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1.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(8): 234, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844667

RESUMO

Bradyrhizobia are the principal symbiotic partner of the leguminous plant and take active part in biological nitrogen-fixation. The present investigation explores the underlying competition among different strains during colonization in host roots. Six distinct GFP and RFP-tagged Bradyrhizobium strains were engineered to track them inside the peanut roots either independently or in combination. The Bradyrhizobium strains require different time-spans ranging from 4 to 21 days post-infection (dpi) for successful colonization which further varies in presence of another strain. While most of the individual strains enhanced the shoot and root dry weight, number of nodules, and nitrogen fixation capabilities of the host plants, no significant enhancement of plant growth and nodulation efficiency was observed when they were allowed to colonize in combinations. However, if among the combinations one strains is SEMIA 6144, the co-infection results in higher growth and nodulation efficiency of the hosts. From the competition experiments it has been found that Bradyrhizobium japonicum SEMIA 6144 was found to be the most dominant strain for effective nodulation in peanut. The extent of biofilm and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by these isolates, individually or in combinations, were envisaged to correlate whether these parameters have any impact on the symbiotic association. But the extent of colonization, growth-promotion and nitrogen-fixation ability drastically lowered when a strain present together with other Bradyrhizobium strain. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the interaction between two co-inoculating Bradyrhizobium species for nodulation followed by plant growth promotion to develop suitable consortia for enhancing BNF in peanut and possibly for other legumes.


Assuntos
Arachis , Biofilmes , Bradyrhizobium , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Nodulação , Raízes de Plantas , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas , Simbiose , Arachis/microbiologia , Arachis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bradyrhizobium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bradyrhizobium/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Interações Microbianas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
2.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(7): 207, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831110

RESUMO

The current study aimed to evaluate the plant growth-promoting (PGP) potential of endophytic strain Bacillus subtilis KU21 isolated from the roots of Rosmarinus officinalis. The strain exhibited multiple traits of plant growth promotion viz., phosphate (P) solubilization, nitrogen fixation, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophore, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), lytic enzymes production, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. The isolate also exhibited antagonistic activity against phytopathogenic fungi, i.e., Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium graminiarum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The P-solubilization activity of B. subtilis KU21 was further elucidated via detection of glucose dehydrogenase (gdh) gene involved in the production of gluconic acid which is responsible for P-solubilization. Further, B. subtilis KU21 was evaluated for in vivo growth promotion studies of tomato (test crop) under net house conditions. A remarkable increase in seed germination, plant growth parameters, nutrient acquisition, and soil quality parameters (NPK) was observed in B. subtilis KU21-treated plants over untreated control. Hence, the proposed module could be recommended for sustainable tomato production in the Northwest Himalayan region without compromising soil health and fertility.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Endófitos , Raízes de Plantas , Rosmarinus , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus subtilis/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/classificação , Rosmarinus/química , Rosmarinus/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiologia , Solanum lycopersicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Germinação , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Rhizoctonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhizoctonia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Fosfatos/metabolismo
3.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 370, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861018

RESUMO

Members of the genus Lysinibacillus attract attention for their mosquitocidal, bioremediation, and plant growth-promoting abilities. Despite this interest, comprehensive studies focusing on genomic traits governing plant growth and stress resilience in this genus using whole-genome sequencing are still scarce. Therefore, we sequenced and compared the genomes of three endophytic Lysinibacillus irui strains isolated from Canary Island date palms with the ex-type strain IRB4-01. Overall, the genomes of these strains consist of a circular chromosome with an average size of 4.6 Mb and a GC content of 37.2%. Comparative analysis identified conserved gene clusters within the core genome involved in iron acquisition, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis, and volatile compounds. In addition, genome analysis revealed the presence of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes, and proteins that confer resistance to oxidative, osmotic, and salinity stresses. Furthermore, pathways of putative novel bacteriocins were identified in all genomes. This illustrates possible common plant growth-promoting traits shared among all strains of L. irui. Our findings highlight a rich repertoire of genes associated with plant lifestyles, suggesting significant potential for developing inoculants to enhance plant growth and resilience. This study is the first to provide insights into the overall genomic signatures and mechanisms of plant growth promotion and biocontrol in the genus Lysinibacillus. KEY POINTS: • Pioneer study in elucidating plant growth promoting in L. irui through comparative genomics. • Genome mining identified biosynthetic pathways of putative novel bacteriocins. • Future research directions to develop L. irui-based biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Bacillaceae , Genoma Bacteriano , Genômica , Bacillaceae/genética , Bacillaceae/metabolismo , Composição de Bases , Família Multigênica , Arecaceae/microbiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Bacteriocinas/genética , Bacteriocinas/metabolismo , Bacteriocinas/biossíntese , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(25): e2314036121, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857391

