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1.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 45(7): 969-976, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39004969

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the infection status, epidemiological characteristics and drug resistance of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in Shanghai and provide evidence for the disease surveillance. Methods: The epidemiological data of diarrhea cases in Shanghai from 2016 to 2022 were collected from Shanghai Diarrhea Comprehensive Surveillance System, and stool samples were collected from the cases for DEC detection. The drug resistance data was obtained from Chinese Pathogen Identification Network. Statistical analysis was conducted by using χ2 and fisher test. Results: In 24 883 diarrhea cases detected during 2016-2022, the DEC positive rate was 9.13% (2 271/24 883), the single DEC positive rate was 8.83% (2 197/24 883) and the mixed DEC positive rate was 0.30% (74/24 883). The main type of DEC was Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) [4.33% (1 077/24 883)]. The DEC positive rate was highest in people aged ≤5 years 18.48% (22/119). The annual peak of DEC positive rate was observed during July - September [5.91% (1 470/24 883)]. The DEC positive rate were 9.47% (554/5 847) and 9.02% (1 717/19 036) in urban area and in suburbs, respectively, Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) [3.98% (233/5 847)] and ETEC [4.56% (868/19 036)] were mainly detected. From 2016 to 2019, the DEC positive rate was 9.42% (1 821/19 330), while it was 8.10% (450/5 553) from 2020 to 2022, the main DEC types were ETEC (4.87%, 941/19 330) and EAEC (4.70%, 261/5 553). The multi-drug resistance rate was 40.21% (618/1 537). The top three antibiotics with high drug resistance rates were ampicillin [64.74% (995/1 537)], nalidixic acid [58.49% (899/1 537)] and tetracycline [45.09% (693/1 537)]. Conclusions: Compared with 2016- 2019, a decrease in DEC detection rate was observed during 2020-2022, and the main type of DEC detected shifted from ETEC to EAEC. The prevalence of multi-drug resistance was severe. Therefore, it is necessary to further strengthen the surveillance for DEC drug resistance and standardize the use of clinical antibiotics.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Humanos , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Fezes/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Lactente , Adolescente , Adulto
2.
Pediatr Transplant ; 28(5): e14821, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38992876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norovirus is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis. Studies in adult kidney recipients have documented significant morbidity associated with norovirus infection, but there are few studies in pediatric recipients. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective cohort study of pediatric kidney transplant recipients with norovirus, confirmed by stool PCR, between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2018. Outcomes of interest included duration of diarrhea, incidence of chronic diarrhea, management strategies, and graft function. RESULTS: Forty pediatric kidney transplant recipients from four centers were identified for inclusion. Median age at transplant was 5.4 years (IQR 2.2-11.2 years), and median time post-transplant was 1.9 years (IQR 0.8-3.8 years). Median diarrheal duration was 16 days (IQR 6.0-41.5 days); 15 patients (43%) had acute diarrhea, 8 (23%) had persistent, and 12 (30%) had chronic diarrhea. Twenty-one (53%) patients developed acute kidney injury. Thirty-five (88%) patients required supplemental fluids, 8 (20%) patients underwent immunosuppression reduction for a median of 22 days, 5 (13%) were treated with nitazoxanide, and 5 (13%) received oral immunoglobulin. Acute rejection was diagnosed in 3 (8%) patients within 6 months of norovirus diagnosis. We observed no sustained decline in eGFR at 12 months after diarrhea resolution (median eGFR difference: 2.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 [IQR: -17.1, 7.4]). Of the patients in the cohort, two lost their graft at 6.8 and 30.0 months after the onset of diarrhea. CONCLUSION: Norovirus is associated with significant morbidity in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Various treatment interventions are being employed for norovirus infection. Larger studies, both observational and interventional, are needed to determine the optimal treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Diarreia , Transplante de Rim , Norovirus , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Rejeição de Enxerto , Lactente , Adolescente
3.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 51(4): 361-380, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38950093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify subgroups of patients with distinct chemotherapy-induced vomiting (CIV) profiles; determine how these subgroups differ on several demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics; and evaluate factors associated with chemotherapy-induced nausea and CIV profiles. SAMPLE & SETTING: Adult patients (N = 1,338) receiving cancer chemotherapy. METHODS & VARIABLES: Data were collected on demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics. Differences among subgroups of patients with distinct CIV profiles were evaluated using parametric and nonparametric tests. RESULTS: Three CIV profiles (None, Decreasing, and Increasing) were identified. Compared with the None class, Decreasing and Increasing classes were more likely to have lower household income and a higher comorbidity burden, as well as to report higher rates of dry mouth, nausea, diarrhea, depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, morning fatigue, and pain interference. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Clinicians need to assess common and distinct risk factors for CIV and chemotherapy-induced nausea.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Náusea , Neoplasias , Vômito , Humanos , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/complicações , Idoso , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 48: 5, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38946740

