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1.
Biofouling ; 40(7): 377-389, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955544

RESUMO

Biofouling on marine surfaces causes immense material and financial harm for maritime vessels and related marine industries. Previous reports have shown the effectiveness of amphiphilic coating systems based on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) against such marine foulers. Recent studies on biofouling mechanisms have also demonstrated acidic microenvironments in biofilms and stronger adhesion at low-pH conditions. This report presents the design and utilization of amphiphilic polymer coatings with buffer functionalities as an active disruptor against four different marine foulers. Specifically, this study explores both neutral and zwitterionic buffer systems for marine coatings, offering insights into coating design. Overall, these buffer systems were found to improve foulant removal, and unexpectedly were the most effective against the diatom Navicula incerta.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Incrustação Biológica , Diatomáceas , Dimetilpolisiloxanos , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Animais , Soluções Tampão , Propriedades de Superfície , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
2.
Biol Aujourdhui ; 218(1-2): 63-72, 2024.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39007778

RESUMO

Our taxonomic study from March 2014 to November 2015 along the atlantic coast between Casablanca and El Jadida revealed that phytoplanktonic structure is mainly represented by Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae), Dinoflagellates (Dinophyceae), Silicoflagellates (Dictyophyceae) and Euglenophyceae with a clear dominance of Diatoms and Dinoflagellates. A total of 101 taxa of planktonic algae have been identified revealing a relatively diversified taxocenosis. In terms of respective diversity, the Diatoms are represented by 62 taxa (61.4%), the Dinoflagellates by 36 taxa (35.6%) whereas the other two groups of Silicoflagellates and Euglenophyceae are only represented by 3 species (3.0%). Regarding potentially toxic species, more than fifteen taxa have been identified, most of which were Dinoflagellates and Diatoms (Pseudo-nitzschia australis and Pseudo-nitzschia cuspidata). The total phytoplankton densities exhibited great spatial and temporal variations as shown by analyses of diversity (H') and equitability (E) indices at the different coast sites investigated throughout the 2014-2015 years. Massive proliferation of some toxic species (e.g. Pseudo-nitzschia australis and Pseudo-nitzschia cuspidata, Lingulodinium polyedrum, Karenia mikimotoi) was also noticed. In addition, our study revealed the presence of opportunistic species (e.g. Eutreptiella, Thalassiosira, Prorocentrum scutellum) and of the new ectoparasite Dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum for the first time in Morocco. The detection of such diversity of toxic species, sometimes with alarming concentrations, should prompt the competent authorities to broaden the spectrum and frequency of biomonitoring to uncontrolled seafood harvesting sites.


Title: Dynamique du peuplement phytoplanctonique le long de l'axe côtier Casablanca ­ El Jadida. Abstract: Notre étude taxonomique entre mars 2014 et novembre 2015 le long de la côte atlantique entre Casablanca et El Jadida a permis de déceler une flore phytoplanctonique représentée par les Diatomées, Dinoflagellés, Silicoflagellés et Euglenophycées avec une nette dominance des Diatomées et des Dinoflagellés. Au total, 101 taxons d'algues planctoniques ont été identifiés, témoignant d'une taxocénose relativement diversifiée. Dans cet ensemble, les Diatomées sont représentées par 62 taxons (61,4 %), les Dinoflagellés par 36 taxa (35,6 %) et les deux autres groupes (Silicoflagellés et Euglénophycées) ne sont représentés que par 3 espèces seulement (3,0 %). En ce qui concerne les espèces potentiellement toxiques, plus d'une quinzaine de taxons ont été identifiés dont la plupart sont des Dinoflagellés et des Diatomées (Pseudo-nitzschia australis et Pseudo-nitzschia cuspidata). L'analyse de l'évolution spatiotemporelle des indices de diversité (H') et d'équitabilité (E) révèle des fluctuations saisonnières prononcées sans montrer, pour autant, une grande analogie entre les différents sites prospectés. Par ailleurs, les densités phytoplanctoniques totales présentent de grandes variations à la fois spatiales et temporelles (sur les deux cycles annuels). La présence de proliférations massives de certaines espèces potentiellement toxiques (Pseudo-nitzschia australis et Pseudo-nitzschia cuspidata, Lingulodinium polyedrum, Karenia mikimotoi), d'une nouvelle espèce de Dinoflagellé ectoparasite pour le Maroc (Amyloodinium ocellatum) et d'autres espèces opportunistes (Eutreptiella, Thalassiosira, Prorocentrum scutellum) a été notée au cours de cette étude. La détection des espèces potentiellement toxiques, parfois à des concentrations alarmantes, devrait inciter les autorités compétentes à élargir le spectre et la fréquence de biosurveillance aux sites non contrôlés.


