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1.
J Vis Exp ; (205)2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557733

RESUMO

Social adversity in adolescence is prevalent and can negatively impact mental health trajectories. Modeling social stress in adolescent male and female rodents is needed to understand its effects on ongoing brain development and behavioral outcomes. The chronic social defeat stress paradigm (CSDS) has been widely used to model social stress in adult C57BL/6 male mice by leveraging on the aggressive behavior displayed by an adult male rodent to an intruder invading its territory. An advantage of this paradigm is that it allows to categorize defeated mice into resilient and susceptible groups based on their individual differences in social behavior 24 h after the last defeat session. Implementing this model in adolescent C57BL/6 mice has been challenging because adult or adolescent mice do not typically attack early adolescent male or female mice and because adolescence is a short period of life, encompassing discreet temporal windows of vulnerability. This limitation was overcome by adapting an accelerated version of the CSDS to be used for adolescent male and female mice. This 4-day stress paradigm with 2 physical attack sessions per day uses a C57BL/6 male adult to prime the CD-1 mouse for aggressiveness such that it readily attacks the male or female adolescent mouse. This model was termed accelerated social defeat stress (AcSD) for adolescent mice. Adolescent exposure to AcSD induces social avoidance 24 h later in both males and females, but only in a subset of defeated mice. This vulnerability occurs despite the number of attacks being consistent across sessions between resilient and susceptible groups. The AcSD model is short enough to allow exposure during discrete periods within adolescence, allows the segregation of mice according to the presence or absence of social avoidance behavior, and is the first model available to study social defeat stress in adolescent C57BL/6 female mice.


Assuntos
Comportamento Social , Derrota Social , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
2.
Life Sci ; 344: 122561, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490298

RESUMO

AIMS: Increasing evidence suggests a link between gut microbial dysbiosis and the pathogenesis of depression. Alpha-glycosyl isoquercitrin (AGIQ), consisting of isoquercitrin and its glycosylated quercetin, has beneficial effects on the gut microbiome and brain function. Here, we detected the potential antidepressant impact of a four-week administration of AGIQ and its underlying mechanisms using a mouse model of depression. MAIN METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were orally administered AGIQ (0.05 % or 0.5 % in drinking water) for 28 days; subchronic social defeat stress was performed in the last 10 days. Behavior tests were conducted to assess anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. Additionally, evaluations encompassed 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels, the gut microbiota composition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations, short-chain fatty acids levels, and intestinal barrier integrity changes. KEY FINDINGS: AGIQ significantly alleviated depression-like behaviors and increased hippocampal 5-HT levels. Further, AGIQ mitigated stress-induced gut microbial abnormalities and reduced the levels of LPS in the serum, which affected the relative gene expression levels of 5-HT biosynthesis enzymes in vitro. Furthermore, AGIQ reversed the reduced butyrate levels in cecal contents and improved the impaired intestinal barrier by increasing the expression of colonic zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1) and occludin, thereby decreasing LPS leakage. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that AGIQ could improve stress-induced depression by regulating the gut microbiome, which inhibits LPS production and maintains the gut barrier. This is the first report on the potential effect of AGIQ on depression via the gut microbiota-brain axis, shedding new light on treatment options.


Assuntos
Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino , Quercetina , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Camundongos , Masculino , Quercetina/farmacologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos , Derrota Social , Serotonina , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7137, 2024 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531904

RESUMO

Social defeat stress is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation and apoptosis. ER stress is thought to contribute to many lifestyle diseases such as liver injury, cardiovascular dysfunction and depression. We investigated the expression of the ER stress markers RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), as well as inflammatory and apoptotic factors, to assess how social defeat stress induces liver injury. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of the ER stress inhibitor phenylbutyric acid (PBA) and ER stress inducer thapsigargin (TG) on liver injury. Adult mice were divided into the control, social defeat, social defeat + PBA, TG, PBA and TG + PBA groups. The social defeat and social defeat + PBA groups were simultaneously exposed to social defeat stress for 10 days. The social defeat + PBA, TG, PBA and TG + PBA groups were treated with PBA or TG via intraperitoneal injections. PBA was injected 1 h before the TG injection into the TG + PBA group. Liver samples from six groups of mice were analyzed by histological analysis and western blotting. Social defeat stress promoted ER stress, increased the expression of inflammatory factors and induced apoptosis in the liver of socially defeated mice, which was reversed by PBA. Moreover, ER stress induces TG-induced liver injury by initiating ER stress. Social defeat stress initiates ER stress, promotes the expression of inflammatory and apoptotic factors, and induces liver injury. PBA suppresses liver injury caused by social defeat stress and TG treatment.