RESUMO

Introduction: as cholera, due to toxigenic bacteria Vibrio cholera (serogroups O1 and O139), is a major public health threat in Africa, the aim of this work was to investigate potentially pathogenic Vibrionaceae bacteria firstly from human stool samples, and secondly from various environmental water points of Saint-Louis city in Senegal. Methods: a hospital-based study was conducted between 2013 and 2015. Stool samples were taken and cultured from daily incoming patients or hospitalized for acute diarrhea at Saint-Louis´ regional hospital. For environment, a monthly longitudinal sampling from January to October 2016 was carried out at 10 sites in the city. We used total DNA extracted from APW (alkaline peptone water) broth solutions and on suspect bacterial colonies to run PCR Multiplex targeting specific DNA fragments to detect Vibrio genus and specific species. In case of positivity, a simplex PCR was performed to test for cholera toxins Ctx, and V. parahaemolyticus TRH and TDH. Results: for 43 patients screened, bacterial culture was positive in 6% of cases but no strain of V. cholerae or other Vibrio sp. was isolated. PCR on 90 APW solutions were positive for Vibrio sp.(n = 43), V. cholera(n = 27), V. mimicus(n = 16), V. parahaemolyticus(8), V. alginolyticus(n = 4), and V. vulnificus(n = 2). Unlike for those on suspected colonies which were positive for a majority of V. parahaemolyticus (n = 40) and V. cholerae non-O1 / O139 (n = 35). Six strains of V. parahaemolyticus carried TRH gene, 3 of which expressed simultaneously virulence TRH and TDH genes. For physicochemical parameters, all temperatures varied similarly according to a unimodal seasonality, as well as salinity. Conclusion: despite the presence of natural populations of Vibrionaceae, even toxigenic ones, was noted in water environment, along with favorable habitat conditions that could play a role in transmission of Vibriosis in the Saint Louis population, we did not isolate any of them from patients screened at the hospital.