Assuntos
Dinoflagellida , Fitoplâncton , Dinâmica Populacional , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Oceano Atlântico , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Dinoflagellida/fisiologia , Diatomáceas , Biodiversidade
3.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 16(4): e13313, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38988030

RESUMO

Phytoplankton and bacteria form the foundation of marine food webs. While most studies on phytoplankton bloom influence on bacteria dynamics focus on diatom-dominated blooms due to their global ecological significance, it is unclear if similar patterns extend to other species that compete with diatoms like Phaeocystis spp. This study aimed to contribute to the understanding of associations between phytoplankton and bacteria in a temperate ecosystem. For this, we studied the dynamics of phytoplankton and bacteria, combining 16S metabarcoding, microscopy, and flow cytometry over 4 years (282 samples). Phytoplankton and bacterial communities were studied throughout the year, particularly during contrasting phytoplankton blooms dominated by the Haptophyte Phaeocystis globosa or diatoms. We applied extended local similarity analysis (eLSA) to construct networks during blooming and non-blooming periods. Overall, the importance of seasonal and species-specific interactions between phytoplankton and bacteria is highlighted. In winter, mixed diatom communities were interconnected with bacteria, indicating a synergistic degradation of diverse phytoplankton-derived substrates. In spring, despite the intensity variations of P. globosa blooms, the composition of bacterial communities remained consistent over several years, suggesting establishing a stable-state environment for bacterial communities. Specific associations between monospecific diatom blooms and bacteria were evidenced in summer.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Diatomáceas , Ecossistema , Haptófitas , Fitoplâncton , Estações do Ano , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Haptófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eutrofização , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Água do Mar/química , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 16209, 2024 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003315

RESUMO

Marine microbial communities form the basis for the functioning of marine ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. With the application of metagenomics and metatranscriptomics in marine environmental studies, significant progress has been made in analysing the functioning of microbial communities as a whole. These molecular techniques are highly dependent on reliable, well-characterised, comprehensive and taxonomically diverse sequenced reference transcriptomes of microbial organisms. Here we present a set of 12 individual transcriptome assemblies derived from 6 representative diatom species from the northern Adriatic Sea grown under 2 environmentally relevant growth conditions (phosphate replete vs. phosphate deprived). After filtering the reads and assembly, an average number of 64,932 transcripts per assembly was obtained, of which an average of 8856 were assigned to functionally known proteins. Of all assigned transcripts, an average of 6483 proteins were taxonomically assigned to diatoms (Bacillariophyta). On average, a higher number of assigned proteins was detected in the transcriptome assemblies of diatoms grown under replete media condition. On average, 50% of the mapped proteins were shared between the two growth conditions. All recorded proteins in the dataset were classified into 24 COG categories, with approximately 25% belonging to the unknown function and the remaining 75% belonging to all other categories. The resulting diatom reference database for the northern Adriatic, focussing on the response to nutrient limitation as characteristic for the region and predicted for the future world oceans, provides a valuable resource for analysing environmental metatranscriptome and metagenome data. Each northern Adriatic transcriptome can also be used by itself as a reference database for the (meta)transcriptomes and gene expression studies of the associated species that will be generated in the future.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Transcriptoma , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/classificação , Metagenômica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas
5.
Molecules ; 29(13)2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38999090

