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1.
J Plant Physiol ; 277: 153809, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099699

RESUMO

Methyl salicylate is a volatile compound, the synthesis of which takes place via the salicylic acid pathway in plants. Both compounds can be involved in the development of systemic acquired resistance and they play their role partly independently. Salicylic acid transport has an important role in long-distance signalling, but methyl salicylate has also been suggested as a phloem-based mobile signal, which can be demethylated to form salicylic acid, inducing the de-novo synthesis of salicylic acid in distal tissue. Despite the fact that salicylic acid has a protective role in abiotic stress responses and tolerance, very few investigations have been reported on the similar effects of methyl salicylate. In addition, as salicylic acid and methyl salicylate are often treated simply as the volatile and non-volatile forms of the same compound, and in several cases they also act in the same way, it is hard to highlight the differences in their mode of action. The main aim of the present review is to reveal the individual role and action mechanism of methyl salicylate in systemic acquired resistance, plant-plant communication and various stress conditions in fruits and plants.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Ácido Salicílico , Floema/metabolismo , Plantas , Salicilatos , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077547

RESUMO

The BES1/BZR1 family is a plant-specific small group of transcription factors possessing a non-canonical bHLH domain. Genetic and biochemical analyses within the last two decades have demonstrated that members of this family are key transcription factors in regulating the expression of brassinosteroid (BR) response genes. Several recent genetic and evolutionary studies, however, have clearly indicated that the BES1/BZR1 family transcription factors also function in regulating several aspects of plant development via BR-independent pathways, suggesting they are not BR specific. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this family of transcription factors, the mechanisms regulating their activities, DNA binding motifs, and target genes. We selectively discuss a number of their biological functions via BR-dependent and particularly independent pathways, which were recently revealed by loss-of-function genetic analyses. We also highlight a few possible future directions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Brassinosteroides , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
Biomolecules ; 12(9)2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36139144

RESUMO

The hormonal system plays a decisive role in the control of plant growth and development [...].


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas
5.
Cells ; 11(18)2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36139431

RESUMO

Intercellular material transport and information transmission in plants are carried out through the plasmodesmata (PD). The amount of callose around the PD controls channel permeability. In plants, ß-1,3-glucanase can degrade callose and affect plant growth and development. In this study, the gene producing PD-localized ß-1,3-glucanase and regulating the leaf trichomes is identified and named PdBG4. Based on functional analysis through a series of genetic manipulation assays, we found that the high expression of PdBG4 was associated with strong PD permeability and short Arabidopsis thaliana leaf trichomes. Conversely, the low expression of PdBG4 correlated with weak PD permeability and long Arabidopsis thaliana leaf trichomes. This study revealed that the PdBG4 gene negatively modulates leaf trichome growth and development by regulating PD permeability.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas/metabolismo , Plasmodesmos/metabolismo , Tricomas/metabolismo
6.
Curr Opin Plant Biol ; 69: 102293, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099672

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as second messengers in plant signaling pathways to remodel plant growth and development. New insights into how enzymatic ROS-producing machinery is regulated by hormones or localized during development have provided a framework for understanding the mechanisms that control ROS accumulation patterns. Signaling-mediated increases in ROS can then modulate the activity of proteins through reversible oxidative modification of specific cysteine residues. Plants also control the synthesis of antioxidants, including plant-specialized metabolites, to further define when, where, and how much ROS accumulate. The availability of sophisticated imaging capabilities, combined with a growing tool kit of ROS detection technologies, particularly genetically encoded biosensors, sets the stage for improved understanding of ROS as signaling molecules.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Hormônios/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142414