Assuntos
Cólera , Fezes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Humanos , Senegal , Cólera/microbiologia , Cólera/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Vibrionaceae/isolamento & purificação , Vibrionaceae/genética , Vibrio/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio/genética , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Vibrio cholerae/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino
5.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1755, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks were common in schools and kindergartens and were more related to faculty knowledge, attitude, and practice level. Gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by norovirus in educational institutions were the prominent cause of Public Health Emergency Events in China. This study aimed to explore the transformation in the contribution of KAP items related to outbreak prevention before and after intervention and the impact of demography factors on the intervention. METHODS: This study sampled 1095 kindergarten and 1028 school staff in Shenzhen, China. We created a questionnaire consisting of 35 items in 4 parts, and each item was rated on a scale of 1-5 according to the accuracy. Univariate analysis of non-parametric tests and binary logistic regression were used to estimate the score difference on demographic characteristics, each item and KAP. The odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence and intervals (CI) for the association between statistical indicators were mainly used to explain the effects before and after intervention. RESULTS: Overall, 98.72% and 74.9% of the kindergarten and school participants were female, and all respondents had the highest scores difference of practice. Following intervention, univariate analysis indicated that primary school and female respondents achieved higher knowledge scores. Staff age beyond 35 (OR = 0.56, CI:0.34-0.92; OR = 0.67, CI:0.50-0.90) and with more than ten years of service (OR = 0.58, CI:0.36-0.91; OR = 0.38, CI:0.17-0.84) demonstrated a significantly lower post-intervention score for attitude and practice in both kindergartens and schools. The staff members exhibited a general lack of familiarity with the transmission of aerosols and the seasonal patterns of NoVs diarrhea pandemics. Item analysis revealed that kindergarten staff aged 26 and above demonstrated superior performance in terms of the efficacy of medical alcohol for inactivation (OR = 1.93, CI:1.13-3.31) and management strategies for unexplained vomiting among students (OR = 1.97, CI:1.21-3.18). Private school personnel displayed more significant improvement in their practices following educational interventions. School administrators' negative attitudes were primarily evident in their perspectives on morning inspections (OR = 0.11, CI:0.05-0.84). CONCLUSIONS: The potential negative impact of faculty age on NoVs-related knowledge can be mitigated by the positive attitudes fostered through seniority. Furthermore, it is imperative to urgently address the lack of knowledge among administrators, and the identification and treatment of vomiting symptoms should be emphasized as crucial aspects of school prevention strategies. Therefore, education authorities should implement comprehensive public health interventions in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Surtos de Doenças , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Norovirus , Instituições Acadêmicas , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0304409, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with under-five year age disproportionally affected with foodborne illness. Campylobacteriosis is the most common foodborne disease next to Norovirus infection. Macrolides are commonly prescribed as the first line of treatment for Campylobacter gastroenteritis, with fluoroquinolone and tetracycline as secondary options. However, resistance to these alternatives has been reported in various regions worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, associated risk-factors and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli among under-five children with diarrhea. METHODS: Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from November, 2022 to April 2023. The study sites were selected using a random sampling technique, while the study subjects were included using a convenient sampling technique. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Stool samples were inoculated onto modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar and incubated for 48 hours. The suspected colonies were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to confirm the species. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using a disc diffusion technique. All potential covariates (independent variables) were analyzed one by one using bivariate logistic regression model to identify candidate variables with P value < 0.25. Multivariable logistic analysis was used to identify potential associated factors using the candidate variables. A p value ≤ 0.05 at a 95% confidence interval was statistically significant. RESULT: Among the 428 samples, 7.0% (CI: 4.5-9.3) were confirmed Campylobacter species. The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli among under-five children was 5.1% (CI: 3.0-7.0) and 1.9% (CI: 0.7-3.3), respectively. C. jejuni (73.3%) was dominant over C. coli (26.7%). The resident, contact with domestic animals, and parents/guardians education level were significantly associated with campylobacteriosis among under-five children. One-third of the Campylobacter isolates (33.3%, 10/30) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and tetracycline whereas 10.0% (3/30) were resistant to erythromycin. Furthermore, 3.3% (1/30) of the Campylobacter were found to be multidrug-resistant. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Campylobacter species was 7.0%. The resistance rate of Campylobacter species of ciprofloxacin and tetracycline-resistance strains was 33.3%. Peri-urban residence, contact with domestic animals, and low parental educational statuses were significantly associated factors with increased risk of Campylobacter infection. Continuous surveillance on antimicrobial resistance and health education of personal and environmental hygiene should be implemented in the community.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter coli , Campylobacter jejuni , Diarreia , Humanos , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Feminino , Masculino , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Prevalência , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Recém-Nascido , Fatores de Risco
7.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1864, 2024 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38997671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrheal diseases substantially affect public health impact in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), particularly in Africa, where previous studies have indicated a lack of comprehensive data. With a growing number of primary studies on enteric infections in Africa, this study aimed to estimate the incidence and mortality of diarrheal pathogens across all ages in Africa in the year 2020. We also explored different methodological assumptions to allow comparison with other approaches. METHODS: Through a systematic review and meta-analysis of data from African LMICs, we estimated the etiology proportions for diarrheal diseases and deaths. We combined the etiology proportions with incidence data collected from a population survey in Africa from 2020 and mortality data from the Global Health Observatory of WHO. RESULTS: We estimated 1,008 billion diarrhea cases (95% UI 447 million-1,4 billion) and 515,031 diarrhea deaths (95% UI 248,983-1,007,641) in the African region in 2020. In children under five, enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (44,073 cases per 100,000 people, 95% UI 18,818 - 60,922) and G. lamblia (36,116 cases per 100,000 people, 95% UI 15,245 - 49,961) were the leading causes of illness. Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) (155 deaths per 100,000 people, 95% UI 106.5-252.9) and rotavirus (61.5 deaths per 100,000 people, 95% UI 42.3-100.3) were the primary causes of deaths. For children over five and adults, Salmonella spp. caused the largest number of diarrheal cases in the population of children ≥ 5 and adults (122,090 cases per 100,000 people, 95% UI 51,833 - 168,822), while rotavirus (16.4 deaths per 100,000 people, 95% UI 4.2-36.7) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (14.6 deaths per 100,000 people, 95% UI 3.9-32.9) causing the most deaths. Geographically, the highest incidence of diarrhea was in Eastern Africa for children under five (114,389 cases per 100,000 people, 95% UI 34,771 - 172,884) and Central Africa for children over five and adults (117,820 cases per 100,000 people, 95% UI 75,111-157,584). Diarrheal mortality was highest in Western Africa for both children below five and above (children < 5: 194.5 deaths per 100,000 people, 95% UI 120-325.4; children ≥ 5 and above: 33.5 deaths per 100,000 people, 95% UI 12.9-75.1). CONCLUSION: These findings provide new information on the incidence and mortality of sixteen pathogens and highlight the need for surveillance and control of diarrheal infectious diseases in Africa. The cause-specific estimates are crucial for prioritizing diarrheal disease prevention in the region.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Humanos , Incidência , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/mortalidade , África/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Criança
8.
Nutrients ; 16(13)2024 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38999739