RESUMO

Phaeodactylum tricornutum is identified by its capacity for rapid growth, reproduction, and in vitro cultivation, as well as the presence of a range of high-value active compounds, including proteins, with potential food applications. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pH shift treatments (pH of 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11) on the structural and functional properties of the Phaeodactylum tricornutum protein (PTP). The molecular weight of the PTP was predominantly distributed within the following ranges: below 5 kDa, 5-100 kDa, and above 100 kDa. Compared to the acidic environment, the PTP demonstrated higher solubility and greater free sulfhydryl group content in the alkaline environment. Additionally, PTP had a smaller particle size and higher thermal stability in alkaline environments. The PTP exhibited superior foaming ability (135%), emulsification activity index (3.72 m2/g), and emulsion stability index (137.71 min) in alkaline environments. The results of this investigation provide a foundation for the future development and application of the PTP in the food industry.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Diatomáceas/química , Solubilidade , Peso Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula
6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5578, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956103

RESUMO

Diatoms often outnumber other eukaryotic algae in the oceans, especially in coastal environments characterized by frequent fluctuations in light intensity. The identities and operational mechanisms of regulatory factors governing diatom acclimation to high light stress remain largely elusive. Here, we identified the AUREO1c protein from the coastal diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a crucial regulator of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), a photoprotective mechanism that dissipates excess energy as heat. AUREO1c detects light stress using a light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain and directly activates the expression of target genes, including LI818 genes that encode NPQ effector proteins, via its bZIP DNA-binding domain. In comparison to a kinase-mediated pathway reported in the freshwater green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the AUREO1c pathway exhibits a faster response and enables accumulation of LI818 transcript and protein levels to comparable degrees between continuous high-light and fluctuating-light treatments. We propose that the AUREO1c-LI818 pathway contributes to the resilience of diatoms under dynamic light conditions.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Diatomáceas , Luz , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/efeitos da radiação , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/genética , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Algas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Algas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14984, 2024 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951587

RESUMO

Sea-ice microalgae are a key source of energy and nutrient supply to polar marine food webs, particularly during spring, prior to open-water phytoplankton blooms. The nutritional quality of microalgae as a food source depends on their biomolecular (lipid:protein:carbohydrate) composition. In this study, we used synchrotron-based Fourier transform infra-red microspectroscopy (s-FTIR) to measure the biomolecular content of a dominant sea-ice taxa, Nitzschia frigida, from natural land-fast ice communities throughout the Arctic spring season. Repeated sampling over six weeks from an inner (relatively stable) and an outer (relatively dynamic) fjord site revealed high intra-specific variability in biomolecular content, elucidating the plasticity of N. frigida to adjust to the dynamic sea ice and water conditions. Environmental triggers indicating the end of productivity in the ice and onset of ice melt, including nitrogen limitation and increased water temperature, drove an increase in lipid and fatty acids stores, and a decline in protein and carbohydrate content. In the context of climate change and the predicted Atlantification of the Arctic, dynamic mixing and abrupt warmer water advection could truncate these important end-of-season environmental shifts, causing the algae to be released from the ice prior to adequate lipid storage, influencing carbon transfer through the polar marine system.


Assuntos
Camada de Gelo , Estações do Ano , Regiões Árticas , Mudança Climática , Microalgas/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(8): 686, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958830

RESUMO

Environmental contamination by chromium represents a serious public health problem. Therefore, it is crucial to develop and optimize remediation technologies to reduce its concentration in the environment. The aims of this study were to evaluate the uptake of chromium by live and complete microbial mats in experimental mesocosms under different pH and salinity conditions to understand how these factors affect the microphytobenthic community and, consequently, how chromium removal process is influenced. Microbial mats from the estuarine environment were exposed to 15 mg Cr/L under different pH (2, 4, and 8) and salinity (2, 15, and 33) conditions. Salinity, redox potential, and pH were measured throughout the trial in solutions and in microbial mats, while total Cr determinations were performed at the end of the assay. The results demonstrated that the removal efficiency of Cr by microbial mats was significantly improved in solutions at pH 2, remaining unaffected by variations in salinity. Notably, both cyanobacteria and diatoms showed remarkable resistance to Cr exposure under all conditions tested, highlighting their exceptional adaptability. Microbial mats have proved to be effective filters for reducing the concentration of chromium in aqueous solutions with varying pH and salinity levels.


