Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.809
Filtrar
1.
Fam Med Community Health ; 12(2)2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Currently, little is known regarding changes in family situation with concurrent changes in working life. This study aimed to examine whether changes in family situation (based on living with children and/or marrying/divorcing) were associated with changes in working life and whether the associations were influenced by sex, genetics and early life environment. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data from Swedish national registers of 16 410 twins were used. Fixed-effects logistic regression models assessing ORs with 95% CIs were applied to examine associations between changes in family situation and working life controlling for time-invariant effects and adjusted for covariates, and conditional models to account for confounding of genetics and early life environment. RESULTS: Changes in individuals life situation from being single and living without children to married and living with children were associated with transitioning from unsustainable (ie, having unemployment or sickness absence/disability pension) to sustainable working life (men: OR 2.40, 95% CI 2.26 to 2.56; women: OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.59 to 1.78). Changes from being married to single, in contrast, attenuated the likelihood of transitioning to a sustainable working life. Moreover, changes in men's working life seem to be more dependent on changes in family situation compared with women. Genetic factors and early life environment play a role in the associations. CONCLUSIONS: Family formation increases the likelihood of a more stable working life whereas divorce is a risk factor for work interruptions. Our study emphasises that family formation improves the work life situation and to a higher degree for men.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Desemprego , Masculino , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Pensões
2.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e080464, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Workers with chronic illness are in higher risk of unemployment. This article investigated the worker and workplace characteristics associated with labour market inclusion for workers with a diagnosed chronic illness. METHODS: Linked employer-employee register data covering all Norwegian employers and employees each month from February 2015 to December 2019 were merged with patient data from specialist healthcare (136 196 observations (job spells); 70 923 individual workers). Survival analysis was used to estimate the risk of employment exit, with age, gender, chronic illness, full-time/part-time employment, skill level, marital status, children in household, branch, share of chronically ill workers, firm size and unemployment rate as covariates. RESULTS: 85% of the study population was employed in December 2019; 58% remain employed throughout the follow-up period. Mental illness, male gender, young age, part-time employment and lower skill levels were the worker-level predictors of labour market exit. Employments in secondary industries, in firms with high shares of chronically ill workers and, to some extent, in larger firms were the significant workplace-level determinants. CONCLUSION: Only a minority of our sample of workers with chronic illness experienced labour market exclusion. Targeted measures should be considered towards workers with poor mental health and/or low formal skills. Chronically ill workers within public administration have the best labour market prospects, while workplaces within the education branch have an unfulfilled potential.


Assuntos
Emprego , Local de Trabalho , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Emprego/psicologia , Desemprego/psicologia , Ocupações , Doença Crônica
3.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 735, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last decade, interest in working life expectancy (WLE) and socioeconomic differences in WLE has grown considerably. However, a comprehensive overview of the socioeconomic differences in WLE is lacking. The aim of this review is to systematically map the research literature to improve the insight on differences in WLE and healthy WLE (HWLE) by education, occupational class and income while using different ways of measuring and estimating WLE and to define future research needs. METHODS: A systematic search was carried out in Web of Science, PubMed and EMBASE and complemented by relevant publications derived through screening of reference lists of the identified publications and expert knowledge. Reports on differences in WLE or HWLE by education, occupational class or income, published until November 2022, were included. Information on socioeconomic differences in WLE and HWLE was synthesized in absolute and relative terms. RESULTS: A total of 26 reports from 21 studies on educational and occupational class differences in WLE or HWLE were included. No reports on income differences were found. On average, WLE in persons with low education is 30% (men) and 27% (women) shorter than in those with high education. The corresponding numbers for occupational class difference were 21% (men) and 27% (women). Low-educated persons were expected to lose more working years due to unemployment and disability retirement than high-educated persons. CONCLUSIONS: The identified socioeconomic inequalities are highly relevant for policy makers and pose serious challenges for equitable pension policies. Many policy interventions aimed at increasing the length of working life follow a one-size-fits-all approach which does not take these inequalities into account. More research is needed on socioeconomic differences in HWLE and potential influences of income on working life duration.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Aposentadoria , Desemprego , Pensões , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0297378, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536785

