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1.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e082773, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of neurocognitive disorder among people living with HIV/AIDS in South Gondar primary hospitals, North-West Ethiopia, 2023. DESIGN: Institution-based cross-sectional study design. SETTING: South Gondar primary hospitals, North-West Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: 608 participants were recruited using the systematic random sampling technique. MEASUREMENT: Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and medical chart reviews. The International HIV Dementia Scale was used to screen for neurocognitive disorder. The data were entered through EPI-DATA V.4.6 and exported to SPSS V.21 statistical software for analysis. In the bivariable logistic regression analyses, variables with a value of p<0.25 were entered into a multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify factors independently associated with neurocognitive disorder. Statistical significance was declared at a value of p<0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of neurocognitive disorder among HIV-positive participants was 39.1%. In multivariable logistic regression, lower level of education (adjusted OR (AOR)=2.94; 95% CI 1.29 to 6.82), unemployment (AOR=2.74; 95% CI 1.29 to 6.84) and comorbid medical illness (AOR=1.80; 95% CI 1.03 to 3.14) were significantly associated with neurocognitive disorder. CONCLUSION: HIV-associated neurocognitive problems affected over a third of the participants. According to the current study, comorbid medical conditions, unemployment and low educational attainment are associated with an increased risk of neurocognitive disorder. Therefore, early detection and treatment are essential.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Transtornos Neurocognitivos , Humanos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Prevalência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Adulto Jovem , Fatores de Risco , Complexo AIDS Demência/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Adolescente , Escolaridade , Comorbidade , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1324402, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711763

RESUMO

Background: Both overindebtedness and unemployment are critical life events that can result in or lead to poor mental health. What is less known is that the two partly interrelated events frequently go along with a feeling of loss or lack of control in life, which could be the main reason why they are associated with poor mental health. This has not been examined in previous research, particularly not in this combination. Methods: This study used and merged two cross-sectional data sets. Data collected in 2019 on 219 overindebted clients of the four official debt advisory centers in the Canton of Zurich were linked with a comparable subsample of 1,997 respondents from the Swiss Health Survey of 2017. The entire study population covered 2,216 adult individuals living in the Canton of Zurich. Results: The prevalence of no or low sense of control, medium to high psychological distress, and moderate to major depression was much higher among the 44 solely unemployed (36/30/12%), the 189 solely overindebted (73/83/53%), and particularly among the 30 unemployed and overindebted (93/97/60%) than among all 1,953 other survey participants (21/13/7%). Unemployment, overindebtedness, and a (resulting) lack or loss of control were all found to be strong risk factors for the two mental health outcomes under study. Associations, or rather negative health effects, were partly but not fully mediated by the sense of control. Overindebtedness much more strongly predicted psychological distress (ß = -0.37) and depression (ß = 0.17) than unemployment (ß = -0.05/0.01). The sense of control turned out to be an independent explanatory factor for poor mental health and even the strongest of all (ß = 0.49/-0.59). Conclusion: Improving a person's control beliefs could be a promising measure for preventing mental health disorders in general and in people who are unemployed and/or overindebted in particular.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Desemprego , Humanos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/psicologia , Suíça/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Angústia Psicológica , Controle Interno-Externo , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Opioid Manag ; 20(2): 97-102, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700390

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a significant cause of opioid-related fatality, and while medications to treat OUD (MOUD) are effective, disparities remain in the access and uptake of such medications. This study investigated factors that may influence referral to and initiation of MOUD treatment. METHODS: Data from electronic medical records of 677 patients with a history of criminal legal system involvement in a recovery program were used to examine the flow of MOUD referral. RESULTS: Among patients identified as potentially eligible for MOUD treatment, about 38.0 percent were referred and 18.8 percent were confirmed to initiate MOUD treatment. Logistic regression analyses highlighted female gender and unemployment due to incarceration as positive and negative predictors of referral, respectively. The Chi-square test revealed that women and uninsured patients were more likely to initiate referred MOUD treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Data highlight the need for greater connection between referral agencies and MOUD treatment providers, considering factors that may influence referral.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Fatores Sexuais , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10171, 2024 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702409