Assuntos
Cromo , Salinidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Cromo/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cianobactérias , Diatomáceas , Biodegradação Ambiental
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 96(3): e20230634, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985029

RESUMO

The demand for low-cost and time-efficient biomonitoring and ecological assessment strategies has increased due to threats to biodiversity. We evaluated the ability of surrogates (genera and biovolume classes) to access information provided by diatom species. Moreover, we investigated whether the relative importance of spatial and environment on diatom communities identified at the genus or classified at biovolume classes reflects the ecological responses at the species. We used biotic, environmental, and spatial data from Pampa streams. We employed Procrustes analysis to detect whether the spatial variation of communities at the species level was represented by the surrogates and variation partitioning to evaluate the relative importance of spatial and environment. We found high congruence between the surrogates and diatom species communities. Furthermore, whilst both spatial and environment were important to explain species composition, only the environment was important for both surrogates. We suggest that the use of genus-level determinations can provide information about the environmental relationships of species, whereas biovolume classes may be useful to detect changes in diatom communities. These results are a first step to seek for strategies aiming to simplify biological monitoring and assessments at pampean streams, especially considering the demand for the identification of organisms at the species.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Diatomáceas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Rios/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos
10.
PeerJ ; 12: e17278, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827282

RESUMO

In this article, the history and taxonomy of Placoneis gastrum, the type species of the genus Placoneis, was discussed. We investigated the structure of pore occlusions in Placoneis and related genera. As a result, we propose a new classification for tectulum-like types of pore occlusions. The new classification is congruent with previously-published and newly-constructed phylogenies based on molecular data. Based on the different structures of the pore occlusions, species of Placoneis are transferred to Witkowskia gen. nov. Hence, 168 new combinations are introduced. A new diatom species, with a similar morphology to Placoneis flabellata, was discovered in Bac Kan Province, Vietnam. It is described in this article as Chudaevia densistriata sp. nov. Placoneis flabellata is transferred to Chudaevia gen. nov. We also illustrate Placoneis flabellata herein and compare it to Chudaevia densistriata sp. nov. An unknown diatom, similar to Placoneis coloradensis, was discovered in Chukotka, Russia. It is introduced as Placoneis elinae sp. nov. below. Additionally, we discuss the distribution of some species of Witkowskia gen. nov. and Chudaevia gen. nov.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Filogenia , Diatomáceas/classificação , Vietnã , Federação Russa , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Biol Lett ; 20(6): 20240062, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38923948

RESUMO

Diatom cell-size composition is an indicator of aquatic environmental changes but has been rarely investigated, especially in semi-terrestrial peatlands. In this study, both taxonomic composition and cell-size composition of diatoms were analysed in 41 samples from two montane peatlands, northeastern China. Redundancy analyses revealed that diatom taxonomic composition was significantly related to the depth to the water table (DWT) and Ca2+, while cell-size composition was significantly associated with DWT and Si. DWT was the most important factor and its sole effect explained 26.2% and 17.9% of the total variance in taxonomic composition and cell-size composition, respectively. Accordingly, diatom-based water-table transfer functions were developed based on taxonomic composition and cell-size composition, respectively. The maximum-likelihood (ML) model based on diatom taxonomic composition had the best performance, with a correlation coefficient value (R2) of 0.78 and the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 6.66 cm. The ML model based on cell-size composition had similar performance, with an R2 of 0.78 and the RMSEP of 6.87 cm, suggesting that diatom cell-size composition can be a new quantitative means to track past water-table changes. This method requires further appraisal with palaeoecological data but offers a new option that deserves exploration.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/citologia , China , Água Subterrânea , Áreas Alagadas , Solo , Tamanho Celular
12.
Mar Drugs ; 22(6)2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38921569