RESUMO

Diarrhea of college students (DCS) is a prevalent issue among college students, affecting their daily lives and academic performance. This study aims to explore the potential effect of Bifidobacterium breve BB05 supplements on the DCS. Initially, fifty healthy and fifty diarrheal students were recruited in the observational experiment and allocated into control and diarrhea groups, respectively. Subsequently, one hundred diarrheal students were newly recruited in the intervention experiment and randomly allocated into placebo and probiotic groups, both treated for 2 weeks. Questionnaires (BSS, HAMA-14, and HDRS-17) were performed to assess the students' diarrheal states and mental health at baseline and post-treatment. Fecal samples underwent 16S rRNA sequencing and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to evaluate gut microbiota and fecal metabolite alternations. Results indicated that B. breve BB05 supplementation significantly enriched (p < 0.05) the reduced gut microbial diversity caused by diarrhea. Diarrhea resulted in notable alterations in gut microbiota composition, as exhibited by elevated Collinsella and Streptococcus, alongside substantially decreased Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Prevotella, while B. breve BB05 supplementation partially restored the compromised gut microbiota at both the phylum and genus levels, particularly by increasing Bifidobacterium and Roseburia (p < 0.05). Importantly, questionnaire results suggested that B. breve BB05 administration achieved superior efficacy in relieving diarrhea symptoms and the associated anxiety and depression in college students. An increased fecal concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was also observed in the probiotic group, while Acetylcholine (ACH), Epinephrine (EPI), and Noradrenaline/Norepinephrine (NANE) reduced, revealing the potential of B. breve BB05 in alleviating anxiety and depression via modulating the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Furthermore, correlation analysis suggested that the altered microbiota and fecal neurotransmitters were closely associated with the mental symptoms. These results endorse B. breve BB05 intervention as a promising and innovative approach to alleviate both diarrhea and mental health conditions among college students.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium breve , Diarreia , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Estudantes , Humanos , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Fezes/microbiologia , Universidades , Adulto
9.
Nutrients ; 16(13)2024 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38999829

RESUMO

Microscopic colitis (MC) and coeliac disease (CD) are common associated gastrointestinal conditions. We present the largest study assessing hospitalisation in patients with MC and the effect of a concomitant diagnosis of CD. Data were retrospectively collected between January 2007 and December 2021 from all patients diagnosed with MC and compared to a database of patients with only CD. In total, 892 patients with MC (65% female, median age 65 years (IQR: 54-74 years) were identified, with 6.4% admitted to hospital due to a flare of MC. Patients admitted were older (76 vs. 65 years, p < 0.001) and presented with diarrhoea (87.7%), abdominal pain (26.3%), and acute kidney injury (17.5%). Treatment was given in 75.9% of patients, including intravenous fluids (39.5%), steroids (20.9%), and loperamide (16.3%). Concomitant CD was diagnosed in 3.3% of patients and diagnosed before MC (57 versus 64 years, p < 0.001). Patients with both conditions were diagnosed with CD later than patients with only CD (57 years versus 44 years, p < 0.001). In conclusion, older patients are at a higher risk of hospitalisation due to MC, and this is seen in patients with a concomitant diagnosis of CD too. Patients with MC are diagnosed with CD later than those without.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca , Colite Microscópica , Hospitalização , Humanos , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Doença Celíaca/complicações , Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Colite Microscópica/epidemiologia , Colite Microscópica/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Diarreia/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15375, 2024 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965273