RESUMO

Mental health issues are intricately linked to socioeconomic background, employment and migration status. However, there remains a gap in understanding the mental health challenges faced by graduate youth in India, particularly in Kolkata City. This study aims to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety, and stress among higher-educated migrant youth. A survey was conducted on four hundred migrant graduate youths aged 21-35 residing in Kolkata. Measures included socio-demographics and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were employed to identify factors associated with mental health issues. The overall prevalence rates were 54.4% for depression, 61.8% for anxiety, and 47.9% for stress. Unemployed youths exhibited significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety than their employed counter parts. The logistic regression model showed that unemployed youth, female sex, never married, and second- and third-time migrant youths were risk factors for high scores on the DASS-21. This study showed that mental health issues were alarming in the higher educated migrant youth. The study suggests the implementation of skill-based, job-oriented, and professional courses at the graduation level to prevent graduates from being rendered unproductive and jobless. Beside these, regular psychological support should be provided to the higher educated youth by the local governments.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Depressão , Migrantes , Desemprego , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Índia/epidemiologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/psicologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Prevalência , Saúde Mental , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Escolaridade
5.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1375, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Not being in employment, education, or training (NEET) is associated with poor health (physical and mental) and social exclusion. We investigated whether England's statutory school readiness measure conducted at 4-5 years provides a risk signal for NEET in late adolescence. METHODS: We identified 8,118 individuals with school readiness measures at 4-5 years and NEET records at 16-17 years using Connected Bradford, a bank of linked routinely collected datasets. Children were categorised as 'school ready' if they reached a 'Good Level of Development' on the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile. We used probit regression and structural equation modelling to investigate the relationship between school readiness and NEET status and whether it primarily relates to academic attainment. RESULTS: School readiness was significantly associated with NEET status. A larger proportion of young people who were not school ready were later NEET (11%) compared to those who were school ready (4%). Most of this effect was attributable to shared relationships with academic attainment, but there was also a direct effect. Measures of deprivation and Special Educational Needs were also strong predictors of NEET status. CONCLUSIONS: NEET risk factors occur early in life. School readiness measures could be used as early indicators of risk, with interventions targeted to prevent the long-term physical and mental health problems associated with NEET, especially in disadvantaged areas. Primary schools are therefore well placed to be public health partners in early intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Fatores de Risco , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Sucesso Acadêmico , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/psicologia
7.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1315, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to contribute to the theoretical development within the field of labour market effects on mental health during life by integrating Bronfenbrenner's ecological model with mainly earlier theoretical work on life-course theory. METHODS: An integrative review was performed of all 52 publications about labour market conditions in relation to mental health from the longitudinal Northern Swedish Cohort study. Inductive and deductive qualitative content analysis were performed in relation to Bronfenbrenner's ecological framework combined with life-course theories. RESULTS: The following nine themes were identified: 1. Macroeconomic recession impairs mental health among young people. 2. The mental health effects on individuals of youth unemployment seem rather insensitive to recession. 3. Small but consistent negative effect of neighbourhood unemployment and other work-related disadvantaged on individuals' mental health over life. 4. Youth unemployment becomes embodied as scars of mental ill-health over life. 5. Weak labour market attachment impairs mental health over life. 6. Bidirectional relations between health and weak labour market attachment over life. 7. Macrolevel structures are of importance for how labour market position cause poor health. 8. Unequal gender relations at work impacts negatively on mental health. 9. The agency to improve health over life in dyadic relations. Unemployment in society permeates from the macrolevel into the exolevel, defined by Bronfenbrenner as for example the labour market of parents or partners or the neighbourhood into the settings closest to the individual (the micro- and mesolevel) and affects the relations between the work, family, and leisure spheres of the individual. Neighbourhood unemployment leads to poor health among those who live there, independent of their employment status. Individuals' exposure to unemployment and temporary employment leads to poorer mental health over the life-course. Temporal dimensions were identified and combined with Bronfenbrenner levels into a contextual life-course model CONCLUSION: Combining the ecosocial theory with life-course theories provides a framework for understanding the embodiment of work-related mental health over life. The labour market conditions surrounding the individual are of crucial importance for the embodiment of mental health over life, at the same time as individual agency can be health promoting. Mental health can be improved by societal efforts in regulations of the labour market.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Desemprego , Humanos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Masculino , Desemprego/psicologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Emprego/psicologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Modelos Teóricos , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Longitudinais , Recessão Econômica , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
8.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1337859, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38784586