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health issue with significant socioeconomic impacts. In Malaysia, the prevalence of CKD in 2018 was 15%. Complications of CKD such as anaemia, mineral bone disease, and infections led to frequent hospitalizations resulting in work disability and unemployment. To date, there is no data of employment status of CKD patients in Malaysia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of patients with advanced CKD (stage 4 and 5 non-dialysis) treated in our centre. We interviewed those aged 18 to 60 years old who were selected based on random sampling of their employment status and associated factors. Work disabilities and quality of life were assessed using work productivity and activity impairment (WPAI-GH) questionnaire and kidney disease and quality of life (KDQOL-36) questionnaire. These questionnaires were assisted by the main investigators to aid participants in facilitating their response process. RESULT: A total of 318 patients recruited, 53.5% were males, with a mean age of 49.0 ± 9.0 years old. The main cause of CKD was diabetes (67.0%) followed by hypertension (11.3%). Majority of them were obese (55.3%) with a mean body mass index of 28.81 ± 6.3 kg/m2. The mean household income was RM 4669.50 ± 3034.75 (USD1006.27 ± 653.99). The employment rate was 50% (n = 159). 86% of the unemployed patients were in B40 income category. Multiple Logistic Regression was performed on the significant factors affecting employment status showed one year increase in age increased 6.5% odds to be unemployed. Female and dyslipidaemia had 2.24- and 2.58-times higher odds respectively to be unemployed. Meanwhile, patients with tertiary level of education were 81% less odds to be unemployed. Patients with advanced CKD had a mean percentage of 24.35 ± 15.23 work impairment and 13.36 ± 32.34 mean percentages of face absenteeism due to the disease burden. Furthermore, patients who were unemployed had significant perceived symptoms and problem lists, effects, and burden of kidney disease (p<0.01) and showed poor mental and physical composites (p<0.01) as compared with those who were employed. CONCLUSION: The employment rate of advanced CKD patients was low with half of patients lost their jobs due to the disease burden and had poor mental and physical composites of quality of life. This raises the concern for financial support for long term renal replacement therapy.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Emprego , Desemprego
5.
Trials ; 25(1): 222, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38539212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Employment is a vital source for experiencing well-being and lowering the risk of long-term social marginalisation and poverty. For persons with alcohol and drug addiction, it may also improve sobriety. However, the unemployment situation for this group reflects the knowledge gap in effective interventions to support employment. While Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is recognised as evidence-based supported employment for those with serious mental health problems, no scientific evidence for the target group of addiction exists to date. The aim of the present IPS for Alcohol and Drug Addiction in Sweden (IPS-ADAS) trial is to study whether IPS has an effect on gaining employment for this group. METHODS: The IPS-ADAS trial is a multisite, pragmatic, parallel, and single-blinded, superiority randomised controlled trial (RCT). Participants (N = 330) will be randomly assigned (1:1) and participate in IPS plus treatment as usual within Addiction Services (IPS + TAU) or Traditional Vocational Rehabilitation (TVR) available plus TAU (TVR + TAU) for 12 months. The principle of intention-to-treat (ITT) will be applied. The hypothesis is that a significantly larger proportion of IPS + TAU participants will be employed for > 1 day (primary outcome), reach employment sooner, work more hours and longer periods of time, and have a higher income as compared to TVR + TAU participants at 18-month follow-up. We further anticipate that those who benefit from IPS + TAU will use less alcohol and drugs, experience better health, and use less care and support, including support from the justice system, in comparison to TVR + TAU participants, at 6, 12, and 18 months. A supplementary process evaluation, using the IPS Fidelity Scale (25 items) and adhered interviews will address delivery and receipt of the IPS as well as contextual hinders and barriers for coproduction and implementation. Working age (18-65), willingness to work, unemployment, participation in an information meeting about the RCT, treatment for addiction diagnosis, and being financially supported by welfare, constitute eligible criteria. DISCUSSION: A primary study on the effectiveness of IPS on employment for the new target group of addictions will add to the international IPS knowledge base and inform national policy to include the underrepresented group in working life. TRIAL REGISTRATION: WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform ISRCTN10492363. Registered on 14 August 2023.