RESUMO

Globally, 4.9 million under-five deaths occurred before celebrating their fifth birthday. Four in five under-five deaths were recorded in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Childhood diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death and is accountable for killing around 443,832 children every year. Despite healthcare utilization for childhood diarrhea has a significant effect on the reduction of childhood mortality and morbidity, most children die due to delays in seeking healthcare. Therefore, this study aimed to assess healthcare utilization for childhood diarrhea in the top high under-five mortality countries. This study used secondary data from 2013/14 to 2019 demographic and health surveys of 4 top high under-five mortality countries. A total weighted sample of 7254 mothers of under-five children was included. A multilevel binary logistic regression was employed to identify the associated factors of healthcare utilization for childhood diarrhea. The statistical significance was declared at a p-value less than 0.05 with a 95% confidence interval. The overall magnitude of healthcare utilization for childhood diarrhea in the top high under-five mortality countries was 58.40% (95% CI 57.26%, 59.53%). Partner/husband educational status, household wealth index, media exposure, information about oral rehydration, and place of delivery were the positive while the number of living children were the negative predictors of healthcare utilization for childhood diarrhea in top high under-five mortality countries. Besides, living in different countries compared to Guinea was also an associated factor for healthcare utilization for childhood diarrhea. More than four in ten children didn't receive health care for childhood diarrhea in top high under-five mortality countries. Thus, to increase healthcare utilization for childhood diarrhea, health managers and policymakers should develop strategies to improve the household wealth status for those with poor household wealth index. The decision-makers and program planners should also work on media exposure and increase access to education. Further research including the perceived severity of illness and ORS knowledge-related factors of healthcare utilization for childhood diarrhea should also be considered by other researchers.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Diarreia , Análise Multinível , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Diarreia/mortalidade , Feminino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Adulto , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(7): e2418129, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38967929

RESUMO

Importance: Probiotics are often considered in children to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, the underlying mechanistic effects and impact of probiotics on antibiotic-induced microbiota changes are not well understood. Objective: To investigate the effects of a multispecies probiotic on the gut microbiota composition in children receiving antibiotics. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized, quadruple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial from February 1, 2018, to May 31, 2021, including 350 children receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics in the inpatient and outpatient settings. Patients were followed up until 1 month after the intervention period. Fecal samples and data were analyzed between September 1, 2022, and February 28, 2023. Eligibility criteria included 3 months to 18 years of age and recruitment within 24 hours following initiation of broad-spectrum systemic antibiotics. In total, 646 eligible patients were approached and 350 participated in the trial. Intervention: Participants were randomly assigned to receive daily placebo or a multispecies probiotic formulation consisting of 8 strains from 5 different genera during antibiotic treatment and for 7 days afterward. Main Outcomes and Measures: Fecal stool samples were collected at 4 predefined times: (1) inclusion, (2) last day of antibiotic use, (3) last day of the study intervention, and (4) 1 month after intervention. Microbiota analysis was performed by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Results: A total of 350 children were randomized and collected stool samples from 88 were eligible for the microbiota analysis (54 boys and 34 girls; mean [SD] age, 47.09 [55.64] months). Alpha diversity did not significantly differ between groups at the first 3 times. Shannon diversity (mean [SD], 3.56 [0.75] vs 3.09 [1.00]; P = .02) and inverse Simpson diversity (mean [SD], 3.75 [95% CI, 1.66-5.82] vs -1.31 [95% CI, -3.17 to 0.53]; P = 1 × 10-4) indices were higher in the placebo group compared with the probiotic group 1 month after intervention. Beta diversity was not significantly different at any of the times. Three of 5 supplemented genera had higher relative abundance during probiotic supplementation, but this difference had disappeared after 1 month. Conclusions and Relevance: The studied probiotic mixture had minor and transient effects on the microbiota composition during and after antibiotic treatment. Further research is needed to understand their working mechanisms in manipulating the microbiome and preventing antibiotic-associated dysbiosis and adverse effects such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03334604.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Diarreia , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Humanos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Masculino , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/microbiologia , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/microbiologia , Adolescente , Lactente
12.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 62(7): 643-648, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955682