RESUMO

Purpose: This study explores the intricate relationship between unemployment rates and emotional responses among Chinese university graduates, analyzing how these factors correlate with specific linguistic features on the popular social media platform Sina Weibo. The goal is to uncover patterns that elucidate the psychological and emotional dimensions of unemployment challenges among this demographic. Methods: The analysis utilized a dataset of 30,540 Sina Weibo posts containing specific keywords related to unemployment and anxiety, collected from January 2019 to June 2023. The posts were pre-processed to eliminate noise and refine the data quality. Linear regression and textual analyses were employed to identify correlations between unemployment rates for individuals aged 16-24 and the linguistic characteristics of the posts. Results: The study found significant fluctuations in urban youth unemployment rates, peaking at 21.3% in June 2023. A corresponding increase in anxiety-related expressions was noted in the social media posts, with peak expressions aligning with high unemployment rates. Linguistic analysis revealed that the category of "Affect" showed a strong positive correlation with unemployment rates, indicating increased emotional expression alongside rising unemployment. Other categories such as "Negative emotion" and "Sadness" also showed significant correlations, highlighting a robust relationship between economic challenges and emotional distress. Conclusion: The findings underscore the profound impact of unemployment on the emotional well-being of university students, suggesting that economic hardships are closely linked to psychological stress and heightened negative emotions. This study contributes to a holistic understanding of the socio-economic challenges faced by young adults, advocating for comprehensive support systems that address both the economic and psychological facets of unemployment.


Assuntos
Emoções , Saúde Mental , Mídias Sociais , Estudantes , Desemprego , Humanos , Desemprego/psicologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Universidades , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Masculino , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Linguística
9.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 13: e55374, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unemployment affects millions of people worldwide and, beyond its economic impact, has severe implications for people's well-being and mental health. Different programs have been developed in response to this phenomenon, but to date, job-search interventions have proved to be most effective, especially the JOBS II program. The JOBS II program proved not only to be effective for re-employment but also has a positive impact on beneficiaries' mental health (ie, reduces anxiety or depression). However, by now, this evidence-based program has been delivered only on site in the various countries where it was implemented. In the digital era, web-based alternatives to such programs are highly needed because they have the advantages of scalability and cost-effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: In this context, we aim to investigate the efficacy of iJobs, the web-based adaptation of the JOBS II program, on job-search intensity and effort, the quality of job-search behaviors, and job-search self-efficacy. Further, 1 month after the intervention, we will also assess the employment status and the satisfaction with the job (if applicable). This study will also investigate the effect of iJobs on well-being and mental health (ie, anxiety and depression). METHODS: This study is a 2-arm randomized controlled trial. The 2 independent groups (intervention vs waiting list control group) will be crossed with 3 measurement times (ie, baseline, the postintervention time point, and 1-month follow-up). The design will be a 2 (intervention vs control) × 3 (baseline, the postintervention time point, and 1-month follow-up) factorial design. iJobs is a 2-week intervention consisting of 6 modules: an introductive module and 5 modules adapted from the original JOBS II program to the web-based setting and Romanian population. The web-based intervention also has a human component, as beneficiaries receive personalized written feedback after each module on the platform from a team of psychologists involved in the project. RESULTS: The enrollment of study participants started in June 2023 and is expected to end in May 2024. The data collection is expected to be completed by July 2024. The results are expected to be submitted for publication in the summer of 2024. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first large-scale randomized controlled trial aiming to test the efficacy of a web-based adaptation of the JOBS II program. If our results support the efficacy of iJobs, they will offer the premise for it to become an evidence-based, accessible alternative for unemployed people in Romania and might be implemented in other countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05962554; https://clinicaltrials.gov/study/NCT05962554. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/55374.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Desemprego , Humanos , Desemprego/psicologia , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Internet
10.
Res Dev Disabil ; 149: 104732, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663333