Assuntos
Fígado , Fenilbutiratos , Derrota Social , Camundongos , Animais , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fígado/patologia , Apoptose , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 325: 117891, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331122

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Parishin C (Par), a prominent bioactive compound in Gastrodia elata Blume with little toxicity and shown neuroprotective effects. However, its impact on depression remains largely unexplored. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to investigate the antidepressant effects of Par using a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) mouse model and elucidate its molecular mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CSDS-induced depression mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Par. The social interaction test (SIT) and sucrose preference test (SPT), tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST) were conducted to assess the effects of Par on depressive-like behaviours. The levels of corticosterone, neurotransmitters (5-HT, DA and NE) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6) were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Activation of a microglia was assessed by immunofluorescence labeling Iba-1. The protein expressions of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, and IL-6 verified by Western blot. RESULT: Oral administration of Par (4 and 8 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, administration significantly ameliorate depression-like behaviors induced by CSDS, as shown by the increase social interaction in SIT, increase sucrose preference in SPT and the decrease immobility in TST and FST. Par administration decreased serum corticosterone level and increased the 5-HT, DA and NE concentration in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, Par treatment suppressed microglial activation (Iba1) as well as reduced levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6) with decreased protein expressions of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, and IL-6. CONCLUSIONS: our study provides the first evidence that Par exerts antidepressant-like effects in mice with CSDS-induced depression. This effect appears to be mediated by the normalization of neurotransmitter and corticosterone levels, inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. This newfound antidepressant property of Par offers a novel perspective on its pharmacological effects, providing valuable insights into its potential therapeutic and preventive applications in depression treatment.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Camundongos , Animais , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Derrota Social , Corticosterona , Serotonina/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/metabolismo , Hipocampo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Caspases/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças
5.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 702: 149631, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335703

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder is accompanied by a high metabolic illness comorbidity and patients with atypical depression are a subgroup with particularly high risk of obesity, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined visceral fat deposition, lipid profiles in the liver, and gut microbiota in sub-chronic and mild social defeat stress (sCSDS)-exposed C57BL/6J mice, which exhibit atypical depression-like phenotypes, i.e., increased body weight and food and water intake. We found that visceral fat mass and levels of hepatic cholesterol and bile acids in sCSDS-exposed mice were significantly increased compared to those in controls. The expression of hepatic small heterodimer partner, a negative regulator of cholesterol metabolism, was significantly elevated in sCSDS-exposed mice. We also found that gut microbial diversity and composition including lower relative abundance of Bacteroides spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. in sCSDS-exposed mice were different from those in controls. In addition, relative abundance of Bacteroides spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. was significantly and negatively correlated with body weight, visceral fat mass, and hepatic cholesterol and bile acids levels. These results indicate that sCSDS-exposure induces dysbiosis, and thereby contributes to metabolic disorder development.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Derrota Social , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Colesterol/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Fígado/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica
6.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 241(4): 785-803, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311692