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the association between intestinal colonization of segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) and the risk of rotavirus infection, and the possible mechanisms by which SFB resist rotavirus infection. Methods: This case-control study enrolled 50 children aged 0 to 5 years who present to the outpatient Department of Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine with diarrhea and positive stool tests for rotavirus. The children were divided into rotavirus enteritis group and control group consisting of 55 children with non-gastrointestinal and non-infectious surgical diseases.The age and sex composition of the two groups was matched. The DNA of the fecal flora was extracted and SFB was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis. The children in the rotavirus enteritis group and the control group were subgrouped by age and sex to analyze the differences in SFB positivity rates between different groups, and further compare and analyze the differences in SFB positivity rates between these two groups of children in the ≤2 years old subgroup and the >2-5 years old subgroup. Neutralization test was performed with p3340 protein and rotavirus to determine the relationship between rotavirus infection rate and p3340 concentration in Vero cells. χ2 test or Fisher's exact probability method was used for comparison between the two groups. Results: There were 50 children in the rotavirus enteritis group with an age of (1.7±0.9) years, and 55 children in the control group with an age of (1.8±1.1) years. The positive rate of SFB in children with rotavirus enteritis showed a declining trend across ages groups, with the highest rate of 10/14 in the ≤1 year old group, followed by 67% (14/21) in the >1-2 years old group, 9/15 in the >2-5 years old group, and there was no statistically significant difference (P=0.867). The positive rate of SFB in the control group was 12/15 in the ≤1 year old group, 95% (19/20) in the >1-2 years old group, 50% (10/20) in the >2-5 years old group, with statistical significance (P=0.004). The positive rate of SFB in children with rotavirus enteritis was 74% (20/27) in males and 56% (13/23) in females (χ2=1.71, P=0.192). In the control group, it was 79% (22/28) in males and 70% (19/27) in females (χ2=0.49, P=0.485). The positive rate of SFB was 66% (33/50) in the rotavirus enteritis group and 75% (41/55) in the control group, with no statistically significant (χ2=0.56, P=0.454). In the children ≤2 years old, the SFB positivity rate was 69% (24/35) in the rotavirus enteritis group and 89% (31/35) in the control group, with a statistically significant difference (χ2=4.16, P=0.041). However, in the children >2-5 years old, no statistically significant difference was observed, with the positive rate of SFB being 9/15 in the rotavirus enteritis group and 50% (10/20) in the control group (P=0.734). Pearson correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between rotavirus infection and SFB positivity (r=-0.87,P<0.001). As the concentration of the p3340 specific protein increased, the luminescence intensity of the luciferase in the Vero cells, which were suitable for cultivating rotavirus, exhibited a decreasing trend (F=4.17, P=0.001). Conclusions: SFB colonization in infants less than 2 years old is associated with a reduced risk of rotavirus infection. Cloning of specific SFB functional protein p3340 neutralizes rotavirus infection of Vero cells, and this mechanism of targeting rotavirus infection differs from the common antiviral mechanism.


Assuntos
Fezes , Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Enterite/virologia , Enterite/microbiologia , Recém-Nascido , Intestinos/virologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Animais
14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(7)2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977402

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relative priority received by issues in global health agendas is subjected to impressionistic claims in the absence of objective methods of assessment of priority. To build an approach for conducting structured assessments of comparative priority health issues receive, we expand the public arenas model (2021) and offer a framework for future assessments of health issue priority in global and national health agendas. METHODS: We aimed to develop a more comprehensive set of measures for conducting multiyear priority comparisons of health issues in six agenda-setting arenas by identifying possible measures and data sources, selecting indicators based on feasibility and comparability of measures and gathering the data on selected indicators. We applied these measures to four communicable diseases-tuberculosis (TB), malaria, diarrhoeal diseases and dengue fever-given their differing impressionistic claims of priority. Where possible, we analysed the annual and/or 5-year trends from 2000 through 2022. RESULTS: We observed that TB and malaria received the highest priority for most periods in the past two decades in most arenas. However, a stagnation in development funding for these two conditions over the last 8-10 years may have fuelled the neglect claims. Despite having a higher disease burden, diarrhoea has been slipping in global priority with reduced spending, fewer clinical trials and stagnating publications. Dengue remains a low-priority condition but has witnessed a sharp rise in attention from the pharmaceutical industry. DISCUSSIONS: We expanded the arenas model by including a transnational arena (international representation) and additional measurements for various arenas. This analysis presents an approach to enable comparative trend analysis of the markers of agenda status over a multiyear period. More such analyses can bring much-desired objectivity in understanding how attention to global or national health issues changes over time in different arenas, potentiating a more equitable allocation of resources.


Assuntos
Dengue , Diarreia , Saúde Global , Prioridades em Saúde , Malária , Tuberculose , Humanos , Dengue/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15494, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969720