RESUMO

Calmodulin-binding transcription activator (CAMTA) is a transcription factor family containing calmodulin (CaM) binding sites and is involved in plant development. Although CAMTAs in Arabidopsis have been extensively investigated, the functions of CAMTAs remain largely unclear in peaches. In this study, we identified five peach CAMTAs which contained conserved CG-1 box, ANK repeats, CaM binding domain (CaMBD) and IQ motifs. Overexpression in tobacco showed that PpCAMTA1/2/3 were located in the nucleus, while PpCAMTA4 and PpCAMTA5 were located in the plasma membrane. Increased expression levels were observed for PpCAMTA1 and PpCAMTA3 during peach fruit ripening. Expression of PpCAMTA1 was induced by cold treatment and was inhibited by ultraviolet B irradiation (UV-B). Driven by AtCAMTA3 promoter, PpCAMTA1/2/3 were overexpressed in Arabidopsis mutant. Here, we characterized peach PpCAMTA1, representing an ortholog of AtCAMTA3. PpCAMTA1 expression in Arabidopsis complements the developmental deficiencies of the camta2,3 mutant, and restored the plant size to the wild type level. Moreover, overexpressing PpCAMTA1 in camta2,3 mutant inhibited salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and expression of SA-related genes, resulting in a susceptibility phenotype to Pst DC3000. Taken together, our results provide new insights for CAMTAs in peach fruit and indicate that PpCAMTA1 is associated with response to stresses during development.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Prunus persica , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Expressão Ectópica do Gene , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus persica/genética , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142715

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in plant development and stress responses, and a growing number of studies suggest that miRNAs are promising targets for crop improvement because they participate in the regulation of diverse, important agronomic traits. MicroRNA398 (miR398) is a conserved miRNA in plants and has been shown to control multiple stress responses and plant growth in a variety of species. There are many studies on the stress response and developmental regulation of miR398. To systematically understand its function, it is necessary to summarize the evolution and functional roles of miR398 and its target genes. In this review, we analyze the evolution of miR398 in plants and outline its involvement in abiotic and biotic stress responses, in growth and development and in model and non-model plants. We summarize recent functional analyses, highlighting the role of miR398 as a master regulator that coordinates growth and diverse responses to environmental factors. We also discuss the potential for fine-tuning miR398 to achieve the goal of simultaneously improving plant growth and stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs , MicroRNAs/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142864

RESUMO

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that performs important functions in mammals. However, studies on its physiological functions in plants have gradually increased in recent years. Therefore, this review summarizes the regulatory functions of progesterone on plant growth and development, as well as its response to stress. Moreover, the plant metabolic processes of progesterone are also discussed. Overall, progesterone is ubiquitous in plants and can regulate numerous plant physiological processes at low concentrations. Since progesterone shares similar characteristics with plant hormones, it is expected to become a candidate for plant hormone. However, most of the current research on progesterone in plants is limited to the physiological level, and more molecular level research is needed to clarify progesterone signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Progesterona , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
10.
Fungal Biol ; 126(10): 674-686, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116899

RESUMO

Dark septate endophytes (DSE) colonize plant roots extensively and increase host plant growth and nutrition. However, the development of DSE-produced metabolites as plant biostimulants has been largely ignored. DSE growth curves and extracellular metabolite components were analyzed and the growth-promoting effects of DSE extracellular metabolites on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grown for 4, 8 12, 16 and 20 days were evaluated. The growth curve of the DSE strain Alternaria sp. shows days 0-8 in the growth phase, days 8-16 in the stable phase, and days 16-20 in the senescent phase. The extracellular metabolite components of DSE were significantly different at different growth stages. The biomass of alfalfa was increased significantly by DSE extracellular metabolites (P < 0.05). Biomass of alfalfa inoculated with DSE extracellular metabolites more than doubled after growth for 8 days and nutrient availability also increased significantly compared with the uninoculated control. Six DSE extracellular metabolites, calycosin 7-galactoside, 1-[(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)amino]-1-deoxyfructose, N2-fructopyranosylarginine, 2-(4-methyl-5-thiazolyl)ethyl hexanoate, kenposide B, and medinoside E, were significantly positively correlated with alfalfa biomass (P < 0.01). This study combines the DSE extracellular metabolites with plant and soil traits to provide a theoretical basis for the use of DSE metabolites in the product development of plant biostimulants.