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Emerging evidence indicates that persistent alcohol consumption escalates psychosocial trauma achieved by social defeat stress (SDS)-induced neurobiological changes and behavioral outcomes. Treatment with compounds with neuroprotective functions is believed to reverse ethanol (EtOH)-aggravated SDS-induced behavioral impairments. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the outcomes of diosgenin treatment, a phytosteroidal sapogenin in mice co-exposed to repeated SDS and EtOH administration. METHODS: During a period of 14 days, SDS male mice were repeatedly administered EtOH (20%, 10 mL/kg) orally from days 8-14 (n = 9). Within days 1-14, SDS mice fed with EtOH were simultaneously treated with diosgenin (25 and 50 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) by oral gavage. Locomotor, cognitive-, depressive-, and anxiety-like behaviors were assessed. Adrenal weight, serum glucose, and corticosterone levels were assayed. Brain markers of oxido-inflammatory, neurochemical levels, monoamine oxidase-B, and acetylcholinesterase activities were measured in the striatum, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus. RESULTS: The anxiety-like behavior, depression, low stress resilience, social, and spatial/non-spatial memory decline exhibited by SDS mice exposed to repeated EtOH administration were alleviated by diosgenin (25 and 50 mg/kg) and fluoxetine, illustrated by increased dopamine and serotonin concentrations and reduced monoamine oxidase-B and acetylcholinesterase activities in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. Diosgenin attenuated SDS + EtOH interaction induced corticosterone release and adrenal hypertrophy, accompanied by reduced TNF-α, IL-6, malondialdehyde, and nitrite levels in the striatum, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus. Diosgenin increased glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels in SDS + EtOH-exposed mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that diosgenin reverses SDS + EtOH interaction-induced behavioral changes via normalization of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neurochemical neurotransmissions, and inhibition of oxidative and inflammatory mediators in mice brains.


Assuntos
Corticosterona , Fluoxetina , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Derrota Social , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Etanol , Monoaminoxidase , Estresse Oxidativo
7.
Neurochem Int ; 174: 105682, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301899

RESUMO

The serotonergic (5-HTergic) system is closely involved in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders and the responsibility of this system may differ for each symptom. In this study, we examined the relationship between the dysfunction of the 5-HTergic system and abnormal behaviors in the social defeat stress model, an animal model of mood and anxiety disorders and in mice with knockdown of Slc6a4, the gene encoding SERT. Monoamine content, serotonin (5-HT) release, 5-HT uptake, 5-HT transporter (SERT) protein levels, and behaviors were investigated in mice subjected to chronic social defeat stress and in mice with knockdown of Slc6a4, in 5-HTergic neurons projecting to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Furthermore, DNA methylation of Slc6a4 was examined in mice subjected to chronic social defeat stress. Increased turnover, increased extracellular basal levels, decreased release and decreased uptake of 5-HT, and decreased SERT protein levels were observed in the PFC of the stressed mice. The decreased 5-HT uptake correlated with anxiety-like behavior characterized by decreased time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. DNA methylation was increased in the CpG island of Slc6a4 in 5-HTergic neurons projecting to the PFC of the stressed mice. Similar to the stressed mice, mice with Slc6a4 knockdown in 5-HTergic neurons projecting to the PFC also showed decreased release and uptake of 5-HT in the PFC and increased anxiety-like behavior. Chronic stress may induce anxiety due to dysfunction in the prefrontal 5-HTergic system via decreased SERT expression in the PFC.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina , Serotonina , Camundongos , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Derrota Social , Ansiedade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo
8.
J Affect Disord ; 351: 833-842, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress-induced illnesses, like major depression, are among the leading causes of disability across the world. Consequently, there is a dire need for the validation of translationally-suited animal models incorporating social stress to uncover the etiology of depression. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are more translationally relevant than many other rodent models as they display monogamous social and bi-parental behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated whether a novel social defeat stress (SDS) model in male prairie voles induces depression-relevant behavioral outcomes. METHODS: Adult sexually-naïve male prairie voles experienced SDS bouts from a conspecific pair-bonded male aggressor, 10 min per day for 10 consecutive days. Non-stressed controls (same-sex siblings) were housed in similar conditions but never experienced physical stress. Twenty-four h later, voles were evaluated in social interaction, sucrose preference, and Morris water maze tests - behavioral endpoints validated to assess social withdrawal, anhedonia-related behavior, and spatial memory performance, respectively. RESULTS: SDS-exposed voles displayed lower sociability and body weight, decreased preference for a sucrose solution, and impairment of spatial memory retrieval. Importantly, no differences in general locomotor activity were observed as a function of SDS exposure. LIMITATIONS: This study does not include female voles in the experimental design. CONCLUSIONS: We found that repeated SDS exposure, in male prairie voles, results in a depression-relevant phenotype resembling an anhedonia-like outcome (per reductions in sucrose preference) along with social withdrawal and spatial memory impairment - highlighting that the prairie vole is a valuable model with potential to study the neurobiology of social stress-induced depression-related outcomes.


