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1.
Behav Brain Res ; 437: 114098, 2023 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma (CT) increases vulnerability for the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). Alterations in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) have frequently been reported for MDD. These alterations may be much more prominent in depressive patients with a history of CT. The present study aims to compare RSFC in different brain networks of patients with MDD and CT (MDD+CT) vs. MDD and no CT compared to healthy controls. METHODS: 45 patients (22 with CT) were compared to 23 age-and-gender-matched healthy control subjects. Demographic parameters, severity of MDD, severity of CT and comorbid anxiety disorders were assessed. For assessment of RSFC alterations, a seed-based approach within five well-established RSFC networks was used. RESULTS: CT in MDD patients predicts severity of comorbid anxiety. A significant decrease in in-between network RSFC-values of MDD patients compared to controls was found in the network pairs of default mode network (DMN) - dorsal attention network (DAN), ventral attention network (VAN) - DMN and DAN - affective network (AN). MDD+CT patients presented more aberrant RSFC than MDD-CT patients. MDD scores predicted the decrease in RSFC for MDD patients. Higher Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) scores are linked to reduced functional connectivity (FC) between DMN - DAN. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows reduced RSFC in MDD patients for DMN - DAN, VAN - DMN, DAN - AN and MDD+CT patients presented more aberrant RSFC so that we suspect CT to be a considerable factor in the etiology of MDD. Through dysregulated neural circuits, CT is likely to contribute to a distinct MDD pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Humanos , Criança , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Descanso/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19016, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347938

RESUMO

There is broad interest in discovering quantifiable physiological biomarkers for psychiatric disorders to aid diagnostic assessment. However, finding biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has proven particularly difficult, partly due to high heterogeneity. Here, we recorded five minutes eyes-closed rest electroencephalography (EEG) from 186 adults (51% with ASD and 49% without ASD) and investigated the potential of EEG biomarkers to classify ASD using three conventional machine learning models with two-layer cross-validation. Comprehensive characterization of spectral, temporal and spatial dimensions of source-modelled EEG resulted in 3443 biomarkers per recording. We found no significant group-mean or group-variance differences for any of the EEG features. Interestingly, we obtained validation accuracies above 80%; however, the best machine learning model merely distinguished ASD from the non-autistic comparison group with a mean balanced test accuracy of 56% on the entirely unseen test set. The large drop in model performance between validation and testing, stress the importance of rigorous model evaluation, and further highlights the high heterogeneity in ASD. Overall, the lack of significant differences and weak classification indicates that, at the group level, intellectually able adults with ASD show remarkably typical resting-state EEG.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Adulto , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Descanso , Biomarcadores
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361455

RESUMO

In a social environment, various types of stress can be overwhelming. Humans frequently encounter these stressful situations in social life. Stress is divided into physical stress and mental stress; the latter is induced by heavy mental workloads and has become a huge social problem, leading to mental disorders and possibly suicide in the worst scenario. Investigations into monitoring mental stress and reducing stressful conditions are, therefore, important for its prevention. In the present study, we focused on autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) sound, which is known to improve the human mental condition through its comforting and relaxing effects. We investigated the effect of ASMR on the mental workload induced by mental tasks by the evaluation of EEG activation patterns in normal subjects. Our results showed a significant decrease in alpha-band activity and a significant increase in gamma (high beta)-band activity under the induction of mental workload by mental tasks compared to the resting condition. When applying ASMR sound, alpha- and gamma-band activity under the induction of mental workload by mental tasks was restored to the level of the resting condition. In conclusion, these results indicate that ASMR sound reduces the mental stress induced by mental workload.