Assuntos
Endófitos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Galactosídeos/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas , Solo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077554

RESUMO

Plants frequently experience hypoxia due to flooding caused by intensive rainfall or irrigation, when they are partially or completely submerged under a layer of water. In the latter case, some resistant plants implement a hypoxia avoidance strategy by accelerating shoot elongation, which allows lifting their leaves above the water surface. This strategy is achieved due to increased water uptake by shoot cells through water channels (aquaporins, AQPs). It remains a puzzle how an increased flow of water through aquaporins into the cells of submerged shoots can be achieved, while it is well known that hypoxia inhibits the activity of aquaporins. In this review, we summarize the literature data on the mechanisms that are likely to compensate for the decline in aquaporin activity under hypoxic conditions, providing increased water entry into cells and accelerated shoot elongation. These mechanisms include changes in the expression of genes encoding aquaporins, as well as processes that occur at the post-transcriptional level. We also discuss the involvement of hormones, whose concentration changes in submerged plants, in the control of aquaporin activity.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hipóxia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077586

RESUMO

Mikania micrantha, recognized as one of the world's top 10 pernicious weeds, is a rapidly spreading tropical vine that has invaded the coastal areas of South China, causing serious economic losses and environmental damage. Rapid stem growth is an important feature of M. micrantha which may be related to its greater number of genes involved in auxin signaling and transport pathways and its ability to synthesize more auxin under adverse conditions to promote or maintain stem growth. Plant growth and development is closely connected to the regulation of endogenous hormones, especially the polar transport and asymmetric distribution of auxin. The PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carrier gene family plays a key role in the polar transport of auxin and then regulates the growth of different plant tissues, which could indicate that the rapid growth of M. micrantha is closely related to this PIN-dependent auxin regulation. In this study, 11 PIN genes were identified and the phylogenetic relationship and structural compositions of the gene family in M. micrantha were analyzed by employing multiple bioinformatic methods. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the PIN proteins could be divided into five distinct clades. The structural analysis revealed that three putative types of PIN (canonical, noncanonical and semi-canonical) exist among the proteins according to the length and the composition of the hydrophilic domain. The majority of the PINs were involved in the process of axillary bud differentiation and stem response under abiotic stress, indicating that M. micrantha may regulate its growth, development and stress response by regulating PIN expression in the axillary bud and stem, which may help explain its strong growth ability and environmental adaptability. Our study emphasized the structural features and stress response patterns of the PIN gene family and provided useful insights for further study into the molecular mechanism of auxin-regulated growth and control in M. micrantha.


Assuntos
Mikania , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Mikania/genética , Mikania/metabolismo , Filogenia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas Daninhas/metabolismo
13.
Cells ; 11(17)2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078168

RESUMO

Auxin, a plant hormone, regulates virtually every aspect of plant growth and development. Many current studies on auxin focus on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, or on field crops, such as rice and wheat. There are relatively few studies on what role auxin plays in various physiological processes of a range of horticultural plants. In this paper, recent studies on the role of auxin in horticultural plant growth, development, and stress response are reviewed to provide novel insights for horticultural researchers and cultivators to improve the quality and application of horticultural crops.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Oryza , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas
14.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(10): 311, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088388

RESUMO

Plant abiotic and biotic stresses can change plant-pest synergism by augmenting host plant vulnerability to pests and lessening competitive capability with weed plants. Climate change, such as a shift in precipitation, intensifies the damaging effects of stresses, undesirably impacting plant growth and survival. However, we have yet to reach a clear answer as the outcome usually depends on complex interactions and agro-climatic conditions. To alleviate plant stresses, more in-depth work is required to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and exploit thereof. In this review, we have confined ourselves to the domain of the role played by endophytic microorganisms to alleviate plant stress. In contrast, some biotic stresses may alter plant response to abiotic stress factors. Hence, methodical analyses are indispensable for understanding the effect of abiotic and biotic stress conditions on crop development and agronomic production. Endophytic microbes have drawn interest owing to their plant growth stimulating attributes and valuable performances related to plant responses under abiotic and biotic stress environments. Endophytes produce secondary metabolites to defend the host plant under stressful climatic conditions and against phytopathogens. Understanding plant resilience mechanisms will assist in the commercialized biotechnological development of endophytes in crop improvement. There is still much scope to explore factors and elucidate mechanisms that result in unquestionably recognized beneficial effects of endophytes. This review article bridges the gap mentioned and focuses on the role played by endophytes in plant development and their stimulating diverse mechanisms for tolerating diverse abiotic and biotic stresses in the host.