Assuntos
Comportamento Social , Derrota Social , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Depressão , Anedonia , Pradaria , Arvicolinae , Sacarose
9.
J Affect Disord ; 348: 333-344, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in regulating mood, but the specific involvement of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) in depression remains poorly understood. Similarly, the mechanisms by which electroacupuncture (EA) provides therapeutic benefits for depression are not clearly defined. This research aims to explore the function of CB2R in depression and examine if the therapeutic effects of EA are associated with the hippocampal CB2R system. METHODS: Mice experiencing social defeat stress (SDS) were used to model depression and anxiety behaviors. We quantified hippocampal CB2R and N-arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) levels. The efficacy of a CB2R agonist, JWH133, in mitigating SDS-induced behaviors was evaluated. Additionally, EA's impact on CB2R and AEA was assessed, along with the influence of CB2R antagonist AM630 on EA's antidepressant effects. RESULTS: SDS led to depressive and anxiety-like behaviors, with corresponding decreases in hippocampal CB2R and AEA. Treatment with JWH133 ameliorated these behaviors. EA treatment resulted in increased CB2R and AEA levels, while AM630 blocked these antidepressant effects. LIMITATIONS: The study mainly focused on the SDS model, which may not entirely reflect other depression models. Besides, further investigation is needed to understand the precise mechanisms by which CB2R and AEA contribute to EA's effects. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests hippocampal downregulation of CB2R and AEA contributes to depression. Upregulation of CB2R and AEA in response to EA suggests their involvement in EA's antidepressant effects. These findings provide insights into the role of the hippocampal CB2R system in depression and the potential mechanisms underlying EA's therapeutic effects.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Depressão , Camundongos , Animais , Receptores de Canabinoides , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Derrota Social , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 171: 116164, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pterocarpus santalinus L. essential oil (PSEO) is traditionally employed for treating fever and mental aberrations. We aim to explore the antidepressant potential of intranasal PSEO in social defeat stress (SDS)-expose mice and identify its mechanisms and components. METHODS: PSEO components were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). C57BL/6 mice underwent a 10-day SDS with intranasal PSEO (10, 20 mg/kg) for 21 days. Efficacy was evaluated through changes in behaviors and serum corticosterone (CORT), hippocampal neurotransmitter, and inflammatory cytokine levels. In vitro effects were examined using primary hippocampal neurons, PC12 and BV2 cells. RESULTS: GC-MS identified 22 volatile compounds in PSEO, and (+)-ledene (16.7%), cedrol (13.5%), and isoaromadendrene epoxide (7.0%) as major components. PSEO (20 mg/kg) significantly reversed SDS-induced social withdrawal, increased open-area explorations in the open field test (OFT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) test, and reduced immobility time in the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST). PSEO downregulated serum CORT and hippocampal interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels, while increasing hippocampal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT) levels. PSEO (0.1, 1, 10 µg/mL) reduced neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation in PC12 and BV2 cells, respectively. PSEO (10 µg/mL) enhanced glutamic acid decarboxylase 6 (GAD6)- and GABA B receptor 1 (GABABR1)-positive puncta in the hippocampal neurons and FM1-43 fluorescence intensity. CONCLUSION: Intranasal PSEO exhibited antidepressant-like effects on SDS-exposed mice, potentially through modulating stress hormone, neurotransmission, and neuroinflammation. Further investigation into the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and mechanisms of (+)-ledene, cedrol, and isoaromadendrene epoxide is needed.