RESUMO

Permafrost regions contain approximately half of the carbon stored in land ecosystems and have warmed at least twice as much as any other biome. This warming has influenced vegetation activity, leading to changes in plant composition, physiology, and biomass storage in aboveground and belowground components, ultimately impacting ecosystem carbon balance. Yet, little is known about the causes and magnitude of long-term changes in the above- to belowground biomass ratio of plants (η). Here, we analyzed η values using 3,013 plots and 26,337 species-specific measurements across eight sites on the Tibetan Plateau from 1995 to 2021. Our analysis revealed distinct temporal trends in η for three vegetation types: a 17% increase in alpine wetlands, and a decrease of 26% and 48% in alpine meadows and alpine steppes, respectively. These trends were primarily driven by temperature-induced growth preferences rather than shifts in plant species composition. Our findings indicate that in wetter ecosystems, climate warming promotes aboveground plant growth, while in drier ecosystems, such as alpine meadows and alpine steppes, plants allocate more biomass belowground. Furthermore, we observed a threefold strengthening of the warming effect on η over the past 27 y. Soil moisture was found to modulate the sensitivity of η to soil temperature in alpine meadows and alpine steppes, but not in alpine wetlands. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the processes driving the response of biomass distribution to climate warming, which is crucial for predicting the future carbon trajectory of permafrost ecosystems and climate feedback.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Ecossistema , Pergelissolo , Tibet , Áreas Alagadas , Plantas/metabolismo , Mudança Climática , Temperatura , Ciclo do Carbono , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Solo/química , Pradaria
5.
Sci Adv ; 10(23): eadn2487, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848369

RESUMO

Extended growing season lengths under climatic warming suggest increased time for plant growth. However, research has focused on climatic impacts to the timing or duration of distinct phenological events. Comparatively little is known about impacts to the relative time allocation to distinct phenological events, for example, the proportion of time dedicated to leaf growth versus senescence. We use multiple satellite and ground-based observations to show that, despite recent climate change during 2001 to 2020, the ratio of time allocated to vegetation green-up over senescence has remained stable [1.27 (± 0.92)] across more than 83% of northern ecosystems. This stability is independent of changes in growing season lengths and is caused by widespread positive relationships among vegetation phenological events; longer vegetation green-up results in longer vegetation senescence. These empirical observations were also partly reproduced by 13 dynamic global vegetation models. Our work demonstrates an intrinsic biotic control to vegetation phenology that could explain the timing of vegetation senescence under climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 27(5): 256-267, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840466

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> The prioritisation of oil palm studies involves the exploration of novel bacterial isolates as possible agents for suppressing <i>Ganoderma boninense</i>. The objective of this study was to evaluate and characterise the potential of rhizospheric bacteria, obtained from the rhizosphere of oil palm plants, in terms of their ability to demonstrate anti-<i>Ganoderma </i>activity. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> The study began by employing a dual culture technique to select hostile bacteria. Qualitative detection was performed to assess the antifungal activity, as well as the synthesis of chitinase and glucanase, from certain isolates. The candidate strains were molecularly identified using 16S-rRNA ribosomal primers, specifically the 27F and 1492R primers. <b>Results:</b> The findings of the study indicated that the governmental plantation exhibited the highest ratio between diazotroph and indigenous bacterial populations in comparison to the other sites. Out of a pool of ninety bacterial isolates, a subset of twenty-one isolates demonstrated the ability to impede the development of <i>G. boninense</i>, as determined using a dual culture experiment. Twenty-one bacterial strains were found to exhibit antifungal activity. Nine possible bacteria were found based on the sequence analysis. These bacteria include <i>Burkholderia territorii</i> (RK2, RP2, RP3, RP5), <i>Burkholderia stagnalis</i> (RK3), <i>Burkholderia cenocepacia</i> (RP1), <i>Serratia marcescens</i> (RP13) and <i>Rhizobium multihospitium</i> (RU4). <b>Conclusion:</b> The findings of the study revealed that a significant proportion of the bacterial population exhibited the ability to perform nitrogen fixation, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and phosphate solubilization. However, it is worth noting that <i>Rhizobium multihospitium</i> RU4 did not demonstrate the capacity for phosphate solubilization, while <i>B. territory</i> RK2 did not exhibit IAA production.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Rizosfera , Ganoderma/metabolismo , Ganoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Bioprospecção/métodos , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Arecaceae/microbiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Óleo de Palmeira/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia
7.
Dev Cell ; 59(9): 1091-1093, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714155