Assuntos
Meridianos , Humanos , Descanso , Carga de Trabalho , Eletroencefalografia
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277416, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383619

RESUMO

Sleep duration, quality, and rest-activity pattern-a measure for inferring circadian rhythm-are influenced by multiple factors including access to electricity. Recent findings suggest that the safety and comfort afforded by technology may improve sleep but negatively impact rest-activity stability. According to the circadian entrainment hypothesis, increased access to electric lighting should lead to weaker and less uniform circadian rhythms, measured by stability of rest-activity patterns. Here, we investigate sleep in a Maya community in Guatemala who are in a transitional stage of industrialization. We predicted that (i) sleep will be shorter and less efficient in this population than in industrial settings, and that (ii) rest-activity patterns will be weaker and less stable than in contexts with greater exposure to the natural environment and stronger and more stable than in settings more buffered by technologic infrastructure. Our results were mixed. Compared to more industrialized settings, in our study population sleep was 4.87% less efficient (78.39% vs 83.26%). We found no significant difference in sleep duration. Rest-activity patterns were more uniform and less variable than in industrial settings (interdaily stability = 0.58 vs 0.43; intradaily variability = 0.53 vs 0.60). Our results suggest that industrialization does not inherently reduce characteristics of sleep quality; instead, the safety and comfort afforded by technological development may improve sleep, and an intermediate degree of environmental exposure and technological buffering may support circadian rhythm strength and stability.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Sono , Humanos , Ritmo Circadiano , Descanso , Polissonografia , Tecnologia , Actigrafia
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18545, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329068

RESUMO

It has been well-documented that brain regions related to a task are activated during the task performance. We investigated whether brain activity and functional connectivity during the rest period are affected by the preceding task. Participants performed visual search tasks with three search conditions, which were followed by a rest period. During the rest period, participants were asked to look at the display that did not show any visual stimuli. In the result, brain activity in occipital and superior parietal regions would be deactivated by the preceding task during the rest period after visual search tasks. However, the activity of the inferior frontal gyrus during the rest period, which is also part of the attention network, was not affected by the brain activity during the preceding visual search task. We proposed a new model for explaining how the cognitive demands of the preceding visual search task regulate the attention network during the rest period after the task. In this model, the cognitive demand changes with task difficulty, which affects the brain activity even after removing the visual search task in the rest phase.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Descanso/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277432, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study compared the post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) effects of a flywheel eccentric overload (FEOL) exercise and barbell half squats (BHS) on countermovement jump (CMJ) and 30 m sprint performance. METHODS: Twelve male collegiate competitive basketball players were enrolled in this study and they implemented two training protocols: barbell half squat (BHS) and flywheel eccentric overload (FEOL) training. The BHS protocol included three intensities of load: low (40% 1RM), medium (60% 1RM), and high (80% 1RM), with each intensity consisting of 5 sets of 3 repetitions. The FEOL protocol included three inertia intensities: low (0. 