Assuntos
Depressão , Óleos Voláteis , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Pterocarpus , Camundongos , Animais , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Derrota Social , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Hipocampo , Corticosterona , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal , Transmissão Sináptica , Compostos de Epóxi/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 324: 117775, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224793

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Perillae Folium, the leaves and twigs of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton, has been included in many traditional Chinese medicine herbal formulas to treat depression. However, the precise antidepressant mechanism of the essential oil from Perillae Folium (PFEO) has not been fully investigated. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the effects and potential mechanisms of PFEO on depression using animal models and network pharmacology analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PFEO was intranasally administered to a mouse model of social defeat stress (SDS). The antidepressant effects of PFEO on SDS-induced mice were evaluated using behavioral tests. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot were performed to measure the levels of depression-related biomarkers in the hippocampus and serum of the mice. The chemical compounds of PFEO were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Network pharmacology and molecular docking analyses were conducted to investigate the potential bioactive components of PFEO and the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects. To validate the mechanisms of the bioactive compounds, in vitro models using PC12 and BV2 cells were established and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability was evaluated. RESULTS: The intranasal administration of PFEO suppressed SDS-induced depression in mice by increasing the time spent in the social zone and the social interactions in the social interaction test and by decreasing the immobility time in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests. Moreover, the PFEO treatment reduced the SDS-induced anxiety-like behavior, as inferred from the increased activity in the central zone observed in the open field test and in the open arms observed in the elevated plus maze test. PFEO administration recovered the SDS-induced decrease in the levels of 5-HT, NE, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and p-ERK in the hippocampus of mice. Furthermore, the increased serum corticosterone level was also attenuated by the PFEO treatment. A total of 21 volatile compounds were detected in PFEO using GC-MS, among which elemicin (15.52%), apiol (15.16%), and perillaldehyde (12.79%) were the most abundant ones. The PFEO compounds targeted 32 depression-associated genes, which were mainly related to neural cells and neurotransmission pathways. Molecular docking indicated good binding affinities between the bioactive components of PFEO (apiol, ß-caryophyllene, elemicin, and myristicin) and the key targets, including ACHE, IL1B, IL6, MAOB, SLC6A2, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, and tumor necrosis factor. Among the four compounds, ß-caryophyllene, elemicin, and myristicin were more effective in reducing neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation. Elemicin showed the highest BBB permeability rate. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the antidepressant activities of PFEO in an SDS-induced mouse model and suggests its potential mechanisms of action: regulation of the corticosterone levels, hippocampal neurotransmitters, and ERK signaling. Apiol, ß-caryophyllene, elemicin, and myristicin may be the main contributors to the observed effects induced by PFEO. Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the underlying mechanisms and the main PFEO bioactive components.


Assuntos
Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Depressão , Dioxolanos , Óleos Voláteis , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Pirogalol/análogos & derivados , Animais , Camundongos , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Corticosterona , Administração Intranasal , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Derrota Social , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Animal , Hipocampo , Modelos Animais de Doenças
12.
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol ; 27(1)2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38038373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a neuropsychiatric disease with a high disability rate and mainly caused by the chronic stress or genetic factors. There is increasing evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of depression. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for the pathophysiology of depression of miRNA remains entirely unclear so far. METHODS: We first established a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) mice model of depression, and depression-like behaviors of mice were evaluated by a series of behavioral tests. Next, we detected several abundantly expressive miRNAs suggested in previous reports to be involved in depression and found miR-182-5p was selected as a candidate for analysis in the hippocampus. Then western blotting and immunofluorescence were used together to examine whether adeno-associated virus (AAV)-siR-182-5p treatment alleviated chronic stress-induced decrease in hippocampal Akt/GSK3ß/cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway and increase in neurogenesis impairment and neuroinflammation. Furthermore, CREB inhibitor was adopted to examine if blockade of Akt/GSK3ß/CREB signaling pathway abolished the antidepressant actions of AAV-siR-182-5p in mice. RESULTS: Knockdown of miR-182-5p alleviated depression-like behaviors and impaired neurogenesis of CSDS-induced mice. Intriguingly, the usage of agomiR-182-5p produced significant increases in immobility times and aggravated neuronal neurogenesis damage of mice. More importantly, it suggested that 666-15 blocked the reversal effects of AAV-siR-182-5p on the CSDS-induced depressive-like behaviors in behavioral testing and neuronal neurogenesis within hippocampus of mice. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that hippocampal miR-182-5p/Akt/GSK3ß/CREB signaling pathway participated in the pathogenesis of depression, and it might give more opportunities for new drug developments based on the miRNA target in the clinic.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , MicroRNAs , Animais , Camundongos , Derrota Social , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Hipocampo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38097163