RESUMO

Polar localization of proteins is important for plant growth and development. Identifying the interactors of polarized proteins provides spatial information and cell-type functions. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Wallner et al. (2024) utilize opposing polarity domain proteins to identify interactors and their functions during cell division in Arabidopsis stomata.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Divisão Celular , Polaridade Celular , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Polaridade Celular/fisiologia , Divisão Celular/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/citologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 931: 172949, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703848

RESUMO

Biodegradable plastics (bio-plastics) are often viewed as viable option for mitigating plastic pollution. Nevertheless, the information regarding the potential risks of microplastics (MPs) released from bio-plastics in soil, particularly in flooded soils, is lacking. Here, our objective was to investigate the effect of polylactic acid MPs (PLA-MPs) and polyethylene MPs (PE-MPs) on soil properties, microbial community and plant growth under both non-flooded and flooded conditions. Our results demonstrated that PLA-MPs dramatically increased soil labile carbon (C) content and altered its composition and chemodiversity. The enrichment of labile C stimulated microbial N immobilization, resulting in a depletion of soil mineral nitrogen (N). This specialized environment created by PLA-MPs further filtered out specific microbial species, resulting in a low diversity and simplified microbial community. PLA-MPs caused an increase in denitrifiers (Noviherbaspirillum and Clostridium sensu stricto) and a decrease in nitrifiers (Nitrospira, MND1, and Ellin6067), potentially exacerbating the mineral N deficiency. The mineral N deficit caused by PLA-MPs inhibited wheatgrass growth. Conversely, PE-MPs had less effect on soil ecosystems, including soil properties, microbial community and wheatgrass growth. Overall, our study emphasizes that PLA-MPs cause more adverse effect on the ecosystem than PE-MPs in the short term, and that flooded conditions exacerbate and prolong these adverse effects. These results offer valuable insights for evaluating the potential threats of bio-MPs in both uplands and wetlands.


Assuntos
Inundações , Microbiota , Microplásticos , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Solo/química , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Plásticos Biodegradáveis , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Biodegradação Ambiental , Poliésteres , Polietileno
9.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 117(1): 76, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705910

RESUMO

Despite being one of the most abundant elements in soil, phosphorus (P) often becomes a limiting macronutrient for plants due to its low bioavailability, primarily locked away in insoluble organic and inorganic forms. Phosphate solubilizing and mineralizing bacteria, also called phosphobacteria, isolated from P-deficient soils have emerged as a promising biofertilizer alternative, capable of converting these recalcitrant P forms into plant-available phosphates. Three such phosphobacteria strains-Serratia sp. RJAL6, Klebsiella sp. RCJ4, and Enterobacter sp. 198-previously demonstrated their particular strength as plant growth promoters for wheat, ryegrass, or avocado under abiotic stresses and P deficiency. Comparative genomic analysis of their draft genomes revealed several genes encoding key functionalities, including alkaline phosphatases, isonitrile secondary metabolites, enterobactin biosynthesis and genes associated to the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gluconic acid. Moreover, overall genome relatedness indexes (OGRIs) revealed substantial divergence between Serratia sp. RJAL6 and its closest phylogenetic neighbours, Serratia nematodiphila and Serratia bockelmanii. This compelling evidence suggests that RJAL6 merits classification as a novel species. This in silico genomic analysis provides vital insights into the plant growth-promoting capabilities and provenance of these promising PSRB strains. Notably, it paves the way for further characterization and potential application of the newly identified Serratia species as a powerful bioinoculant in future agricultural settings.