Assuntos
Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico , Biotecnologia , Endófitos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
16.
Nature ; 609(7929): 986-993, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104568

RESUMO

Nutrients and energy have emerged as central modulators of developmental programmes in plants and animals1-3. The evolutionarily conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is a master integrator of nutrient and energy signalling that controls growth. Despite its key regulatory roles in translation, proliferation, metabolism and autophagy2-5, little is known about how TOR shapes developmental transitions and differentiation. Here we show that glucose-activated TOR kinase controls genome-wide histone H3 trimethylation at K27 (H3K27me3) in Arabidopsis thaliana, which regulates cell fate and development6-10. We identify FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE), an indispensable component of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which catalyses H3K27me3 (refs. 6-8,10-12), as a TOR target. Direct phosphorylation by TOR promotes the dynamic translocation of FIE from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Mutation of the phosphorylation site on FIE abrogates the global H3K27me3 landscape, reprogrammes the transcriptome and disrupts organogenesis in plants. Moreover, glucose-TOR-FIE-PRC2 signalling modulates vernalization-induced floral transition. We propose that this signalling axis serves as a nutritional checkpoint leading to epigenetic silencing of key transcription factor genes that specify stem cell destiny in shoot and root meristems and control leaf, flower and silique patterning, branching and vegetative-to-reproduction transition. Our findings reveal a fundamental mechanism of nutrient signalling in direct epigenome reprogramming, with broad relevance for the developmental control of multicellular organisms.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Endosperma/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucose/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/metabolismo , Proteínas do Grupo Polycomb/metabolismo , Sirolimo/metabolismo
17.
Molecules ; 27(18)2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36144749

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) have been proposed as an alternative to conventional pesticides to inhibit fungal pathogens. However, the application of EOs is considerably limited due to their highly volatile nature and unpredictable effects on other microbes. In our study, the composition of bacterial and fungal communities from the rhizosphere soil of P. notoginseng under four treatment levels of Alpinia officinarum Hance EO was characterized over several growth stages. Leaf weight varied dramatically among the four EO treatment levels after four months of growth, and the disease index at a low concentration (0.14 mg/g) of EO addition was the lowest among the P. notoginseng growth stages. The content of monomeric saponins was elevated when EO was added. Bacterial and fungal diversity in the absence of plants showed a decreasing trend with increasing levels of EO. Bacterial diversity recovery was more correlated with plant growth than was fungal diversity recovery. Compared with the control (no EO addition), a low concentration of EO significantly accumulated Actinomycota, including Acidothermus, Blastococcus, Catenulispora, Conexibacter, Rhodococcus, and Sinomonas, after one month of plant-microbial interaction. Overall, the results showed that both the plant growth stage and EOs drive changes in the microbial community composition in the rhizosphere of P. notoginseng. Plant development status had a stronger influence on bacterial diversity than on fungal diversity. EO had a more significant effect on fungal community composition, increasing the dominance of Ascomycota when EO concentration was increased. Under the interaction of P. notoginseng growth and EO, a large number of bacterial genera that have been described as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) responded positively to low concentrations of EO application, suggesting that EO may recruit beneficial microbes in the root zone to cope with pathogens and reduce root rot disease. These results offer novel insights into the relationship between EO application, altered microbial communities in the plant roots, plant growth stage, and disease occurrence.