RESUMO

Exposure to stress induced by intermittent repeated social defeat (IRSD) increases vulnerability to the development of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) among male mice; however, some defeated mice are resilient to these effects of stress. In the present study we evaluated the effects of vicarious IRSD (VIRSD) in female mice and explored behavioural traits that are potentially predictive of resilience. C57BL/6 female mice (n = 28) were exposed to VIRSD, which consisted of the animals witnessing a short experience of social defeat by a male mouse on postnatal day (PND) 47, 50, 53 and 56. The control group (n = 10) was not exposed to stress. Blood samples were collected on PND 47 and 56 for corticosterone and interleukin-6 determinations. On PND 57-58, female mice performed several behavioural tests (elevated plus maze, hole-board, object recognition, social interaction, TST and splash tests). Three weeks later, the effects of cocaine (1.5 mg/kg) on the CPP paradigm were assessed. VIRSD decreased corticosterone levels (on PND 56), increased interleukin-6 levels, enhanced novelty-seeking, improved recognition memory and induced anxiety- and depression-like symptoms. Control and VIRSD female mice did not acquire CPP, although some stressed individuals with certain behavioural traits - including a high novelty-seeking profile or the development of depression-like behaviour in the splash test shortly after VIRSD - acquired cocaine CPP. Our results confirm that some behavioural traits of female mice are associated with vulnerability or resilience to the long-term effects of social stress on cocaine reward, as previously observed in males.


Assuntos
Cocaína , Resiliência Psicológica , Camundongos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Corticosterona , Derrota Social , Interleucina-6 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Cocaína/farmacologia , Recompensa , Estresse Psicológico
14.
Neuroscience ; 538: 11-21, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38103860

RESUMO

Persistent stress increases the probability for developing depression significantly thereafter. Repeated social defeat stress is a widely used model to investigate depressive-like behavior in preclinical models. Hence, the repeated social defeat stress model provided an ideal animal model, through which the hypotheses of prevention and treatment can be investigated. We have successfully induced depressive-like behavior for male C57BL/6J mice with this model. Here, we reported that certain level of during-stress social interactions with single female or multiple male peer(s) exerted a positive role in preventing the development of depressive-like behavior induced by repeated social defeat stress. Our data suggested that the stress-susceptible mice may benefit from positive social interaction, which reduces the chance for depressive-like behavior development. Since numerous studies indicate that the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) plays an important role in various cognitive functions, we further investigate the treatment effect of 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl) benzamide (CDPPB) on the depressive-like behavior induced by repeated social defeat stress. Most importantly, robust anti-depressant effects have been achieved through modulating the mGluR5 function. We found that single oral dose administration of CDPPB (20 mg/kg), to some extent, alleviated the social avoidance behaviors for the stress-susceptible mice. Our data implies that the CDPPB, a positive allosteric modulator of mGluR5, is a promising anti-depressant candidate with limited side effect.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo , Pirazóis , Derrota Social , Interação Social , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Feminino , Regulação Alostérica , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Social
15.
Physiol Behav ; 275: 114446, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38128683