015 kg∙m2), medium (0.035 kg∙m2), and high (0.075 kg∙m2), with each intensity consisting of 3 sets of 6 repetitions. The measurement time points were before training (baseline) and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 minutes after training. A two-stage (stage-I and stage-II) randomized crossover design was used to determine the acute effects of both protocols on CMJ and sprint performance. RESULTS: At each training intensity, the jump height, jump peak power output (PPO), jump impulse and 30m sprint speed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 minutes after BHS and FEOL training did not change significantly compared to the baseline. A 2-way ANOVA analysis indicated significant main effects of rest intervals on jump height, jump PPO, and jump impulse, as well as 30m sprint speed. The interaction of the Time × protocol showed a significant effect on jump height between BHS and FEOL groups at high intensity in stage-I (F = 3.809, p = 0.016, df = 4) and stage-II (F = 3.044, p = 0.037, df = 4). And in high training intensity, the jump height at 3 (7.78 ± 9.90% increase, ES = 0.561), 6 (8.96 ± 12.15% increase, ES = 0.579), and 9 min (8.78 ± 11.23% increase, ES = 0.608) were enhanced in I-FEOL group compared with I-BHS group (F = 3.044, p = 0.037, df = 4). In stage-II, the impulse and sprint speed of the FEOL group were significantly higher than those of the BHS group at 6, 9, and 12 min under low (FEOL = 0.015kg∙m2, BHS = 40%1RM), medium(FEOL = 0.035kg∙m2, BHS = 60%1RM), and high (FEOL = 0.075kg∙m2, BHS = 80%1RM) intensities. Furthermore, the sprint speed of the two training protocols did not change at different time points. The interaction of Time × training intensity showed lower sprint speeds in the II-BHS group at a high intensity (BHS = 80%1RM) compared to low (BHS = 40%1RM) and medium (BHS = 60%1RM) training intensities, especially at 9 min and 12 min rest intervals. CONCLUSION: Although barbell half squat training and flywheel eccentric overload training did not provide a significant PAPE effect on explosive power (CMJ and sprint) in male basketball players, FEOL training showed a better potential effect on enhanced CMJ jump performance at the high training intensity.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Masculino , Humanos , Terapia por Exercício , Exercício Físico , Postura , Descanso
7.
Radiologia (Engl Ed) ; 64(5): 393-396, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243438
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 654, 2022 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SC) have many similarities in clinical manifestations. The acute phase of BD has psychotic symptoms, while SC also has emotional symptoms during the onset, which suggests that there is some uncertainty in distinguishing BD and SC through clinical symptoms. AIM: To explore the characteristics of brain functional activities and cognitive impairment between BD and SC. METHODS: Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) test was performed on patients in drug-naïve BD and SC (50 subjects in each group), and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scanning was performed meanwhile. Rs-fMRI data were routinely preprocessed, and the value of the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) was calculated. Then each part of the scores of the RBANS and the characteristics of brain function activities were compared between the two groups. Finally used Pearson correlation to analyze the correlation between cognition and brain function. RESULTS: (1) Compared with BD group, all parts of RBANS scores in SC group decreased; (2) The left inferior occipital gyrus (IOG, peak coordinates - 30, -87, -15; t = 4.78, voxel size = 31, Alphasim correction) and the right superior temporal gyrus (STG, peak coordinates 51, -12, 0; t = 5.08, voxel size = 17, AlphaSim correction) were the brain areas with significant difference in fALFF values between BD and SC. Compared with SC group, the fALFF values of the left IOG and the right STG in BD group were increased (p < 0.05); (3) Pearson correlation analysis showed that the visuospatial construction score was positively correlated with the fALFF values of the left IOG and the right STG (rleft IOG = 0.304, p = 0.003; rright STG = 0.340, p = 0.001); The delayed memory (figure recall) score was positively correlated with the fALFF value of the left IOG (rleft IOG = 0.207, p = 0.044). DISCUSSION: The cognitive impairment of SC was more serious than BD. The abnormal activities of the left IOG and the right STG may be the core brain region to distinguish BD and SC, and are closely related to cognitive impairment, which provide neuroimaging basis for clinical differential diagnosis and explore the pathological mechanism of cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Descanso , Cognição
9.
Elife ; 112022 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36263940