Assuntos
Alpinia , Ascomicetos , Microbiota , Óleos Voláteis , Panax notoginseng , Praguicidas , Saponinas , Bactérias , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Panax notoginseng/microbiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(38): e2118014119, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095176

RESUMO

Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are a crucial component of biosphere-atmosphere interactions. In northern latitudes, climate change is amplified by feedback processes in which BVOCs have a recognized, yet poorly quantified role, mainly due to a lack of measurements and concomitant modeling gaps. Hence, current Earth system models mostly rely on temperature responses measured on vegetation from lower latitudes, rendering their predictions highly uncertain. Here, we show how tundra isoprene emissions respond vigorously to temperature increases, compared to model results. Our unique dataset of direct eddy covariance ecosystem-level isoprene measurements in two contrasting ecosystems exhibited Q10 (the factor by which the emission rate increases with a 10 °C rise in temperature) temperature coefficients of up to 20.8, that is, 3.5 times the Q10 of 5.9 derived from the equivalent model calculations. Crude estimates using the observed temperature responses indicate that tundra vegetation could enhance their isoprene emissions by up to 41% (87%)-that is, 46% (55%) more than estimated by models-with a 2 °C (4 °C) warming. Our results demonstrate that tundra vegetation possesses the potential to substantially boost its isoprene emissions in response to future rising temperatures, at rates that exceed the current Earth system model predictions.


Assuntos
Butadienos , Aquecimento Global , Hemiterpenos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Tundra , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Butadienos/análise , Hemiterpenos/análise , Temperatura , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
19.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 3): 113937, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931193

RESUMO

In this study the multiple metal(loid) (As, Cd, Cu and Ni) resistant bacterium Serratia sp. KUJM3 was able to grow in both single and multiple metal(loid) contaminated wastewater and removed them by 34.93-48.80% and 22.93-32%, respectively. It reduced As(v) to As(III) by 68.44-85.06% in a concentration dependent manner. The strain's IAA production potential increased significantly under both metal(loid)s regime. The lentil (Lens culinaris) seed germination and seed production were enhanced with the exogenous bacterial inoculation by 20.39 and 16.43%, respectively. Under both multi-metal(loid) regimes the bacterial inoculation promoted shoot length (22.65-51.34%), shoot dry weight (33.89-66.11%) and seed production (13.46-35%). Under bacterial manipulation the metal(loid)s immobilization increased with concomitant curtailment of translocation in lentil plant by 61.89-75.14% and 59.19-71.14% in shoot and seed, respectively. The strain biomineralized struvite (MgNH4 PO4 ·6H2O) from human urine @ 403 ± 6.24 mg L-1. The fertilizer potential of struvite was confirmed with the promotion of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) growth traits e.g. leaf number (37.04%), pod number (234%), plant wet weight (65.47%) and seed number (134.52%). Thus Serratia sp. KUJM3 offers multiple benefits of metal(loid)s bioremediation, As(V) reduction, plant growth promotion, and struvite biomineralization garnering a suite of appealing environmental applications.


Assuntos
Lens (Planta) , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Humanos , Metais , Metais Pesados/análise , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Serratia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Estruvita
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2201776119, 2022 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943987

RESUMO

Many natural organisms, such as fungal hyphae and plant roots, grow at their tips, enabling the generation of complex bodies composed of natural materials as well as dexterous movement and exploration. Tip growth presents an exemplary process by which materials synthesis and actuation are coupled, providing a blueprint for how growth could be realized in a synthetic system. Herein, we identify three underlying principles essential to tip-based growth of biological organisms: a fluid pressure driving force, localized polymerization for generating structure, and fluid-mediated transport of constituent materials. In this work, these evolved features inspire a synthetic materials growth process called extrusion by self-lubricated interface photopolymerization (E-SLIP), which can continuously fabricate solid profiled polymer parts with tunable mechanical properties from liquid precursors. To demonstrate the utility of E-SLIP, we create a tip-growing soft robot, outline its fundamental governing principles, and highlight its capabilities for growth at speeds up to 12 cm/min and lengths up to 1.5 m. This growing soft robot is capable of executing a range of tasks, including exploration, burrowing, and traversing tortuous paths, which highlight the potential for synthetic growth as a platform for on-demand manufacturing of infrastructure, exploration, and sensing in a variety of environments.


Assuntos
Bioengenharia , Biomimética , Polimerização , Robótica , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bioengenharia/métodos , Biomimética/métodos , Movimento , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
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