RESUMO

Anal swabs of 1-month-old Holstein calves with diarrhea were collected from an intensive cattle farm, and a highly pathogenic Escherichia coli strain was obtained by isolation and purification. To study the virulence and resistance genes of pathogenic E. coli that cause diarrhea in calves, a strain of E. coli E12 isolated from calf diarrhea samples was used as experimental material in this experiment, and the virulence of the E12 strain were identified by the mouse infection test, and the whole genome map of the E12 strain were obtained by whole-genome sequencing and analyzed for genome characterization. The results showed that the lethality of strain E12 was 100%, the total length of E12-encoded genes was 4,294,530 bp, Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) annotated to 4,194 functional genes, and the virulence genes of sequenced strain E12 were compared with the virulence genes of sequenced strain E12 from the Virulence Factors of Pathogenic Bacteria (VFDB), which contained a total of 366 virulence genes in sequenced strain E12. The analysis of virulence genes of E12 revealed a total of 52 virulence genes in the iron transferrin system, 56 virulence genes in the secretory system, 41 virulence genes in bacterial toxins, and a total of 217 virulence genes in the Adhesin and Invasins group. The antibiotic resistance genes of sequenced strain E12 were identified through the Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB) and Comprehensive Antibiotic Research Database, and it was found that its chromosome and plasmid included a total of 127 antibiotic resistance genes in four classes, and that E12 carried 71 genes related to the antibiotic efflux pumps, 36 genes related to antibiotic inactivation, and 14 antibiotic target alteration and reduced penetration into antibiotics, and 6 antibiotic resistance genes, and the resistance phenotypes were consistent with the genotypes. The pathogenic E. coli that causes diarrhea in calves on this ranch contains a large number of virulence and resistance genes. The results provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of diarrhea and other diseases caused by E. coli disease.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Genoma Bacteriano , Fatores de Virulência , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Animais , Bovinos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Camundongos , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Virulência/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , China , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
16.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 433, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969969

RESUMO

Under-five children's diarrhea is a significant public health threat and the World Health Organization (WHO) reported it as the second leading cause of children's death worldwide. In this study area, little is known about the spatiotemporal distribution of under-5 diarrhea incidence. This study was therefore, conducted among all districts in the Central Gondar zone to assess the spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal variation in diarrhea incidence among under-five children in the Central Gondar zone. The data for children under 5 years of age with diarrhea was obtained from Central Gondar Zone Health Department diarrhea reports from January 2019 to December 2022. All districts were included and geo-coded. The spatial data were created in ArcGIS 10.8.1. Global and local spatial autocorrelation were used to detect hot spots and cold spots. The Poisson model was generated by applying the Kulldorff method in SaTScan™9.6 to analyse the the purely temporal, spatial, and space-time clusters. The study revealed spatial variation of under-5 diarrhea where Gondar City, Gondar Zuria, East Dembia, and Lay Armacho districts were the high-rate spatial clusters during the study period. A year search window for temporal scan statistic identified 01 January 2020-30 December 2021 as risk periods across all districts. Spatiotemporal scan statistics detected high-rate clusters at Gondar City, Gondar Zuria, East Dembia, Lay Armacho, and Alefa between 2019 and 2022. In conclusion, there has been a spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal variability of under-5 children's diarrhea in the Central Gondar Zone. Interventional and preventive strategies should be developed and given priority to the areas that has been detected as a hotspot in this study to reduce the mortality and morbidity of under 5 children.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Incidência , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Recém-Nascido
17.
J Dig Dis ; 25(5): 279-284, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38973129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the clinical response to cholestyramine in patients with functional chronic diarrhea and a high clinical suspicion of bile-acid diarrhea (BAD) investigated with 75-selenium homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) test. METHODS: Adult patients attending our outpatient clinic between January and December 2021 for chronic diarrhea with suspicion of BAD were proposed SeHCAT testing and a therapeutic trial of cholestyramine 4-8 g daily. Clinical response to cholestyramine was evaluated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Clinical and demographic data were analyzed according to SeHCAT test results. RESULTS: Among the 50 patients with chronic diarrhea and clinical suspicion of BAD, 13 (26.0%) refused either SeHCAT testing or cholestyramine therapy. Finally, 37 patients (31 females, age 44 ± 14 years) agreed to undergo SeHCAT and were started on cholestyramine (median follow-up 14 months [interquartile range 6-16 months]). Initial response to cholestyramine was similar in patients with positive and negative SeHCAT test results, but improved over time in those with a positive test result. Long-term response (100% vs 65.2%, P = 0.02) and necessity of maintenance therapy for symptom control were more common in those with positive SeHCAT test result (71.4% vs 26.1%, P = 0.02). However, response to cholestyramine was also frequent in patients with a negative test result. CONCLUSIONS: The SeHCAT test accurately identifies patients with BAD who benefit from long-term cholestyramine treatment. Nevertheless, cholestyramine may be also effective in patients with chronic diarrhea but negative SeHCAT test result.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Resina de Colestiramina , Diarreia , Humanos , Feminino , Resina de Colestiramina/uso terapêutico , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Crônica , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Ácido Taurocólico/análogos & derivados , Síndromes de Malabsorção/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Malabsorção/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Radioisótopos de Selênio
18.
Georgian Med News ; (349): 98-102, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963211