RESUMO

Human studies have linked stress exposure to unhealthy eating behavior. However, the mechanisms that drive stress-associated changes in eating behavior remain incompletely understood. The sense of taste plays important roles in food preference and intake. In this study, we use a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model in mice to address whether chronic stress impacts taste sensation and gene expression in taste buds and the gut. Our results showed that CSDS significantly elevated circulating levels of corticosterone and acylated ghrelin while lowering levels of leptin, suggesting a change in metabolic hormones that promotes food consumption. Stressed mice substantially increased their intake of food and water 3-5 days after the stress onset and gradually gained more body weight than that of controls. Moreover, CSDS significantly decreased the expression of multiple taste receptors and signaling molecules in taste buds and reduced mRNA levels of several taste progenitor/stem cell markers and regulators. Stressed mice showed significantly reduced sensitivity and response to umami and sweet taste compounds in behavioral tests. In the small intestine, the mRNA levels of Gnat3 and Tas1r2 were elevated in CSDS mice. The increased Gnat3 was mostly localized in a type of Gnat3+ and CD45+ immune cells, suggesting changes of immune cell distribution in the gut of stressed mice. Together, our study revealed broad effects of CSDS on the peripheral taste system and the gut, which may contribute to stress-associated changes in eating behavior.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas , Paladar , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Paladar/fisiologia , Derrota Social , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro , Expressão Gênica , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
16.
Biol Psychiatry ; 95(1): 37-47, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37355003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a unique period of psychosocial growth during which social adversity can negatively influence mental health trajectories. Understanding how adolescent social stress impacts males and females and why some individuals are particularly affected is becoming increasingly urgent. Social defeat stress models for adolescent male mice have been effective in reproducing some physical/psychological aspects of bullying. Designing a model suitable for females has proven challenging. METHODS: We report a version of the adolescent male accelerated social defeat stress (AcSD) paradigm adapted for females. Early adolescent C57BL/6J female mice (N = 107) were exposed to our modified AcSD procedure twice a day for 4 days and categorized as resilient or susceptible based on a social interaction test 24 hours later. Mice were then assessed for changes in Netrin-1/DCC guidance cue expression in dopamine systems, for inhibitory control in adulthood using the Go/No-Go task, or for alterations in dopamine connectivity organization in the matured prefrontal cortex. RESULTS: Most adolescent females showed protection against stress-induced social avoidance, but in adulthood, these resilient females developed inhibitory control deficits and showed diminution of prefrontal cortex presynaptic dopamine sites. Female mice classified as susceptible were protected against cognitive and dopaminergic alterations. AcSD did not alter Netrin-1/DCC in early adolescent females, contrary to previous findings with males. CONCLUSIONS: Preserving prosocial behavior in adolescent females may be important for survival advantage but seems to come at the price of developing persistent cognitive and dopamine deficiencies. The female AcSD paradigm produced findings comparable to those found in males, allowing mechanistic investigation in both sexes.


Assuntos
Dopamina , Derrota Social , Camundongos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Netrina-1 , Dopamina/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
17.
Brain Res ; 1825: 148734, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38110072

RESUMO

Depression is more prevalent in women than in men. Perinatal stress is one of the main risk factors for depression in women. However, there is no suitable female model for perinatal depression that uses the social defeat stress (SDS) paradigm. The standard chronic SDS protocol, which is the most useful method for developing a depression-like model, is effective only in male mice. Thus, this study aimed to characterize a novel SDS method for producing a perinatal depression-like model mouse. We induced chronic SDS in perinatal female mice, wherein chronic non-discriminatory SDS (ND-SDS) was used to induce substantial stress in female mice. The female mice were placed in aggressive ICR mouse cages with sentinel male mice under ND-SDS conditions. Stressed female mice subjected to ND-SDS during the perinatal period efficiently exhibited stress-susceptible phenotypes, such as a social avoidance phenotype and anhedonic behavior, whereas stressed female mice subjected to SDS did not show depressive-like behaviors. These results indicate that chronic ND-SDS in perinatal females could be used to develop a female perinatal depression-like model that can be used to study women's health.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo , Derrota Social , Humanos , Gravidez , Masculino , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Comportamento Social , Agressão , Estresse Psicológico , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
18.
Brain Behav Immun ; 115: 356-373, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37914101