Assuntos
Enterobacter , Genoma Bacteriano , Genômica , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Filogenia , Serratia , Microbiologia do Solo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Serratia/genética , Serratia/isolamento & purificação , Serratia/metabolismo , Serratia/classificação , Enterobacter/genética , Enterobacter/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacter/classificação , Enterobacter/metabolismo , Klebsiella/genética , Klebsiella/metabolismo , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella/classificação , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Solo/química , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Physiol Plant ; 176(3): e14307, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705723

RESUMO

Phytohormones, pivotal regulators of plant growth and development, are increasingly recognized for their multifaceted roles in enhancing crop resilience against environmental stresses. In this review, we provide a comprehensive synthesis of current research on utilizing phytohormones to enhance crop productivity and fortify their defence mechanisms. Initially, we introduce the significance of phytohormones in orchestrating plant growth, followed by their potential utilization in bolstering crop defences against diverse environmental stressors. Our focus then shifts to an in-depth exploration of phytohormones and their pivotal roles in mediating plant defence responses against biotic stressors, particularly insect pests. Furthermore, we highlight the potential impact of phytohormones on agricultural production while underscoring the existing research gaps and limitations hindering their widespread implementation in agricultural practices. Despite the accumulating body of research in this field, the integration of phytohormones into agriculture remains limited. To address this discrepancy, we propose a comprehensive framework for investigating the intricate interplay between phytohormones and sustainable agriculture. This framework advocates for the adoption of novel technologies and methodologies to facilitate the effective deployment of phytohormones in agricultural settings and also emphasizes the need to address existing research limitations through rigorous field studies. By outlining a roadmap for advancing the utilization of phytohormones in agriculture, this review aims to catalyse transformative changes in agricultural practices, fostering sustainability and resilience in agricultural settings.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Agricultura/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico
11.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(7): 205, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755302

RESUMO

Jojoba shrubs are wild plants cultivated in arid and semiarid lands and characterized by tolerance to drought, salinity, and high temperatures. Fungi associated with such plants may be attributed to the tolerance of host plants against biotic stress in addition to the promotion of plant growth. Previous studies showed the importance of jojoba as jojoba oil in the agricultural field; however, no prior study discussed the role of jojoba-associated fungi (JAF) in reflecting plant health and the possibility of using JAF in biocontrol. Here, the culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches were performed to study the diversity of the jojoba-associated fungi. Then, the cultivable fungi were evaluated for in-vitro antagonistic activity and in vitro plant growth promotion assays. The metagenome analysis revealed the existence of four fungal phyla: Ascomycota, Aphelidiomycota, Basidiomycota, and Mortierellomycota. The phylum Ascomycota was the most common and had the highest relative abundance in soil, root, branch, and fruit samples (59.7%, 50.7%, 49.8%, and 52.4%, respectively). Alternaria was the most abundant genus in aboveground tissues: branch (43.7%) and fruit (32.1%), while the genus Discosia had the highest abundance in the underground samples: soil (24%) and root (30.7%). For the culture-dependent method, a total of 14 fungi were isolated, identified, and screened for their chitinolytic and antagonist activity against three phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria alternata and Rhizoctonia solani) as well as their in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP) activity. Based on ITS sequence analysis, the selected potent isolates were identified as Aspergillus stellatusEJ-JFF3, Aspergillus flavus EJ-JFF4, Stilbocrea sp. EJ-JLF1, Fusarium solani EJ-JRF3, and Amesia atrobrunneaEJ-JSF4. The endophyte strain A. flavus EJ-JFF4 exhibited the highest chitinolytic activity (9 Enzyme Index) and antagonistic potential against Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria alternata, and Rhizoctonia solani phytopathogens with inhibitory percentages of 72, 70, and 80 respectively. Also, A. flavus EJ-JFF4 had significant multiple PGP properties, including siderophore production (69.3%), phosphate solubilization (95.4 µg ml-1). The greatest production of Indol-3-Acetic Acid was belonged to A. atrobrunnea EJ-JSF4 (114.5 µg ml-1). The analysis of FUNGuild revealed the abundance of symbiotrophs over other trophic modes, and the guild of endophytes was commonly assigned in all samples. For the first time, this study uncovered fungal diversity associated with jojoba plants using a culture-independent approach and in-vitro assessed the roles of cultivable fungal strains in promoting plant growth and biocontrol. The present study indicated the significance of jojoba shrubs as a potential source of diverse fungi with high biocontrol and PGP activities.