RESUMO

There is a growing debate among scholars regarding the impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on the employment opportunities and professional development of people with disability. Although there has been an increasing body of empirical research on the topic, it has generally yielded conflicting findings. This study contributes to the ongoing debate by examining the linear and nonlinear effects of AI on the unemployment of people with disability in 40 countries between 2007 and 2021. Using the system Generalized Methods of Moments and panel smooth transition regression, the main conclusions are as follows. First, AI reduces the unemployment of people with disability in the full sample. Second, upon disaggregating the sample based on income level (high income/non-high income) and gender (men/women), the linear model only detects an inverse correlation between AI and unemployment among people with disability in high-income countries and among men, whereas it does not influence unemployment in non-high-income countries and women. Third, the panel smooth transition regression model suggests that the effects of AI on the unemployment of people with disability and among women are only observed once artificial intelligence interest search exceeds a specific threshold level. The effects of AI in non-high-income economies and among women are not significant in the lower regime, which confirms the nonlinear association between AI and the unemployment rate of people with disability. These findings have important policy implications for facilitating the integration of people with disability into the labor market.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Pessoas com Deficiência , Desemprego , Humanos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Lineares , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Países Desenvolvidos , Dinâmica não Linear , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Occup Environ Med ; 81(4): 201-208, 2024 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627100

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of precarious employment is increasing, particularly among young adults where less is known about the long-term health consequences. The present study aims to test if being precariously employed in young adulthood is associated with an increased risk of alcohol-related morbidity later in life. METHODS: A register-based cohort study was conducted in Sweden. The Swedish Work, Illness, and Labor-market Participation (SWIP) cohort was used to identify individuals who were aged 27 years between 2000 and 2003 (n=339 403). Information on labour market position (precarious employment, long-term unemployment, substandard employment and standard employment relations) was collected for young people 3 years after graduation from school using nationwide registers. Details about alcohol-related morbidity during a 28-year follow-up period were collected from the National Hospital Discharge Register. Data on sex, age, country of birth, education and previous poor health were also obtained from the registers. RESULTS: Young adults in precarious employment had an increased risk of alcohol-related morbidity compared with individuals of the same age in standard employment (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.32 to 1.55), after adjusting for several important covariates. A stronger association was found among young men who were precariously employed compared with young women. CONCLUSION: This nationwide register-based study conducted in Sweden with a long-term follow-up suggests that being precariously employed in young adulthood is associated with an increased risk of alcohol-related morbidity later in life.