RESUMO

Respiration can induce motion and CO2 fluctuation during resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) scans, which will lead to non-neural artifacts in the rsfMRI signal. In the meantime, as a crucial physiologic process, respiration can directly drive neural activity change in the brain, and may thereby modulate the rsfMRI signal. Nonetheless, this potential neural component in the respiration-fMRI relationship is largely unexplored. To elucidate this issue, here we simultaneously recorded the electrophysiology, rsfMRI, and respiration signals in rats. Our data show that respiration is indeed associated with neural activity changes, evidenced by a phase-locking relationship between slow respiration variations and the gamma-band power of the electrophysiological signal recorded in the anterior cingulate cortex. Intriguingly, slow respiration variations are also linked to a characteristic rsfMRI network, which is mediated by gamma-band neural activity. In addition, this respiration-related brain network disappears when brain-wide neural activity is silenced at an isoelectrical state, while the respiration is maintained, further confirming the necessary role of neural activity in this network. Taken together, this study identifies a respiration-related brain network underpinned by neural activity, which represents a novel component in the respiration-rsfMRI relationship that is distinct from respiration-related rsfMRI artifacts. It opens a new avenue for investigating the interactions between respiration, neural activity, and resting-state brain networks in both healthy and diseased conditions.


What does the brain do when we breathe? Humans and other animals with lungs depend on breathing to supply their cells with oxygen for energy production. Neurons in the brain are supplied oxygen through an intricate system of blood vessels. When active, neurons consume a lot of energy and require a steady supply of oxygen-rich blood. In fact, this relationship between blood vessels and activity of neurons in the brain is so tightly linked that to study neuron activity researchers and clinicians often use an approach called functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to analyze the flow of oxygenated blood in the brain. This imaging technique allows scientists to map how active different parts of the brain are at any given time without the need for an invasive medical procedure. Unfortunately, fMRI results are affected by the cycles of inhalation and exhalation that take place while breathing, even when an individual is at rest. This is because the rate and depth of respiration can vary, resulting in the body moving unpredictably and in CO2 levels fluctuating in the brain, which can lead to changes in fMRI signals that do not correlate with neuron activity. Such misleading measurements are called 'artifacts'. The assumption that these fMRI results do not represent real brain activity has meant that the effects of breathing on neuron activity in different parts of the brain is poorly understood. To solve this issue, Tu and Zhang performed fMRI on rats and combined the results with measurements of the depth and rate of respiration, and with electrophysiology, an approach that allowed them to directly record the electrical properties of neurons. This allowed them to map out the network of neurons that become active in response to breathing. The results show that breathing leads to a specific fMRI signal that can be distinguished from the artifacts introduced by fluctuating CO2 levels and body movements. The signal correlates with the activity of neurons measured using electrophysiology and with breathing patterns, and it disappears when the electrical activity of neurons in the brain is suppressed, even if the rats are still breathing. This suggests that breathing affects brain activity that is independent of the previously described artifacts. Future studies may focus on how the brain responds to breathing or how respiration itself is controlled by the brain, with the methods developed allowing researchers to explore regions of the brain that increase their activity while breathing. This clears the path towards investigating the neural mechanisms underlying therapies and exercises that focus on breathing.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Animais , Ratos , Descanso/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Respiração
10.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235863

RESUMO

Optimal energy provision, guided by measured resting energy expenditure (REE) and determined by indirect calorimetry (IC), is fundamental in Intensive Care Units (ICU). Because IC availability is limited, methods to predict REE based on carbon dioxide production (VCO2) measurements (REEVCO2) alone have been proposed as a surrogate for REE measured by IC (REEIC). The study aimed at externally and internally validating the accuracy of the REEVCO2 as an alternative to REEIC in mechanically ventilated children. A ventilator's integrated gas exchange module (E-COVX) was used to prospectively measure REEIC and predict REEVCO2 on 107 mechanically ventilated children during the first 24 h of admission. The accuracy of the REEVCO2 compared to REEIC was assessed through the calculation of bias and precision, paired median differences, linear regression, and ROC analysis. Accuracy within ±10% of the REEIC was deemed acceptable for the REEVCO2 equation. The calculated REEVCO2 based on respiratory quotient (RQ) 0.89 resulted in a mean bias of -72.7 kcal/day (95% limits of agreement -321.7 to 176.3 kcal/day) and a high coefficient of variation (174.7%), while 51.4% of the calculations fell outside the ±10% accuracy rate. REEVCO2 derived from RQ 0.80 or 0.85 did not improve accuracy. Only measured RQ (Beta 0.73, p < 0.001) and no-recorded neuromuscular blocking agents (Beta -0.13, p = 0.044) were independently associated with the REEVCO2-REEIC difference. Among the recorded anthropometric, metabolic, nutrition, or clinical variables, only measured RQ was a strong predictor of REEVCO2 inaccuracy (p < 0.001). Cutoffs of RQ = 0.80 predicted 89% of underestimated REEIC (sensitivity 0.99; specificity 0.89) and RQ = 0.82 predicted 56% of overestimated REEIC (sensitivity of 0.99; specificity 0.56). REEVCO2 cannot be recommended as an alternative to REEIC in mechanically ventilated children, regardless of the metabolic, anthropometric, or clinical status at the time of the evaluation.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Respiração Artificial , Metabolismo Basal , Calorimetria Indireta/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Criança , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Descanso
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(19)2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36236305