Assuntos
Readaptação ao Emprego , Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Suécia , Readaptação ao Emprego/métodos , Reabilitação Vocacional/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Desemprego , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0301257, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551929

RESUMO

This paper investigates the long-run and short-run relationship between money supply and inflation in Pakistan, utilizing annual data spanning from 1981 to 2021. The key objective is to assess the impact of monetary policy, specifically money supply, on inflation dynamics in the country. To achieve this, the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach is employed, which is suitable for analyzing cointegration among variables with mixed integration orders. The results reveal both short and long-run cointegration between inflation, money supply, unemployment, and interest rates. Notably, unemployment demonstrates a negative correlation with inflation, while money supply and interest rates exhibit a positive relationship. These findings underscore the importance of dedicated policy measures to manage inflation effectively. The paper concludes by recommending the establishment of a policy implementation body and collaboration between the government and the central bank to ensure financial stability and control inflation through well-calibrated monetary and fiscal policies.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Políticas , Paquistão , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Inflação , Desemprego , Desenvolvimento Econômico
7.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 715, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443822

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: The burden of caring for children with complex medical problems such as major congenital anomalies falls principally on mothers, who in turn suffer a variety of potentially severe economic consequences. As well, health consequences of caregiving often further impact the social and economic prospects of mothers of children with major congenital anomalies (MCMCAs). Evaluating the long-term economic consequences of extensive in-home caregiving among MCMCAs can inform strategies to mitigate these effects. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether MCMCAs face reduced employment and increased need for disability benefits over a 20-year period. DESIGN: A population-based matched cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All women who gave birth to a singleton child with a major congenital anomaly in Denmark between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2017 (n = 23,637) and a comparison cohort of mothers matched by maternal age, parity, and infant's year of birth (n = 234,586). EXPOSURES: Liveborn infant with a major congenital anomaly. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was mothers' employment status, stratified by their child's age. Employment status was categorized as employed, outside the workforce (on temporary leave, holding a flexible job, or pursuing education), or unemployed; the number of weeks in each category was measured over time. The secondary outcome was time to receipt of a disability pension, which in Denmark implies permanent exit from the labor market. We used a negative binomial regression model to estimate the number of weeks in each employment category, stratified by the child's age (i.e., 0-1 year, > 1-6 years, 7-13 years, 14-18 years). A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to compute hazard ratios as a measure of the relative risk of receiving a disability pension. Rate ratios and hazard ratios were adjusted for maternal demographics, pregnancy history, health, and infant's year of birth. RESULTS: During 1-6 years after delivery, MCMCAs were outside the workforce for a median of 50 weeks (IQR, 6-107 weeks), while members of the comparison cohort were outside the workforce for a median of 48 weeks (IQR, 4-98 weeks), corresponding to an adjusted rate ratio [ARR] of 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.07). During the first year after delivery, MCMCAs were more likely to be employed than mothers in the comparison cohort (ARR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06-1.10). At all timepoints thereafter, MCMCAs had a lower rate of workforce participation. The rate of being outside the workforce was 5% higher than mothers in the comparison cohort during 1-6 years after delivery (ARR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.04-1.07), 9% higher during 7-13 years after delivery (ARR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.06-1.12), and 12% higher during 14-18 years after delivery (ARR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.07-1.18). Overall, MCMCAs had a 20% increased risk of receiving a disability pension during follow-up than mothers in the matched comparison cohort [incidence rates 3.10 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 2.89-3.32) vs. 2.34 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 2.29-2.40), adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.11-1.29]. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: MCMCAs were less likely to participate in the Danish workforce, less likely to be employed, and more likely to receive disability pensions than mothers of unaffected children. The rate of leaving the workforce intensified as their affected children grew older. The high demands of caregiving among MCMCAs may have long-term employment consequences even in nations with comprehensive and heavily tax-supported childcare systems, such as Denmark.