Assuntos
Emprego , Sistema de Registros , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Emprego
12.
Fam Med Community Health ; 12(2)2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Currently, little is known regarding changes in family situation with concurrent changes in working life. This study aimed to examine whether changes in family situation (based on living with children and/or marrying/divorcing) were associated with changes in working life and whether the associations were influenced by sex, genetics and early life environment. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data from Swedish national registers of 16 410 twins were used. Fixed-effects logistic regression models assessing ORs with 95% CIs were applied to examine associations between changes in family situation and working life controlling for time-invariant effects and adjusted for covariates, and conditional models to account for confounding of genetics and early life environment. RESULTS: Changes in individuals life situation from being single and living without children to married and living with children were associated with transitioning from unsustainable (ie, having unemployment or sickness absence/disability pension) to sustainable working life (men: OR 2.40, 95% CI 2.26 to 2.56; women: OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.59 to 1.78). Changes from being married to single, in contrast, attenuated the likelihood of transitioning to a sustainable working life. Moreover, changes in men's working life seem to be more dependent on changes in family situation compared with women. Genetic factors and early life environment play a role in the associations. CONCLUSIONS: Family formation increases the likelihood of a more stable working life whereas divorce is a risk factor for work interruptions. Our study emphasises that family formation improves the work life situation and to a higher degree for men.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Desemprego , Masculino , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Pensões
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673410

RESUMO

Standardized suicide mortality rates per 100,000 population (SMRs) in Japan consistently decreased from 2009-2019, but these decreasing trends were reversed to increase in 2020. To clarify the mechanisms of recent increasing suicide in Japan, temporal fluctuations of SMRs disaggregated by sex and employment status (employed and unemployed individuals) and labor indices such as working hours, wages, and regular employment opportunity index (REO) from January 2012 to June 2023 were analyzed using interrupted time-series analysis. Additionally, temporal causalities from labor indices to SMRs were analyzed using vector autoregressive and non-linear auto-regressive distributed lag analyses. Decreasing trends among employed SMRs of both sexes were attenuated after the enactment of the "Work Style Reform Program" in 2018, but male SMRs were unaffected by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, female employed SMRs sharply increased, synchronized with the "Work Style Reform Act" and the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak (the COVID-19 impact was greater than the "Work Style Reform Act"). Additionally, unemployed SMRs of both sexes sharply increased with the revision and scale-down of countermeasures against economic deterioration caused by COVID-19 ("revision of economic supportive countermeasures against economic deterioration caused by COVID-19"). Unexpectedly, after enacting the "Work Style Reform Act", wages decreased due to possibly decreasing working hours. Increasing REO, which consistently increased, was a protective factor for male suicides, but unemployed SMRs were not affected by any labor indices. It has been established that controlling a heavy workload plays an important role in suppressing the deterioration of physical and mental conditions, including suicide; however, this study suggested that, at least within appropriate ranges of working hours, decreasing working hours due to excessive management probably contributes to increasing suicides of some vulnerable individuals via de-creasing their wages. Although governmental welfare and economic support measures had to be revised according to rapidly changing situations during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study also suggested that temporal gaps among a part of revisions of several welfare and economic support measures were unexpectedly involved in drastically/sharply increasing suicides of unemployed individuals in 2022.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emprego , Salários e Benefícios , Suicídio , Desemprego , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Japão/epidemiologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Masculino , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Salários e Benefícios/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias
14.
Soc Sci Med ; 348: 116827, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569287

RESUMO

In recent decades, the rise of non-standard employment in China is thought to profoundly influence workers' health. Using data from the China General Social Survey 2010-2021, this study compares the self-rated health of workers engaged in various non-standard employment types with those in unemployment or standard employment in urban China. The research also investigates how these patterns have evolved over time among urban residents with different hukou types amid the expansion of China's welfare system and labor market shifts. We find that while unemployment is significantly related to worse self-rated health, the effects vary across different types of non-standard employment. Precarious employment has a more substantial adverse effect on health than part-time and self-employment, although the effect is less severe than that of unemployment. Between 2010 and 2018, the health impact of precarious employment declined, aligning with China's enhanced welfare system. However, its negative effect re-emerged in 2021. These patterns are particularly pronounced for urban residents holding agricultural hukou, highlighting the intersection of non-standard employment with the household registration system in shaping health outcomes within evolving labor markets.