RESUMO

We report a severe case of a 25-year-old girl presented with complaints of weakness, diarrhoea, vomiting, pain in abdomen and hypotension at Infectious Diseases and Clinical Immunology Research Center. From history on 25 February till 29 February she was in India and on 1 march this problem started with watery diarrhoea followed by vomiting. She ate pizza with mushroom following which her condition worsened. Stool culture revealed salmonella nontyphi (nonthyphodal Salmonella)and this is leading cause for gastroenteritis, bacteremia and affects several other bodily system. Her condition deteriorated due to the development of ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) and for this she was on mechanical ventilation. Vitec machine was performed, which identified Salmonella typhi murium. Our goal is to manage and treat this patient well by early diagnosis. She was given ceftriaxone, iv fluids and symptomatic treatment but due to resistance meropenem was started and the patient's condition improved. From serology there was no evidence of immunocompromised state so being a severe case of immunocompetent patient this case reflects the importance of timely diagnosis and management together with food safety practices in population. On follow up she was stable and discharged after 3 weeks. Future research studies need to be continued regarding newer strains, effective treatment strategies and diagnostics to prevent morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Salmonella , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Diarreia/microbiologia , Meropeném/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/microbiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/microbiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/complicações , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação
19.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 444, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38987716

RESUMO

Trichohepatoenteric syndrome (THES), also known as phenotypic diarrhea or syndromic diarrhea, is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in SKIC2 (THES-type 2) or SKIC3 (THES-type 1) and is characterized by early onset diarrhea, woolly brittle hair, facial dysmorphic features and liver disease. We report the case of a 24-month-old girl who presented with chronic diarrhea since the neonatal period along with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), developmental delay, dysmorphic features, congenital heart defects, liver disease, and recurrent infections. The diagnosis was made through whole-exome sequencing analysis, which detected a homozygous variant (c.4070del, p.Pro1357Leufs*10) in the SKIC3 gene. The patient required parenteral nutrition and was hospitalized for the first 10 months of life and then discharged on PN after showing improvement. She remained stable on PN after discharge despite a few admissions for central line infections. Recent follow-up at the age of 2 years revealed that she was stable on long-term parenteral nutrition and that she had advanced chronic liver disease.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Doenças do Cabelo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Feminino , Diarreia/genética , Doenças do Cabelo/genética , Doenças do Cabelo/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia Infantil/genética , Mutação , Nutrição Parenteral , Hepatopatias/genética , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento do Exoma , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , DNA Helicases , Fácies
20.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1352275, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38947353

RESUMO

Introduction: Diarrheal disease is a global public health concern, particularly in low-income countries. In Ghana, widespread issues like inadequate sanitation, unsafe drinking water, malnutrition, and poor hygiene practices contribute to the high incidence of diarrhea. Climate change exacerbates these challenges by increasing the frequency and severity of conditions that spread diarrheal diseases. This study explores households' knowledge, understanding, and management practices for diarrhea in climate change-vulnerable coastal communities. Methods: The study is set in Ghana's central (Mumford, Opetekwei) and eastern (Anyako, Anyanui-Atiteti) coastlines. Using a cross-sectional study design, a structured questionnaire was administered to randomly sampled households (n = 419) to collect quantitative data. The study collected qualitative data from focus group discussions (n = 8), with groups separated into men and women, key informant interviews, and observations of food, water, and sanitation conditions across the studied communities. Results and discussion: The study found significant variations between the studied communities and socio-demographic variables except for the respondents' gender. Multivariate regression analyses identified significant associations between socio-demographic variables (especially gender and educational status) and perceptions of diarrhea causes. The most used first management action against diarrhea is 'over-the-counter drugs', followed by home-made traditional remedies. Significant differences were observed in the usage of management practices across the studied communities. Trust, affordability, and availability were identified as the main factors influencing households' use of approved pharmaceutical drugs and traditional herbal remedies for managing behavior, with significant differences being observed across communities. The study recommends a multi-sectoral approach, including improved access to regularly flowing, safe water and sanitation facilities, education on preventing diarrhea, and adequate healthcare services. Community-based interventions such as promoting good hygiene practices at homes and community settings such as schools, lorry parks, funeral grounds, and recreational areas can also effectively reduce the burden of diarrhea.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Diarreia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Gana , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Focais , Saneamento , Higiene , Características da Família
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