Assuntos
Mães , Desemprego , Criança , Lactente , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
8.
J Occup Health ; 66(1)2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38344801

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Presenteeism adversely affects workers' quality of life, leading to further deterioration of their health and affecting their ability to continue working. Unemployment is one of the most serious consequences for workers experiencing presenteeism. A worker's ability to work depends on the degree of mismatch between their health status and job demands and work factors. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected workers' experiences of presenteeism as well as their employment status. We examined the association between presenteeism and risk of job resignations and unemployment among Japanese workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A prospective study of 27 036 internet monitors was conducted, starting in December 2020, with 18 560 (68.7%) participating in the follow-up by December 2021. The Work Functioning Impairment Scale (WFun) was used to measure the degree of work function impairment. RESULTS: The group with the highest WFun scores had higher odds ratios (ORs) for both retirement and unemployment for health reasons than the group with the lowest WFun scores. ORs were 2.99 (95% CI, 2.48-3.62; P < .001) and 1.82 (95% CI, 1.65-2.00; P < .001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Workers with work functioning impairment are at increased risk of resignation or unemployment. Management strategies for workers with work functioning impairment are needed to reduce their disadvantages in employment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desemprego , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Presenteísmo , Japão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia
9.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 97(3): 253-262, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38200231

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study evaluates the effects of the interdisciplinary employment program 'Work As Best Care (WABC)' on employment participation and mental health of persons with severe mental disorders. METHODS: WABC is a 'work first' employment program for unemployed persons with severe mental disorders in which employment professionals work closely together with mental health professionals. In a longitudinal non-randomized controlled study, participants of WABC (n = 35) are compared with participants of the control group (n = 37), who received regular employment support. Participants were followed for 1 year and filled out questionnaires on individual characteristics and health at baseline, after 6 and 12 months. This information was enriched with monthly register data on employment status from 2015 until 2020. Difference-in-differences analyses were performed to investigate changes in employment participation among participants of WABC and the control group. A generalized linear mixed-effects model was used to compare changes in mental health (measured on 0-100 scale) between the two groups. RESULTS: Before WABC, employment participation was 22.0%points lower among participants of WABC compared to the control group. After starting WABC, employment participation increased with 15.3%points per year among participants of WABC, compared to 5.6%points in the control group. Among all participants of WABC, no change in mental health was found (ß 1.0, 95% CI - 3.4; 5.5). Only female participants of WABC showed a significant change in mental health (ß 8.0, 95% CI 2.6; 13.4). CONCLUSION: To enhance employment participation of persons with severe mental disorders, an interdisciplinary 'work-first' approach in which professionals of employment services and mental health services work in close collaboration, is of paramount importance.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Feminino , Emprego/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Desemprego/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMJ Open ; 14(1): e065869, 2024 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38238046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Beyond specific aspects of numerical or verbal intelligence or cognitive speed, a broad range of psychological capacities are generally important in school, job and social life for all age groups. People have to quit the labour market up from a certain age about 65, whereas (younger) unemployed are motivated for return to work. The question is which psychological capacity profiles can be found in different employment groups (employed, mini-jobbers, voluntary service, retired, unemployed). DESIGN: A representative cross-sectional survey was conducted in Germany, reaching 2528 persons. SETTING: Republic of Germany. PARTICIPANTS: Randomly selected inhabitants throughout Germany. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants reported their sociodemographic and work characteristics, as well as their psychological capacity profiles (Mini-ICF-APP-S) and work-related specific mental health problems (work-anxiety, embitterment). RESULTS: The unemployed had-compared with all other groups-highest rates of work-anxiety and embitterment (16.3%). In contrast to the unemployed, the 'older' (70 aged) retired group, who were no longer working on the labour market, seldomly reported work-anxiety (2.6%) or embitterment (4.2%). The unemployed had the worst capacity profiles, most frequently no school degree (11.5%), most unemployment in their history (four times, as compared with once in the older retired). The psychological capacity profiles of the retired were similar to employed persons. CONCLUSIONS: Keeping older persons with high psychological capacity levels in working life could be an alternative to forced reintegration of people with chronic participation problems into the competitive labour market. Unemployed persons with chronic health and participation problems might benefit from other social inclusion means.