RESUMO

Microalgae are currently considered an attractive source of highly valuable metabolites potentially exploitable as anticancer agents, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals and for bioenergy purposes. Their ease of culturing and their high growth rates further promote their use as raw material for the production of specialty products. In the present paper, we focused our attention on specific glycerol-based lipid compounds, monoacylglycerols (MAGs), which displayed in our previous studies a selective cytotoxic activity against the haematological U-937 and the colon HCT-116 cancer cell lines. Here, we performed a quali/quantitative analysis of MAGs and total fatty acids (FAs) along with a profiling of the main lipid classes in a panel of 12 microalgal species, including diatoms and dinoflagellates. Our results highlight an inter- and intraspecific variability of MAG profile in the selected strains. Among them, Skeletonema marinoi (strain FE7) has emerged as the most promising source for possible biotechnological production of MAGs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Microalgas , Monoglicerídeos , Microalgas/metabolismo , Humanos , Monoglicerídeos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Organismos Aquáticos , Dinoflagellida/metabolismo , Dinoflagellida/química , Células HCT116
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 945: 173913, 2024 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880157

RESUMO

The globally distributed harmful algal blooms (HAB) species, Heterosigma akashiwo, has been found to exhibit ichthyotoxicity. Previous studies have shown that H. akashiwo achieves a competitive edge during bloom occurrences by inhibiting the growth of a coexisting diatom, Skeletonema costatum, through allelopathy. However, the specific allelopathic mechanisms underlying the allelopathic effects of H. akashiwo on S. costatum remain unknown. To bridge this gap, our study utilized a combination of quantitative real-time PCR and metabolomics to examine the allelopathic processes of H. akashiwo on S. costatum. Our results demonstrate that the growth of S. costatum is hindered when co-cultured with H. akashiwo (initial cell concentration, 2 × 104 cell/mL). Gene expression investigation showed a substantial reduction in the mRNA levels of cytochrome b6, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large chain, and silicon transporter in S. costatum when grown in co-culture conditions. Furthermore, metabolic pathway analysis suggested that the allelopathic effects of H. akashiwo disrupted several vital metabolic pathways in S. costatum, including a reduction in purine and pyrimidine metabolism and an increase in fatty acid biosynthesis. Our investigation has revealed the intricate and substantial involvement of allelopathy in the formation of H. akashiwo blooms, demonstrating the complexity of the allelopathic interaction between H. akashiwo and S. costatum. These insights also contribute significantly to our understanding of the dynamics within HAB species.


Assuntos
Alelopatia , Diatomáceas , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Metabolômica , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Dinoflagellida/fisiologia , Dinoflagellida/genética , Estramenópilas/fisiologia
14.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 136, 2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most tail-anchored (TA) membrane proteins are delivered to the endoplasmic reticulum through a conserved posttranslational pathway. Although core mechanisms underlying the targeting and insertion of TA proteins are well established in eukaryotes, their role in mediating TA protein biogenesis in plants remains unclear. We reported the crystal structures of algal arsenite transporter 1 (ArsA1), which possesses an approximately 80-kDa monomeric architecture and carries chloroplast-localized TA proteins. However, the mechanistic basis of ArsA2, a Get3 (guided entry of TA proteins 3) homolog in plants, for TA recognition remains unknown. RESULTS: Here, for the first time, we present the crystal structures of the diatom Pt-Get3a that forms a distinct ellipsoid-shaped tetramer in the open (nucleotide-bound) state through crystal packing. Pulldown assay results revealed that only tetrameric Pt-Get3a can bind to TA proteins. The lack of the conserved zinc-coordination CXXC motif in Pt-Get3a potentially leads to the spontaneous formation of a distinct parallelogram-shaped dimeric conformation in solution, suggesting a new dimer state for subsequent tetramerization upon TA targeting. Pt-Get3a nonspecifically binds to different subsets of TA substrates due to the lower hydrophobicity of its α-helical subdomain, which is implicated in TA recognition. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying TA protein shielding by tetrameric Get3 during targeting to the diatom's cell membrane.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Multimerização Proteica
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(7): 635, 2024 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38900337