Assuntos
Alternaria , Fungos , Microbiologia do Solo , Fungos/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Alternaria/genética , Alternaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metagenoma , Rhizoctonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antibiose , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascomicetos/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
12.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(7): 172, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744734

RESUMO

India's livestock industry is grappling with a shortage of green fodder, necessitating concerted efforts to boost organized production and ensure a sufficient supply of high-quality forages, crucial for formulating nutritionally balanced, cost-effective, and rumen-healthy animal diets. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the plant growth-promoting characteristics of liquid microbial inoculants and their impact on the yield of forage pearl millet. The bacterial cultures utilized included Sphingobacterium sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and an isolate from vegetable cowpea, subsequently identified as Burkholderia seminalis. These cultures were initially characterized for their plant growth-promoting traits at different temperature and physiological conditions. All the bacterial cultures were found promising for PGPR traits over varied temperature conditions and the optimum activity was recorded at 40 °C, with tolerance to saline and drought stresses as well as wide pH and temperature ranges. A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2020 at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana and Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bathinda, involving combinations of liquid microbial inoculants along with 100% Recommended Dose of Fertilizer (RDF). It was observed that the treatment including B. seminalis + S. maltophilia along with RDF yielded the highest green fodder and dry matter yield, In conclusion, it is evident that the utilization of these liquid microbial inoculants holds significant potential for playing a pivotal role in the integrated nutrient management of forage pearl millet, thereby contributing to heightened productivity and sustained soil health.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Pennisetum , Pennisetum/microbiologia , Pennisetum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Índia , Microbiologia do Solo , Temperatura , Fertilizantes/análise , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Microb Ecol ; 87(1): 76, 2024 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38801423

RESUMO

Modern crop production relies on the application of chemical pesticides and fertilizers causing environmental and economic challenges. In response, less environmentally impactful alternatives have emerged such as the use of beneficial microorganisms. These microorganisms, particularly plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), have demonstrated their ability to enhance plant growth, protect against various stresses, and reduce the need for chemical inputs. Among the PGPB, Bacillus species have garnered attention due to their adaptability and commercial potential. Recent reports have highlighted Bacillus strains as biocontrol agents against phytopathogenic bacteria while concurrently promoting plant growth. We also examined Bacillus plant growth-promoting abilities in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. In this study, we assessed the potential of various Bacillus strains to control diverse phytopathogenic bacteria and inhibit quorum sensing using Chromobacterium violaceum as a model system. In conclusion, our results suggest that bacteria of the genus Bacillus hold significant potential for biotechnological applications. This includes developments aimed at reducing agrochemical use, promoting sustainable agriculture, and enhancing crop yield and protection.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Bacillus , Doenças das Plantas , Bacillus/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Percepção de Quorum , Chromobacterium/fisiologia , Chromobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plântula/microbiologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 278: 116396, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696872

RESUMO

The success of the sodic soil reclamation using elemental S (S°) depends on the population of the native S° oxidizers. Augmenting the native flora of the sodic soils with effective S° oxidizers can enhance the success of the sodic soil reclamation. Present study reports for the first time the S° oxidation potential of the Sphingomonas olei strain 20UP7 isolated from sodic soils with pHs 9.8 and ECe 3.6 dS m-1. Inoculation with S. olei strain 20UP7 caused 13.0-24.2 % increase in S° oxidation in different sodic soils (pHs 9.1-10.5). It improved the concentration of the Ca2+, Mg2+, PO43- and declined the HCO3- and total alkalinity of the soil solution. This isolate also showed appreciable P and Zn solubilization, indole acetic acid, ammonia, and titratable acidity production in the growth media. It tended to the formation of biofilm around sulphur particles. The PCR amplification with gene-specific primers showed the occurrence of soxA, soxB, and soxY genes with a single band corresponding to length of 850, 460, and 360 base pairs, respectively. The integration of the S. olei strain 20UP7 with S° caused 21.7-25.4 % increase in the rice and wheat yield compared to the soil treated with S° alone. This study concludes that the S. olei, native to high saline-sodic soils can be utilized for improving the sodicity reclamation and plant growth promotion using elemental S based formulations.