RESUMO

The development of an easy-to-attach electroencephalograph (EEG) would enable its frequent use for the assessment of neurodevelopment and clinical monitoring. In this study, we designed a two-channel EEG headband measurement device that could be used safely and was easily attachable and removable without the need for restraint or electrode paste or gel. Next, we explored the use of this device for neurofeedback applications relevant to education or neurocognitive development. We developed a prototype visual neurofeedback game in which the size of a familiar local mascot changes in the PC display depending on the user's brain wave activity. We tested this application at a local children's play event. Children at the event were invited to experience the game and, upon agreement, were provided with an explanation of the game and support in attaching the EEG device. The game began with a consecutive number visual discrimination task which was followed by an open-eye resting condition and then a neurofeedback task. Preliminary linear regression analyses by the least-squares method of the acquired EEG and age data in 30 participants from 5 to 20 years old suggested an age-dependent left brain lateralization of beta waves at the neurofeedback stage (p = 0.052) and of alpha waves at the open-eye resting stage (p = 0.044) with potential involvement of other wave bands. These results require further validation.


Assuntos
Neurorretroalimentação , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo , Córtex Cerebral , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Humanos , Neurorretroalimentação/métodos , Descanso , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231933

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of ischemic intra-conditioning applied during rest intervals on 30 m sprint performance. Thirty-four trained male (n = 12) and female (n = 22) track and field and rugby athletes volunteered to participate in the study (age = 19.6 ± 4 years; training experience = 5.3 ± 1.9 years). In a randomized and counterbalanced order, participants performed six sets of 30 m sprints under three different testing conditions: without ischemic intra-conditioning, and with ischemic intra-conditioning at 60% or 80% arterial occlusion pressure applied bilaterally before the first trial of the sprint and during the rest periods between all sprint trials. During experimental sessions, subjects perform 6 × 30 m sprints with a 7 min rest interval between attempts. The cuffs were applied following a 1 min rest period and lasted for 5 min before being released at the 6th minute to allow for reperfusion (1 min + 5 min ischemic intra-conditioning + 1 min reperfusion). The two-way repeated measures ANOVA did not show statistically significant condition × set interaction for time of the sprint (p = 0.06; η2 = 0.05). There was also no main effect of ischemic intra-conditioning for any condition (p = 0.190; η2 = 0.05). This study indicates that ischemic intra-conditioning did not enhance the performance of 30 m sprints performed by athletes. However, ischemic intra-conditioning did not decrease performance either.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Atletismo , Adolescente , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Descanso , Adulto Jovem
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(19): 6904-6910, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36263569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the normative values for resting length of pectoralis minor muscle among males and females with an asymptomatic shoulder in South Bengaluru. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and forty-six subjects with asymptomatic shoulders were taken by convenience sampling. The subjects were divided into two groups: Group A (123 males) and Group B (123 females). Pectoralis minor muscle resting length was measured on their dominant side in all subjects. Post measurement, the PMI was calculated. The normative values for both groups were determined. The mean PMI was compared between Group A and Group B and was analyzed using statistical tools. RESULTS: In Group A, the mean average Pectoralis minor length (PML) was 14.59 ± 1.61 cm and in Group B, the mean average PML was 12.95 ± 1.42 cm which was statistically significant (p-value <0.00001). In Group A, the mean Pectoralis Minor Index (PMI) was 8.54 ± 0.88 and in Group B, the mean PMI was 8.22 ± 0.90 which was statistically significant (p-value <0.005). CONCLUSIONS: The normative values for resting length of pectoralis minor muscle for males are 8.54 ± 0.88 and for females 8.22 ± 0.90 with an asymptomatic shoulder. There is a difference in the normative values for the resting PML in the asymptomatic shoulder by gender.