Assuntos
Aposentadoria , Desemprego , Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Ocupações , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia
11.
Sante Publique ; 35(5): 81-94, 2024 01 03.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172053

RESUMO

This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use in 2017 and 2019 in the French population covered by the Régime Général d'Assurance Maladie according to employment status. From the French national CONSTANCES cohort, 18,008 randomly recruited volunteers aged between 18 and 69 years, affiliated to the Régime Général d'Assurance Maladie and enrolled in 2017, were included in the analysis. The prevalence of tobacco use according to employment status was estimated. Estimates of these prevalence data were calculated in 2017 and 2019 after correction for selection bias at inclusion and non-response at follow-up. In 2019, smoking prevalence was higher among unemployed people (29.2% among men and 20.7% among women) than among employed people (16.5% among men and 13.8% among women). Smoking prevalence was highest among those not in work for health reasons (38.5% among men and 35.8% among women). Smokers were more likely to be unemployed than non-smokers (OR 2.63 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.79; 3.85] in men and OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.08; 2.22] in women). Among men, the prevalence of employed people among light smokers (<10 cigarettes/day) significantly decreased between 2017 (87.1%) and 2019 (74.8%). These results underline the importance of reinforcing smoking prevention campaigns among the unemployed, particularly for health reasons.


Estimer les prévalences d'usage de tabac en 2017 et en 2019 en population française couverte par le Régime Général d'Assurance Maladie en fonction du statut vis-à-vis de l'emploi. À partir d'un échantillon de 18 008 volontaires inclus en 2017 dans CONSTANCES, une cohorte nationale en population générale française ayant recruté de manière aléatoire des volontaires de 18-69 ans affiliés au Régime Général d'Assurance Maladie, les prévalences d'usage du tabac en fonction de du statut vis-à-vis de l'emploi ont été estimées en 2017 et en 2019 après correction pour les biais de sélection à l'inclusion et de non-réponse au suivi. En 2019, la prévalence du tabagisme était plus élevée chez les actifs inoccupés (29,2 % chez les hommes et 20,7 % chez les femmes) par rapport aux actifs occupés (16,5 % chez les hommes et 13,8 % chez les femmes). La prévalence du tabagisme la plus élevée concernait les personnes sans activité professionnelle pour raisons de santé (38,5 % chez les hommes et 35,8 % chez les femmes). Les fumeurs étaient plus à risque d'être actifs inoccupés comparativement aux non-fumeurs (OR 2,63 [95 % Intervalle de confiance [IC] : 1,79 ; 3,85] chez les hommes et OR 1,55 [95 % IC : 1,08 ; 2,22] chez les femmes). Chez les hommes, la prévalence d'actifs occupés parmi les petits fumeurs (<10 cigarettes/jour) a baissé entre 2017 (87,1 %) et 2019 (74,8 %). Ces analyses soulignent l'importance d'intensifier les campagnes de prévention sur le tabagisme parmi les actifs inoccupés et les inactifs, en particulier pour raisons de santé.