RESUMO

Chronic stress is linked to increased anxiety. Repeated social defeat (RSD) in mice causes anxiety that is dependent on activated neurons, reactive microglia, and accumulation of monocytes in the brain. This response requires interactions between the immune system and central nervous system (CNS). Neuronal activation within threat appraisal regions is a key response to RSD, however, it is unclear how microglia become activated. One potential explanation is that microglia express a purinergic non-selective ligand gated adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) receptor 7 (P2X7). Activation of P2X7 promotes the release of chemokines and cytokines, and recruitment of monocytes to the brain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if a novel P2X7 antagonist blocked neuronal and microglia interactions and the corresponding anxiety following RSD. Male mice were administered (i.p.) a P2X7 antagonist, JNJ-54471300, prior to each cycle of RSD. Fourteen hours after RSD, behavioral deficits including social avoidance and anxiety-like were determined. Moreover, several immune parameters were assessed. RSD caused neuronal activation in stress-responsive regions, monocyte production and release, splenomegaly, and social avoidance. These parameters were unaffected by P2X7 antagonism. RSD-associated proportional area of Iba-1+ microglia, monocyte accumulation in the brain, IL-1ß mRNA expression in enriched myeloid cells, plasma IL-6, and anxiety-like behavior were ameliorated by P2X7 antagonism. Gene expression analysis in the hippocampus and amygdala showed regional specific responses to RSD and some were reversed with P2X7 antagonism. Overall, blocking P2X7 activation attenuated RSD-induced microglia reactivity with corresponding reduction in neuroinflammation, monocyte accumulation, and anxiety-like behavior in male mice.


Assuntos
Microglia , Monócitos , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Monócitos/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Derrota Social , Ansiedade , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina
19.
J Exp Biol ; 226(22)2023 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37909345

RESUMO

Social defeat is a powerful experience leading to drastic changes in physiology and behavior, many of which are negative. For example, repeated social defeat in vertebrates results in reduced reproductive success, sickness and behavioral abnormalities that threaten individual survival and species persistence. However, little is known about what neural mechanisms are involved in determining whether an individual is resilient or susceptible to repeated social defeat stress. It also remains unknown whether exclusive use of reactive behaviors after repeated social defeat is maintained over time and impacts future behaviors during subsequent contests. We used a resident-intruder experiment in the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni to investigate the behavior and neural correlates of these two opposing groups. Behavior was quantified by watching fish during defeat trials and used to distinguish resilient and susceptible individuals. Both resilient and susceptible fish started with searching and freezing behaviors, with searching decreasing and freezing increasing after repeated social defeat. After a 4 day break period, resilient fish used both searching and freezing behaviors during a social defeat encounter with a new resident, while susceptible fish almost exclusively used freezing behaviors. By quantifying neural activation using pS6 in socially relevant brain regions, we identified differential neural activation patterns associated with resilient and susceptible fish and found nuclei that co-varied and may represent functional networks. These data provide the first evidence of specific conserved brain networks underlying social stress resilience and susceptibility in fishes.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Animais , Derrota Social , Encéfalo , Núcleo Celular , Reprodução
20.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1530(1): 138-151, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37818796

RESUMO

Previous studies showed that the dorsal premammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus (PMD) is involved in social passive defensive behaviors likely to be meditated by descending projections to the periaqueductal gray (PAG). We focused on the rostral dorsomedial PAG (rPAGdm) to reveal its putative neural mechanisms involved in mediating social defensive responses. By combining retrograde tracing and FOS expression analysis, we showed that in addition to the PMD, the rPAGdm is influenced by several brain sites active during social defeat. Next, we found that cytotoxic lesions of the rPAGdm drastically reduced passive defense and did not affect active defensive responses. We then examined the rPAGdm's projection pattern and found that the PAGdm projections are mostly restricted to midbrain sites, including the precommissural nucleus, different columns of the PAG, and the cuneiform nucleus (CUN). Also, we found decreased FOS expression in the caudal PAGdm, CUN, and PMD after the rPAGdm was lesioned. The results support that the rPAGdm mediates passive social defensive responses through ascending paths to prosencephalic circuits likely mediated by the CUN. This study provides further support for the role of the PAG in the modulation of behavioral responses by working as a unique hub for influencing prosencephalic sites during the mediation of aversive responses.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal , Derrota Social , Ratos , Animais , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal/fisiologia , Hipotálamo/fisiologia
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