Assuntos
Emprego , Nível de Saúde , População Urbana , Humanos , China , Masculino , Feminino , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Eur Psychiatry ; 67(1): e34, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines and related drugs (BZDRs) are widely used in the treatment of anxiety and sleep disorders, but cognitive adverse effects have been reported in long-term use, and these may increase the risk of labor market marginalization (LMM). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the risk of LMM is associated with new long-term BZDR use compared to short-term use. METHODS: This register-based nationwide cohort study from Finland included 37,703 incident BZDR users aged 18-60 years who initiated BZDR use in 2006. During the first year of use, BZDR users were categorized as long-term users (≥180 days) versus short-term users based on PRE2DUP method. The main outcome was LMM, defined as receipt of disability pension, long-term sickness absence (>90 days), or long-term unemployment (>180 days). The risk of outcomes was analyzed with Cox regression models, adjusted with sociodemographic background, somatic and psychiatric morbidity, other types of medication and previous sickness absence. RESULTS: During 5 years of follow-up, long-term use (34.4%, N = 12,962) was associated with 27% (adjusted Hazard Ratio, aHR 1.27, 95% CI 1.23-1.31) increased risk of LMM compared with short-term use. Long-term use was associated with 42% (aHR 1.42, 95% CI 1.34-1.50) increased risk of disability pension and 26% increased risk of both long-term unemployment and long-term sickness absence. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that long-term use of BZDRs is associated with increased risk of dropping out from labor market. This may be partly explained by cognitive adverse effects of prolonged BZDR use, which should be taken into account when prescribing BZDRs.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas , Humanos , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Seguimentos , Estudos de Coortes , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0297378, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536785

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health issue with significant socioeconomic impacts. In Malaysia, the prevalence of CKD in 2018 was 15%. Complications of CKD such as anaemia, mineral bone disease, and infections led to frequent hospitalizations resulting in work disability and unemployment. To date, there is no data of employment status of CKD patients in Malaysia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of patients with advanced CKD (stage 4 and 5 non-dialysis) treated in our centre. We interviewed those aged 18 to 60 years old who were selected based on random sampling of their employment status and associated factors. Work disabilities and quality of life were assessed using work productivity and activity impairment (WPAI-GH) questionnaire and kidney disease and quality of life (KDQOL-36) questionnaire. These questionnaires were assisted by the main investigators to aid participants in facilitating their response process. RESULT: A total of 318 patients recruited, 53.5% were males, with a mean age of 49.0 ± 9.0 years old. The main cause of CKD was diabetes (67.0%) followed by hypertension (11.3%). Majority of them were obese (55.3%) with a mean body mass index of 28.81 ± 6.3 kg/m2. The mean household income was RM 4669.50 ± 3034.75 (USD1006.27 ± 653.99). The employment rate was 50% (n = 159). 86% of the unemployed patients were in B40 income category. Multiple Logistic Regression was performed on the significant factors affecting employment status showed one year increase in age increased 6.5% odds to be unemployed. Female and dyslipidaemia had 2.24- and 2.58-times higher odds respectively to be unemployed. Meanwhile, patients with tertiary level of education were 81% less odds to be unemployed. Patients with advanced CKD had a mean percentage of 24.35 ± 15.23 work impairment and 13.36 ± 32.34 mean percentages of face absenteeism due to the disease burden. Furthermore, patients who were unemployed had significant perceived symptoms and problem lists, effects, and burden of kidney disease (p<0.01) and showed poor mental and physical composites (p<0.01) as compared with those who were employed. CONCLUSION: The employment rate of advanced CKD patients was low with half of patients lost their jobs due to the disease burden and had poor mental and physical composites of quality of life. This raises the concern for financial support for long term renal replacement therapy.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Emprego , Desemprego
18.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 735, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last decade, interest in working life expectancy (WLE) and socioeconomic differences in WLE has grown considerably. However, a comprehensive overview of the socioeconomic differences in WLE is lacking. The aim of this review is to systematically map the research literature to improve the insight on differences in WLE and healthy WLE (HWLE) by education, occupational class and income while using different ways of measuring and estimating WLE and to define future research needs. METHODS: A systematic search was carried out in Web of Science, PubMed and EMBASE and complemented by relevant publications derived through screening of reference lists of the identified publications and expert knowledge. Reports on differences in WLE or HWLE by education, occupational class or income, published until November 2022, were included. Information on socioeconomic differences in WLE and HWLE was synthesized in absolute and relative terms. RESULTS: A total of 26 reports from 21 studies on educational and occupational class differences in WLE or HWLE were included. No reports on income differences were found. On average, WLE in persons with low education is 30% (men) and 27% (women) shorter than in those with high education. The corresponding numbers for occupational class difference were 21% (men) and 27% (women). Low-educated persons were expected to lose more working years due to unemployment and disability retirement than high-educated persons. CONCLUSIONS: The identified socioeconomic inequalities are highly relevant for policy makers and pose serious challenges for equitable pension policies. Many policy interventions aimed at increasing the length of working life follow a one-size-fits-all approach which does not take these inequalities into account. More research is needed on socioeconomic differences in HWLE and potential influences of income on working life duration.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Aposentadoria , Desemprego , Pensões , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0301257, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551929

