 3DHRAM criteria to propose a diagnostic strategy for PPS. Twenty-three patients presented with PPS on X-ray defaecography. On 3DHRAM, according to our diagnostic strategy, the kappa value was 0.706, with a positive predictive value of 71.88% [95% CI, 53.02-85.60], a specificity of 80.43% [95% CI, 65.62-90.13], a sensibility of 95.83% [95% CI, 76.98-99.78], and area under curve value was 0.922. In this study, 3DHRAM was used to diagnose PPS with the same degree of reliability as X-ray defaecography, and we confirmed its use in the diagnosis of pelvic floor disorders. Further studies will be necessary to define classifications for these new anatomic data from 3DHRAM.


Assuntos
Canal Anal , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Canal Anal/diagnóstico por imagem , Raios X , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/diagnóstico por imagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Manometria/métodos , Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Defecografia/métodos
20.
Surgery ; 172(6): 1636-1641, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with obstructed defecation syndrome may present with a wide spectrum of disorders. The iceberg diagram, which focuses on the underlying occult diseases, has been proposed for an accurate diagnosis. The iceberg diagram deals with lesions, which, if neglected, may worsen the prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using the iceberg diagram on the clinical results. METHODS: Patients operated for obstructed defecation syndrome based on the iceberg diagram between 2008 and 2018 were evaluated pre- and postsurgery. All patients underwent psychosomatic assessment, abdominal and perineal examination, proctoscopy, vaginoscopy, transanal ultrasound, and defecography. Postoperative complications were also evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 80 operated patients, 73 were females; median age was 47 (range 26-78) years. All had a rectal internal mucosal prolapse and 85% had a rectocele. The most frequent occult diseases were functional (mental distress [46%]) or organic (colpo-cysto-enterocele [44%]). Surgery was tailored according to the iceberg diagram with prolapsectomy and rectocele repair the most commonly used among 8 different procedures. A total of 14% of patients had a postoperative complication. Median follow-up was 72 months. Obstructed defecation syndrome score significantly decreased from 10.5 ± 4.8 (mean + standard deviation) to 3.4 ± 3.6 (P < .01) and 68% of patients reported to be either improved or cured. CONCLUSION: The use of the iceberg diagram in obstructed defecation syndrome patients assists in identifying latent "submerged lesions' that may negatively impact the functional outcome of surgery. A clinical approach to patients with obstructed defecation syndrome tailored according to the iceberg diagram allows the identification of occult lesions and to achieve good long-term results.


Assuntos
Defecografia , Retocele , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Retocele/complicações , Retocele/cirurgia , Defecografia/efeitos adversos , Defecação , Síndrome , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Constipação Intestinal/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
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