RESUMO

Detecting human impact on freshwater ecosystems is problematic without rigorous assessment of temporal changes. Assessments of mining impacts are further complicated by the strong influence of local catchment geology on surface waters even in unmined environments. Such influence cannot be effectively considered by using broad-scale reference frameworks based on regionalization and stream types. Using the BACI (Before-After Control-Impact) design, we examined the impact of mining discharges on freshwater algae and macroinvertebrate communities resulting from the rerouting of treated wastewaters through a pipeline to larger water bodies in Northern and North-Eastern Finland. Impacted sites and control sites were sampled 1 to 2 years before and 1 to 3 years after the pipelines became operational. Stream diatom communities recovered from past loadings upstream of the pipeline (which was no longer impacted by wastewaters) after rerouting of the wastewaters, while no changes downstream from the pipeline were detected. Upstream from the pipeline, diatom species richness increased and changes in relative abundances of the most common diatom taxa as well as in the overall community composition were observed. The effects of the pipeline were less evident for stream macroinvertebrate communities. There was an indication that regional reference conditions used in national biomonitoring may not represent diatom communities in areas with a strong geochemical background influence. Lake profundal macroinvertebrate communities were impacted by past loadings before the construction of the pipeline, and the influence of the pipeline was observed only as changes in the abundances of a few individual species such as phantom midges (which increased in abundance in response to discharges directed through the pipeline). Our results highlight the variable influence of mining discharges on aquatic communities. Statistically strong monitoring programmes, such as BACI designs, are clearly needed to detect these influences.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Invertebrados , Mineração , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Animais , Água Doce/química , Finlândia , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 26(27): 18538-18546, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38888161

RESUMO

Diatoms, unicellular marine organisms, harness short peptide repeats of the protein silaffin to transform silicic acid into biosilica nanoparticles. This process has been a white whale for material scientists due to its potential in biomimetic applications, ranging from medical to microelectronic fields. Replicating diatom biosilicification will depend on a thorough understanding of the silaffin peptide structure during the reaction, yet existing models in the literature offer conflicting views on peptide folding during silicification. In our study, we employed two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2DIR) within the amide I region to determine the secondary structure of the silaffin repeat unit 5 (R5), both pre- and post-interaction with silica. The 2DIR experiments are complemented by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of pure R5 reacting with silicate. Subsequently, theoretical 2DIR spectra calculated from these MD trajectories allowed us to compare calculated spectra with experimental data, and to determine the diverse structural poses of R5. Our findings indicate that unbound R5 predominantly forms ß-strand structures alongside various atypical secondary structures. Post-silicification, there's a noticeable shift: a decrease in ß-strands coupled with an increase in turn-type and bend-type configurations. We theorize that this structural transformation stems from silicate embedding within R5's hydrogen-bond network, prompting the peptide backbone to contract and adapt around the biosilica precursors.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Diatomáceas/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Peptídeos/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Precursores de Proteínas
17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(27): 18320-18330, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38916244

RESUMO

Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide found in algae, plays a central role in marine carbon sequestration and exhibits a wide array of bioactivities. However, the molecular diversity and structural complexity of fucoidan hinder precise structure-function studies. To address this, we present an automated method for generating well-defined linear and branched α-fucan oligosaccharides. Our syntheses include oligosaccharides with up to 20 cis-glycosidic linkages, diverse branching patterns, and 11 sulfate monoesters. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of these oligosaccharides by (i) characterizing two endo-acting fucoidan glycoside hydrolases (GH107), (ii) utilizing them as standards for NMR studies to confirm suggested structures of algal fucoidans, and (iii) developing a fucoidan microarray. This microarray enabled the screening of the molecular specificity of four monoclonal antibodies (mAb) targeting fucoidan. It was found that mAb BAM4 has cross-reactivity to ß-glucans, while mAb BAM2 has reactivity to fucoidans with 4-O-sulfate esters. Knowledge of the mAb BAM2 epitope specificity provided evidence that a globally abundant marine diatom, Thalassiosira weissflogii, synthesizes a fucoidan with structural homology to those found in brown algae. Automated glycan assembly provides access to fucoidan oligosaccharides. These oligosaccharides provide the basis for molecular level investigations into fucoidan's roles in medicine and carbon sequestration.