RESUMO

This paper investigates the long-run and short-run relationship between money supply and inflation in Pakistan, utilizing annual data spanning from 1981 to 2021. The key objective is to assess the impact of monetary policy, specifically money supply, on inflation dynamics in the country. To achieve this, the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach is employed, which is suitable for analyzing cointegration among variables with mixed integration orders. The results reveal both short and long-run cointegration between inflation, money supply, unemployment, and interest rates. Notably, unemployment demonstrates a negative correlation with inflation, while money supply and interest rates exhibit a positive relationship. These findings underscore the importance of dedicated policy measures to manage inflation effectively. The paper concludes by recommending the establishment of a policy implementation body and collaboration between the government and the central bank to ensure financial stability and control inflation through well-calibrated monetary and fiscal policies.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Políticas , Paquistão , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Inflação , Desemprego , Desenvolvimento Econômico
20.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 50(4): 279-289, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the risk of labor market marginalization among refugees across different host countries of resettlement and examine the moderating role of birth country and length of stay on these associations. METHODS: Cohorts of refugees and native-born individuals aged 19-60 in Sweden (N=3 605 949, 3.5% refugees) and Norway (N=1 784 861, 1.7% refugees) were followed during 2010-2016. Rates (per 1000 person-years) of long-term unemployment, long-term sickness absence, and disability pension were estimated for refugees and the host populations. Cox regression models estimated crude and adjusted (for sex, age, educational level, and civil status) hazard ratio (HRadj) for refugees compared to their respective host population, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Analyses were also stratified by birth country and length of stay. RESULTS: Refugees in Norway and Sweden had a higher incidence of labor market marginalization compared to their host population. Refugees in Sweden had a comparatively lower relative risk of long-term unemployment but higher risk of disability pension (HRadj 3.44, 95% CI, 3.38-3.50 and HRadj 2.45, 2.35-2.56, respectively) than refugees in Norway (HRadj 3.70, 3.58-3.82 and HRadj 1.57, 1.49-1.66, respectively). These relative risks varied when stratifying by birth country. A shorter length of stay was associated with a higher risk of long-term unemployment and a lower risk of disability pension, with a stronger gradient in Sweden than in Norway. CONCLUSIONS: The relative risk of labor market marginalization varied by the refugees' birth country but followed similar trends in Sweden and Norway. Although speculative, these findings may hint at non-structural factors related to the refugee experience playing a more important role than host country structural factors for the risk of labor market marginalization among refugees. Future research, including host countries with more variability in structural factors, is required to further investigate these associations. The higher risk of long-term unemployment among refugees with shorter length of stay indicates a need for more efficient labor market integration policies for newly-arrived refugees.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Desemprego , Humanos , Suécia , Noruega , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Pensões/estatística & dados numéricos
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