Assuntos
Emprego , Uso de Tabaco , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Desemprego , Prevalência
12.
BMC Neurol ; 24(1): 28, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up to 65% of people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) develop cognitive deficits, which hampers their ability to work, participating in day-to-day life and ultimately reducing quality of life (QoL). Early cognitive symptoms are often less tangible to PwMS and their direct environment and are noticed only when symptoms and work functioning problems become more advanced, i.e., when (brain) damage is already advanced. Treatment of symptoms at a late stage can lead to cognitive impairment and unemployment, highlighting the need for preventative interventions in PwMS. AIMS: This study aims to evaluate the (cost-) effectiveness of two innovative preventative interventions, aimed at postponing cognitive decline and work functioning problems, compared to enhanced usual care in improving health-related QoL (HRQoL). METHODS: Randomised controlled trial including 270 PwMS with mild cognitive impairment, who have paid employment ≥ 12 h per week and are able to participate in physical exercise (Expanded Disability Status Scale < 6.0). Participants are randomised across three study arms: 1) 'strengthening the brain' - a lifestyle intervention combining personal fitness, mental coaching, dietary advice, and cognitive training; 2) 'strengthening the mind' - a work-focused intervention combining the capability approach and the participatory approach in one-on-one coaching by trained work coaches who have MS themselves; 3) Control group-receiving general information about cognitive impairment in MS and receiving care as usual. Intervention duration is four months, with short-term and long-term follow-up measurements at 10 and 16 months, respectively. The primary outcome measure of the Don't be late! intervention study will be HRQoL as measured with the 36-item Short Form. Secondary outcomes include cognition, work related outcomes, physical functioning, structural and functional brain changes, psychological functioning, and societal costs. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups with stakeholders will be organised to qualitatively reflect on the process and outcome of the interventions. DISCUSSION: This study seeks to prevent (further) cognitive decline and job loss due to MS by introducing tailor-made interventions at an early stage of cognitive symptoms, thereby maintaining or improving HRQoL. Qualitative analyses will be performed to allow successful implementation into clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with reference number NCT06068582 on 10 October 2023.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Esclerose Múltipla , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Desemprego , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
J Environ Manage ; 351: 119717, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38042081

RESUMO

This paper offers an analysis of the macroeconomic conditions for near zero economic growth based on a demand-led growth model, and their implications in terms of paid employment, government finances, and the rate of profit. The main finding of the paper is that a level of net investment compatible with near zero growth would lead to a lower level of paid employment in terms of total hours worked. The effects on the distribution of work and the unemployment level would depend on changes to working time, whether in terms of average hours worked per annum, ages of entry into, and exit from, the work force. Furthermore, changes in working time would be achieved through social actions and legislation, rather than market mechanisms. A government budget deficit may well be required to underpin full employment and capacity utilisation, though there may be long-term limits on the use of budget deficits in a near zero growth context. Finally, a near zero growth rate would also mean a substantial lower rate of profit than hitherto. The implementation of these theoretical conditions require a level of cooperation between and within countries, which is much more difficult to reach in the presence of geopolitical risks and conflicts. Yet, there is no country secure from geopolitical risks and conflicts without an ecologically sustainable use of the natural resources. The theoretical conditions discussed in this paper could serve as "condiciones sine quibus non" to ecological sustainability, while navigating the complexities and uncertainties caused by the on-going conflicts and heightened geopolitical risks.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Emprego , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desemprego , Dinâmica Populacional
14.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 50(2): 61-72, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37943108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Work-related stress is an important public health concern in all industrialized countries and is linked to reduced labor market affiliation and an increased disease burden. We aimed to quantify the labor market costs of work-related stress for a large sample of Danish employees. METHODS: We linked four consecutive survey waves on occupational health and five national longitudinal registers with date-based information on wage and social benefits payments. From 2012 to 2020, we followed survey participants for two year-periods, yielding 110 559 person-years. We identified work stress by combining three dichotomous stress indicators: (i) self-perceived work stress, (ii) Cohen 4-level perceived stress scale, and (iii) job strain. Using the multi-state expected labor market affiliation (ELMA) method, we estimated the labor market expenses associated with work-related stress. RESULTS: Of the employees, 26-37% had at least one work-stress indicator. Men aged 35-64 years and women aged 18-64 years with work-related stress had up to 81.6 fewer workdays and up to 50.7 more days of sickness absence during follow-up than similarly aged men without work stress. The average annual work absenteeism loss per employee linked to work-related stress was €1903 for men and €3909 for women, corresponding to 3.3% of men's average annual wages and 9.0% of women's average annual wages, respectively. The total annual expenses were €305.2 million for men and €868.5 million for women. CONCLUSION: Work-related stress was associated with significant labor market costs due to increased sickness absence and unemployment. The prevention of work-related stress is an important occupational health concern, and the development of effective interventions should be given high priority.