Assuntos
Oligossacarídeos , Polissacarídeos , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/síntese química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/síntese química , Diatomáceas/química , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Automação , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Phaeophyceae/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13764, 2024 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877025

RESUMO

Chemobrionic systems have attracted great attention in material science for development of novel biomimetic materials. This study aims to design a new bioactive material by integrating biosilica into chemobrionic structure, which will be called biochemobrionic, and to comparatively investigate the use of both chemobrionic and biochemobrionic materials as bone scaffolds. Biosilica, isolated from Amphora sp. diatom, was integrated into chemobrionic structure, and a comprehensive set of analysis was conducted to evaluate their morphological, chemical, mechanical, thermal, and biodegradation properties. Then, the effects of both scaffolds on cell biocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation capacity were assessed. Cells attached to the scaffolds, spread out, and covered the entire surface, indicating the absence of cytotoxicity. Biochemobrionic scaffold exhibited a higher level of mineralization and bone formation than the chemobrionic structure due to the osteogenic activity of biosilica. These results present a comprehensive and pioneering understanding of the potential of (bio)chemobrionics for bone regeneration.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Osteogênese , Engenharia Tecidual , Alicerces Teciduais , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Alicerces Teciduais/química , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Diatomáceas , Humanos , Animais
19.
Harmful Algae ; 136: 102619, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876523

RESUMO

In August 2018, the harmful algae species Margalefidinium polykrikoides bloomed to levels previously unobserved in the open waters of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, in a transient but intense bloom. Detected by an Imaging FlowCytobot providing hourly data, it is characterized by a time span of less than a week and patchiness with sub-daily oscillations in concentration. The highest concentrations are recorded at lower salinity and higher temperature, suggesting the bloom may have developed in the upper bay and was transported south. The proportion of chains increased during the height of the bloom, and many of the images contained 4-cells per chain. The development of the bloom was favored by optimal temperature and salinity conditions as well as increased nitrogen coincident with greater precipitation and river flow. The period preceding bloom formation also saw a sharp decrease in the dominating large chain-forming diatom Eucampia sp. and highly abundant Skeletonema spp., thus reducing competition over resources for the slow-growing M. polykrikoides. The height of the bloom was reached during the lowest tidal range of the month when the turbulence and water displacement were lower. This time series highlights an out-of-the-ordinary bloom's environmental and biological conditions and the importance of frequent sampling during known favorable conditions.


Assuntos
Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Fitoplâncton , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhode Island , Salinidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Baías , Temperatura
20.
Aquat Toxicol ; 272: 106970, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838503

RESUMO

As well-known, microalgae have a pivotal role in aquatic environments, being the primary producer. In this study, we investigated the effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) analogues on cell ultrastructure, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and photosynthetic pigment responses in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Microalgae were exposed during both exponential and stationary growth phases to an environmental relevant concentration (300 ng/L) of three differing BPA analogues (BPAF, BPF, and BPS) and their mixture (100 ng/L of each compound). Bioaccumulation of such compounds in microalgae was also analysed. During the stationary growth phase, a significant increase in the percentage of cells with hydrogen peroxide production was recorded after exposure to both BPS and MIX. Conversely, no significant effects on total chlorophylls and carotenoids were observed. During exponential growth phase we observed that control cultures had chloroplasts with well-organized thylakoid membranes and a central pyrenoid. On the contrary, the culture cells treated with BPA analogues and MIX showed chloroplasts characterized by evident dilation of thylakoid membranes. The presence of degeneration areas in the cytoplasm was also recorded. During the stationary growth phase, control and culture cells were characterized by chloroplasts with a regular thylakoid system, whereas BPA analogues-exposed cells were characterized by a deep degradation of the cytoplasm but showed chloroplasts without evident alterations of the thylakoid system. Lipid bodies were visible in treated microalgae. Lastly, microalgae bioaccumulated mainly BPS and BPF, alone or in the MIX. Overall, results obtained revealed that BPA analogues can affect some important biochemical and ultrastructure features of microalgae, promoting ROS production. Lastly, the capability of microalgae to bioaccumulate bisphenols suggest a potential ecotoxicological risk for filter-feeders organisms.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Diatomáceas , Microalgas , Fenóis , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Fenóis/toxicidade , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Bioacumulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos
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