Assuntos
Músculos Peitorais , Ombro , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Transversais , Descanso
14.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 104: 110-114, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243553

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cervical dystonia (CD) is the most common form of adult-onset focal dystonia. Because of a heterogeneous clinical presentation, the diagnosis rests on clinical opinion. During the last decades, several clinical trials have tested safety and efficacy of medical and surgical treatments for CD. We analyzed all the published CD trials and reviewed the strategies adopted for patient enrollment. METHODS: The review included clinical trials in patients with CD published in PubMed. Studies were excluded if reviews, meta-analyses, post-hoc analyses on pooled data, or if not reporting a treatment for CD. RESULTS: A total of 174 articles were identified; 134 studies met inclusion criteria. Diagnosis of CD varied among studies and in most cases was based on clinical judgement, using different descriptors such as "cervical dystonia" (37 studies), "idiopathic or isolated CD" (35), "primary CD" (13), and "torticollis" (40). Clinical judgement was supported by a phenomenological description of dystonia in four studies, and by a specific diagnostic strategy in other four. Finally, one study adopted general diagnostic criteria for dystonia. Inclusion and exclusion criteria proved heterogeneous across trials and were defined only in 108 studies, mainly considering age or the phenomenological pattern of muscle involvement. CONCLUSION: The review showed lack of consolidated diagnostic criteria and non-uniformity of eligibility criteria for CD across clinical trials. There is need to move beyond clinical judgement as diagnostic criterion for selecting participants. New trials assessing specific CD patient subgroups or comparing medical and surgical procedures will need grounds that are more consistent.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Distúrbios Distônicos , Fármacos Neuromusculares , Torcicolo , Adulto , Humanos , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Distúrbios Distônicos/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuromusculares/uso terapêutico , Descanso , Torcicolo/terapia , Torcicolo/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto
15.
JAMA ; 328(14): 1465, 2022 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219413

Assuntos
Descanso
16.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 8157794, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36203729

RESUMO

In this paper, the globally asymptotic synchronization of multi-layer neural networks is studied via aperiodically intermittent control. Due to the property of intermittent control, it is very hard to deal with the effect of time-varying delays and ascertain the control and rest widths for intermittent control. A new lemma with generalized Halanay-type inequalities are proposed first. Then, by constructing a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and utilizing linear programming methods, several useful criteria are derived to ensure the multilayer neural networks achieve asymptotic synchronization. Moreover, an aperiodically intermittent control is designed, which has no direct relationship with control widths and rest widths and extends existing aperiodically intermittent control techniques, the control gains are designed by solving the linear programming. Finally, a numerical example is provided to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Programação Linear , Descanso , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural sounds are reportedly restorative, but most research has used one-off experiments conducted in artificial conditions. Research based on field experiments is still in its infancy. This study aimed to generate hypotheses on the restorative effects of listening to natural sounds on surgeons, representing professionals working in stressful conditions. METHODS: Each of four surgeons (two experts and two residents) participated six times in an experiment where they took a 10-min break listening to natural sounds (four times) or without natural sounds (twice) after a surgical operation. We measured their skin conductance level, an indicator of sympathetic arousal, continuously during the break (measurement occasions N = 2520) and assessed their mood using two questionnaires before and after the break (N = 69 and N = 42). We also interviewed them after the break. RESULTS: Based on statistical Linear Mixed-Effects modeling, we developed two hypotheses for further, more detailed studies: (H1) Listening to natural sounds after an operation improves surgeons' mood. (H2) Inexperienced surgeons' tension persists so long that the effect of natural sounds on their sympathetic arousal is negligible. CONCLUSIONS: This risk-free, easy-to-use means of stress alleviation through natural sounds could benefit highly-stressed people working indoors.