Assuntos
Estresse Ocupacional , Testes Psicológicos , Autorrelato , Desemprego , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Longitudinais , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Dinamarca
15.
Sleep Health ; 10(1): 114-121, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37973452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Skipping meals is linked to negative cardiometabolic health outcomes. Few studies have examined the effects of breakfast skipping after disruptive life events, like job loss. The present analyses examine whether sleep timing, duration, and continuity are associated with breakfast eating among 186 adults who recently (past 90 days) experienced involuntary unemployment from the Assessing Daily Activity Patterns Through Occupational Transitions (ADAPT) study. METHODS: We conducted both cross-sectional and 18-month longitudinal analyses to assess the relationship between actigraphic sleep after job loss and breakfast eating. RESULTS: Later sleep timing was associated with a lower percentage of days breakfast was eaten at baseline (B = -0.09, SE = 0.02, P < .001) and longitudinally over 18 months (estimate = -0.04; SE = 0.02; P < .05). No other sleep indices were associated with breakfast consumption cross-sectionally or prospectively. CONCLUSIONS: Unemployed adults with a delay in sleep timing are more likely to skip breakfast than adults with an advancement in sleep timing. Future studies are necessary to test chronobiological mechanisms by which sleep timing might impact breakfast eating. With the understanding that sleep timing is linked to breakfast eating, the advancement of sleep timing may provide a pathway for the promotion of breakfast eating, ultimately preventing cardiometabolic disease.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Desemprego , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Sono , Refeições
16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 33(1): 107459, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38000111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the proportions of unemployment, decreased household income, and newly acquired disability, and their impact on long-term mortality after intensive care unit (ICU) admission due to nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage (IH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study enrolled adult patients admitted to the ICU because of nontraumatic IH between 2010 and 2018 in South Korea. Patients who were alive ≥365 days after ICU admission were defined as nontraumatic IH survivors. RESULTS: In total, 104,086 nontraumatic IH survivors were included in the final analysis. Among them, 7,225 (6.9 %) experienced job loss, 25,709 (24.7 %) experienced decreased household income, and 20,938 (20.1 %) had newly acquired disabilities, of whom 14,188 (13.6 %) had newly acquired brain disabilities. Male sex, increased duration of intensive care unit stay, comorbid status, hospital admission through the emergency room, nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage, receipt of surgery, mechanical ventilatory support, and increased total cost of hospitalization were associated with job loss, decreased household income, and newly acquired disabilities. However, these changes were not significantly associated with 2-year all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.00, 95 % confidence interval: 0.95, 1.06; P = 0.997). CONCLUSIONS: Many nontraumatic IH survivors experienced unemployment, decreased household income, and newly acquired disability one year after ICU admission in South Korea. Some factors were potential risk factors for these changes, but the changes were not associated with 2-year all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Hemorragias Intracranianas , Desemprego , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Sobreviventes
17.
Soc Sci Med ; 340: 116439, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38000176