Assuntos
Oxirredução , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Solo/química , Enxofre/metabolismo , Sphingomonas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo
15.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 259: 116379, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749288

RESUMO

The emerging wearable plant sensors demonstrate the capability of in-situ measurement of physiological and micro-environmental information of plants. However, the stretchability and breathability of current wearable plant sensors are restricted mainly due to their 2D planar structures, which interfere with plant growth and development. Here, origami-inspired 3D wearable sensors have been developed for plant growth and microclimate monitoring. Unlike 2D counterparts, the 3D sensors demonstrate theoretically infinitely high stretchability and breathability derived from the structure rather than the material. They are adjusted to 100% and 111.55 mg cm-2·h-1 in the optimized design. In addition to stretchability and breathability, the structural parameters are also used to control the strain distribution of the 3D sensors to enhance sensitivity and minimize interference. After integrating with corresponding sensing materials, electrodes, data acquisition and transmission circuits, and a mobile App, a miniaturized sensing system is produced with the capability of in-situ and online monitoring of plant elongation and microclimate. As a demonstration, the 3D sensors are worn on pumpkin leaves, which can accurately monitor the leaf elongation and microclimate with negligible hindrance to plant growth. Finally, the effects of the microclimate on the plant growth is resolved by analyzing the monitored data. This study would significantly promote the development of wearable plant sensors and their applications in the fields of plant phenomics, plant-environment interface, and smart agriculture.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Microclima , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Humanos , Desenho de Equipamento , Folhas de Planta/química , Cucurbita/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(7): 218, 2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38806849

RESUMO

The importance of microorganisms residing within the host plant for their growth and health is increasingly acknowledged, yet the significance of microbes associated with seeds, particularly seed endophytic bacteria, remains underestimated. Seeds harbor a wide range of bacteria that can boost the growth and resilience of their host plants against environmental challenges. These endophytic associations also offer advantages for germination and seedling establishment, as seed endophytic bacteria are present during the initial stages of plant growth and development. Furthermore, plants can selectively choose bacteria possessing beneficial traits, which are subsequently transmitted through seeds to confer benefits to future generations. Interestingly, even with the ongoing discovery of endophytes in seeds through high-throughput sequencing methods, certain endophytes remain challenging to isolate and culture from seeds, despite their high abundance. These challenges pose difficulties in studying seed endophytes, making many of their effects on plants unclear. In this article, a framework for understanding the assembly and function of seed endophytes, including their sources and colonization processes was outlined in detail and available research on bacterial endophytes discovered within the seeds of various plant species has also been explored. Thus, this current review aims to provide valuable insights into the mechanism of underlying seed endophytic bacteria-host plant interactions and offers significant recommendations for utilizing the seed endophytic bacteria in sustainable agriculture as plant growth promoters and enhancers of environmental stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Endófitos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Sementes , Endófitos/fisiologia , Sementes/microbiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Plantas/microbiologia , Germinação , Plântula/microbiologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/métodos , Simbiose
17.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(5): e17342, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38804198

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) is a limiting nutrient for primary productivity in most terrestrial ecosystems, but whether N limitation is strengthening or weakening remains controversial because both N sources and sinks are increasing in magnitude globally. Temperate marshes are exposed to greater amounts of external N inputs than most terrestrial ecosystems and more than in preindustrial times owing to their position downstream of major sources of human-derived N runoff along river mouths and estuaries. Simultaneously, ecosystem N demand may also be increasing owing to other global changes such as rising atmospheric [CO2]. Here, we used interannual variability in external drivers and variables related to exogenous supply of N, along with detailed assessments of plant growth and porewater biogeochemistry, to assess the severity of N-limitation, and to determine its causes, in a 14-year N-addition × elevated CO2 experiment. We found substantial interannual variability in porewater [N], plant growth, and experimental N effects on plant growth, but the magnitude of N pools through time varied independently of the strength of N limitation. Sea level, and secondarily salinity, related closely to interannual variability in growth of the dominant plant functional groups which drove patterns in N limitation and in porewater [N]. Experimental exposure of plants to elevated CO2 and years with high flooding strengthened N limitation for the sedge. Abiotic variables controlled plant growth, which determined the strength of N limitation for each plant species and for ecosystem productivity as a whole. We conclude that in this ecosystem, which has an open N cycle and where N inputs are likely greater than in preindustrial times, plant N demand has increased more than supply.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Nitrogênio , Áreas Alagadas , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas/metabolismo , Salinidade
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11775, 2024 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783048