Assuntos
Cirurgiões , Percepção Auditiva , Humanos , Descanso , Som , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Psychiatr Res ; 155: 465-470, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183600

RESUMO

Sleep-wake disturbances in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis may relate to increased symptom severity and contribute to disease progression. Here, we examined differences in rest-activity rhythms (RAR) measures, derived from actigraphy, and objective sleep outcomes, derived from electroencephalography (EEG), between 12 CHR and 16 healthy comparison (HC) individuals. Further, we examined the relationships between RAR disturbances, objective sleep outcomes and clinical psychosis symptoms (i.e., negative, positive, disorganized, general symptoms). Sleep-wake behaviors were monitored via actigraphy for 3-7 days (CHR: 5.7 ± 1.7 days; HC: 6.3 ± 1.2 days) prior to participants spending a night in the sleep laboratory, which was monitored with EEG. Separate regressions were used to examine the effect of clinical group on RAR measures and objective sleep outcomes after controlling for age and gender. CHR participants were found to be less active, specifically during the evening (17:00-20:00; ß = 1.145, SE = 0.362, p = .004) and nighttime (21:00-24:00; ß = 1.152, SE = 0.326, p = .002) relative to HC. Further, CHR participants had more fragmented sleep (wake after sleep onset: ß = 0.888, SE = 0.395, p = .034) and more hyperarousal during sleep (NREM gamma activity: ß = 1.087, SE = 0.348, p = .005), but these sleep disturbances were not related to reduced activity or clinical symptoms, whereas lower nighttime activity was related to more disorganized symptoms (ρ = -.640, p = .025). Thus, increasing activity through behavioral interventions may have additional beneficial effects on CHR clinical symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Actigrafia , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Descanso , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia
19.
J Affect Disord ; 318: 246-254, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late-life depression (LLD) is characterized by cognitive and social impairments. Determining neurobiological alterations in connectivity in LLD by means of fMRI may lead to a better understanding of the neural basis underlying this disorder and more precise diagnostic markers. The primary objective of this paper is to identify a structural model that best explains the dynamic effective connectivity (EC) of the default mode network (DMN) in LLD patients compared to controls. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients and 29 healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI during a period of eight minutes. In both groups, jackknife correlation matrices were generated with six ROIs of the DMN that constitute the posterior DMN (pDMN). The different correlation matrices were used as input to estimate each structural equation model (SEM) for each subject in both groups incorporating dynamic effects. RESULTS: The results show that the proposed LLD diagnosis algorithm achieves perfect accuracy in classifying LLD patients and controls. This differentiation is based on three aspects: the importance of ROIs 4 and 6, which seem to be the most distinctive among the subnetworks; the shape that the specific connections adopt in their networks, or in other words, the directed connections that are established among the ROIs in the pDMN for each group; and the number of dynamic effects that seem to be greater throughout the six ROIs studied [t = 54.346; df = 54; p < .001; 95 % CI difference = 5.486-5.906]. LIMITATIONS: The sample size was moderate, and the participants continued their current medications. CONCLUSIONS: The network models that we developed describe a pattern of dynamic activation in the pDMN that may be considered a possible biomarker for LLD, which may allow early diagnosis of this disorder.


Assuntos
Depressão , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Vias Neurais , Descanso
20.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 3737-3740, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085717

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a serious brain disorder that can affect all aspects of patient's life such as thinking, behaving and even feeling. The principal cause of schizophrenia is still unknown, but there is some evidence that differences in brain networks interactions along with functional dysconnectivity may play a significant role. Prior work has mostly focused on static summaries of functional data, or more recently changes in temporal coupling between fixed networks. Here, we study differences in spatio-temporal brain dynamics using resting state fMRI images in a dataset including 510 control and 708 schizophrenia patients. To do this, we utilized a deep residual network to extract 5 different spatiotemporal networks each of which captures spatial and temporal dynamics within sensory-motor, auditory, and default mode domains. Our analysis shows significant group differences in various aspects of spatio-temporal dynamics including magnitude, voxel-wise variability, and temporal functional network connectivity. Clinical relevance- Our study explores effects of spatio-temporal brain dynamism in schizophrenia, which is rarely taken into account, but could provide unique and more sensitive information about the disorder. Here we incorporate a novel 5D brain parcellation model, that enables us to encode spatio-temporal dynamics, to extract and characterize multiple resting fMRI brain networks.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Esquizofrenia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Emoções , Humanos , Descanso , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem
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