RESUMO

Higher maternal resources have long been associated with superior birth outcomes. This study analyzes the potentially protective role of maternal educational selection into fertility in adverse macroeconomic contexts. We focus on the case of Spain, a country reaching record-high unemployment levels during the Great Recession starting in 2008. First, we examine whether selection into fertility of more educated mothers took place as province-level unemployment rates rose. Secondly, we assess whether maternal education mitigated the impact of higher unemployment levels on different birth outcomes. The analysis combines register data on the universe of live births with aggregate data on province-level unemployment. We cover the period 2007-2019 to ensure sufficient variability of unemployment rates and perform linear regression and linear probability models with fixed effects to hold constant unobserved heterogeneity across provinces. Findings indicate selection into fertility of mothers with university-level education in times of high unemployment. In addition, while unemployment rates did show an adverse impact on certain birth outcomes -birthweight, the occurrence of low and very low birthweight, and the risk of stillbirth - maternal education mitigated the observed relations. It was itself, moreover, consistently and independently associated with better perinatal health. We thus conclude that fertility selectivity by maternal education cushioned the impact of the adverse economic context derived from the Great Recession through two separate pathways.


Assuntos
Parto , Desemprego , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Espanha , Fatores de Proteção , Fertilidade , Recessão Econômica
19.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 32(1): 83-90, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37460655

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a multisystem disorder associated with, for example, a high risk for cancer, a variety of behavioral and cognitive deficits, low educational attainment and decreased income. We now examined the labor market participation of individuals with NF1. We analyzed the numbers of days of work, unemployment, and sickness allowance among 742 Finnish individuals with NF1 aged 20-59 years using nationwide register data from Statistics Finland and the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. The individuals with NF1 were compared with a control cohort of 8716 individuals matched with age, sex, and the area of residence. Individuals with NF1 had a significantly lower number of working days per year than the controls (rate ratio [RR] 0.93, 95% CI 0.91-0.95). Unemployment (RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.58-2.02), and sickness absence (RR 1.44, 95% CI 1.25-1.67) were more frequent in the NF1 than in the control group. The causes of sickness allowances were highly concordant with the previously reported morbidity profile of NF1 including neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, mental and behavioral diseases, and neurological diseases. In conclusion, NF1 significantly interferes with labor market participation via both unemployment and morbidity. Unemployment seems to cause more days of not working than sickness absence.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Neurofibromatose 1 , Humanos , Desemprego/psicologia , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Neurofibromatose 1/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Morbidade
20.
Psychiatr Rehabil J ; 47(1): 46-55, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37589696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many young adults who are unemployed and not in school need support achieving employment goals. Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is an evidence-based employment practice for adults with serious mental illness, but its applicability to young adults with mental health conditions has not been well-researched. The present study prospectively assessed IPS effectiveness in a national sample of young adults enrolled in routine practice settings in the U.S. public mental health system. METHOD: Nine community agencies in five states participated in a 1-year follow-up study of young adults (aged 16-24) enrolled in IPS services. The study examined three outcomes: retention in services, employment, and education. State fidelity reviewers examined IPS fidelity using a new fidelity scale, the IPS-Y. RESULTS: In a sample of 111 participants, the mean age was 19.2, 72 (64.9%) had never worked, and 76 (68.5%) had a diagnosis of depressive and/or anxiety disorder. Participants averaged 8 months of enrollment before terminating from IPS services. During follow-up, 51 (45.9%) participants obtained a competitive job (N = 50) or paid internship (N = 1); 14 (12.6%) achieved a new education outcome. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: IPS has promising outcomes for helping young adults with mental health conditions achieve positive employment outcomes, but its effectiveness in helping young adults achieve education goals has not been demonstrated. IPS should be offered to young adults with employment goals. Targeted funding for supported education and training for IPS specialists in delivering educational supports may be necessary to ensure optimal education outcomes in IPS. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Readaptação ao Emprego , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Seguimentos , Reabilitação Vocacional , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Desemprego
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...