RESUMO

This study assesses the relationships between vegetation dynamics and climatic variations in Pakistan from 2000 to 2023. Employing high-resolution Landsat data for Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) assessments, integrated with climate variables from CHIRPS and ERA5 datasets, our approach leverages Google Earth Engine (GEE) for efficient processing. It combines statistical methodologies, including linear regression, Mann-Kendall trend tests, Sen's slope estimator, partial correlation, and cross wavelet transform analyses. The findings highlight significant spatial and temporal variations in NDVI, with an annual increase averaging 0.00197 per year (p < 0.0001). This positive trend is coupled with an increase in precipitation by 0.4801 mm/year (p = 0.0016). In contrast, our analysis recorded a slight decrease in temperature (- 0.01011 °C/year, p < 0.05) and a reduction in solar radiation (- 0.27526 W/m2/year, p < 0.05). Notably, cross-wavelet transform analysis underscored significant coherence between NDVI and climatic factors, revealing periods of synchronized fluctuations and distinct lagged relationships. This analysis particularly highlighted precipitation as a primary driver of vegetation growth, illustrating its crucial impact across various Pakistani regions. Moreover, the analysis revealed distinct seasonal patterns, indicating that vegetation health is most responsive during the monsoon season, correlating strongly with peaks in seasonal precipitation. Our investigation has revealed Pakistan's complex association between vegetation health and climatic factors, which varies across different regions. Through cross-wavelet analysis, we have identified distinct coherence and phase relationships that highlight the critical influence of climatic drivers on vegetation patterns. These insights are crucial for developing regional climate adaptation strategies and informing sustainable agricultural and environmental management practices in the face of ongoing climatic changes.


Assuntos
Clima , Estações do Ano , Paquistão , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas , Mudança Climática , Temperatura , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 933: 173146, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735338

RESUMO

Extreme, dry events have major impacts on vegetation phenology worldwide. However, the differential responses of vegetation phenology to climatic elements during these extreme events remain unclear. We investigated the response of vegetation phenology to climatic factors during extreme events in arid and semi-arid regions of the Chinese Loess Plateau, using the climate water deficit method, to identify extremely dry and wet events. The results revealed that extremely wet events extended the vegetation growth periods in addition to global warming, whereas extremely dry events did not completely counteract this effect. During different extreme events, phenological changes in vegetation on the Loess Plateau were primarily influenced by the interactive effects of climatic factors. During extremely dry events, a 100 mm increase in precipitation advanced the start of the season by 3.0, 9.2, and 16.7 days in forest, shrubland, and grassland, respectively. During extremely wet events, a 1 °C rise in temperature delayed the end of the season by 1.6, 0.6, and 3.8 days in forest, shrubland, and grassland, respectively. These findings provide crucial guidance for improving predictions of plant phenology changes under extreme climatic events and unraveling biosphere-atmosphere feedback cycles.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , China , Estações do Ano , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Clima , Aquecimento Global , Florestas , Temperatura , Ecossistema , Pradaria
20.
Ecol Lett ; 27(6): e14446, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38814284

RESUMO

Grime's competitive, stress-tolerant, ruderal (CSR) theory predicts a shift in plant communities from ruderal to stress-tolerant strategies during secondary succession. However, this fundamental tenet lacks empirical validation using long-term continuous successional data. Utilizing a 60-year longitudinal data of old-field succession, we investigated the community-level dynamics of plant strategies over time. Our findings reveal that while plant communities generally transitioned from ruderal to stress-tolerant strategies during succession, initial abandonment conditions crucially shaped early successional strategies, leading to varied strategy trajectories across different fields. Furthermore, we found a notable divergence in the CSR strategies of alien and native species over succession. Initially, alien and native species exhibited similar ruderal strategies, but in later stages, alien species exhibited higher ruderal and lower stress tolerance compared to native species. Overall, our findings underscore the applicability of Grime's predictions regarding temporal shifts in CSR strategies depending on both initial community conditions and species origin.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Plantas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Estresse Fisiológico , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
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