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1.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 560, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitzschia closterium f. minutissima is a commonly available diatom that plays important roles in marine aquaculture. It was originally classified as Nitzschia (Bacillariaceae, Bacillariophyta) but is currently regarded as a heterotypic synonym of Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The aim of this study was to obtain the draft genome of the marine microalga N. closterium f. minutissima to understand its phylogenetic placement and evolutionary specialization. Given that the ornate hierarchical silicified cell walls (frustules) of diatoms have immense applications in nanotechnology for biomedical fields, biosensors and optoelectric devices, transcriptomic data were generated by using reference genome-based read mapping to identify significantly differentially expressed genes and elucidate the molecular processes involved in diatom biosilicification. RESULTS: In this study, we generated 13.81 Gb of pass reads from the PromethION sequencer. The draft genome of N. closterium f. minutissima has a total length of 29.28 Mb, and contains 28 contigs with an N50 value of 1.23 Mb. The GC content was 48.55%, and approximately 18.36% of the genome assembly contained repeat sequences. Gene annotation revealed 9,132 protein-coding genes. The results of comparative genomic analysis showed that N. closterium f. minutissima was clustered as a sister lineage of Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the divergence time between them was estimated to be approximately 17.2 million years ago (Mya). CAFF analysis demonstrated that 220 gene families that significantly changed were unique to N. closterium f. minutissima and that 154 were specific to P. tricornutum, moreover, only 26 gene families overlapped between these two species. A total of 818 DEGs in response to silicon were identified in N. closterium f. minutissima through RNA sequencing, these genes are involved in various molecular processes such as transcription regulator activity. Several genes encoding proteins, including silicon transporters, heat shock factors, methyltransferases, ankyrin repeat domains, cGMP-mediated signaling pathways-related proteins, cytoskeleton-associated proteins, polyamines, glycoproteins and saturated fatty acids may contribute to the formation of frustules in N. closterium f. minutissima. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we described a draft genome of N. closterium f. minutissima and compared it with those of eight other diatoms, which provided new insight into its evolutionary features. Transcriptome analysis to identify DEGs in response to silicon will help to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism of diatom biosilicification in N. closterium f. minutissima.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/classificação , Genoma , Transcriptoma , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
2.
PeerJ ; 12: e17278, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827282

RESUMO

In this article, the history and taxonomy of Placoneis gastrum, the type species of the genus Placoneis, was discussed. We investigated the structure of pore occlusions in Placoneis and related genera. As a result, we propose a new classification for tectulum-like types of pore occlusions. The new classification is congruent with previously-published and newly-constructed phylogenies based on molecular data. Based on the different structures of the pore occlusions, species of Placoneis are transferred to Witkowskia gen. nov. Hence, 168 new combinations are introduced. A new diatom species, with a similar morphology to Placoneis flabellata, was discovered in Bac Kan Province, Vietnam. It is described in this article as Chudaevia densistriata sp. nov. Placoneis flabellata is transferred to Chudaevia gen. nov. We also illustrate Placoneis flabellata herein and compare it to Chudaevia densistriata sp. nov. An unknown diatom, similar to Placoneis coloradensis, was discovered in Chukotka, Russia. It is introduced as Placoneis elinae sp. nov. below. Additionally, we discuss the distribution of some species of Witkowskia gen. nov. and Chudaevia gen. nov.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Filogenia , Diatomáceas/classificação , Vietnã , Federação Russa , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Harmful Algae ; 135: 102628, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830707

RESUMO

Diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia are widespread in marine waters. Some of them can produce the toxin domoic acid (DA) which can be responsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) when transferred into the food web. These ASP events are of major concern, due to their ecological and socio-economic repercussions, particularly on the shellfish industry. Many studies have focused on the influence of abiotic factors on DA induction, less on the role of biotic interactions. Recently, the presence of predators has been shown to increase DA production in several Pseudo-nitzschia species, in particular in Arctic areas. In order to investigate the relationship between Pseudo-nitzschia species and grazers from the French coast, exposures between one strain of three species (P. australis, P. pungens, P. fraudulenta) and the copepod Temora longicornis were conducted for 5 days. Cellular and dissolved DA content were enhanced by 1,203 % and 1,556 % respectively after the 5-days exposure of P.australis whereas no DA induction was observed in P. pungens and P. fraudulenta. T. longicornis consumed all three Pseudo-nitzschia species. The copepod survival was not related to DA content. This study is an essential first step to better understanding the interactions between planktonic species from the French coast and highlights the potential key role of copepods in the Pseudo-nitzschia bloom events in the temperate ecosystems.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Diatomáceas , Ácido Caínico , Ácido Caínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Caínico/metabolismo , Copépodes/fisiologia , Copépodes/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Animais , França , Toxinas Marinhas/metabolismo
4.
Aquat Toxicol ; 272: 106970, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838503

RESUMO

As well-known, microalgae have a pivotal role in aquatic environments, being the primary producer. In this study, we investigated the effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) analogues on cell ultrastructure, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and photosynthetic pigment responses in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Microalgae were exposed during both exponential and stationary growth phases to an environmental relevant concentration (300 ng/L) of three differing BPA analogues (BPAF, BPF, and BPS) and their mixture (100 ng/L of each compound). Bioaccumulation of such compounds in microalgae was also analysed. During the stationary growth phase, a significant increase in the percentage of cells with hydrogen peroxide production was recorded after exposure to both BPS and MIX. Conversely, no significant effects on total chlorophylls and carotenoids were observed. During exponential growth phase we observed that control cultures had chloroplasts with well-organized thylakoid membranes and a central pyrenoid. On the contrary, the culture cells treated with BPA analogues and MIX showed chloroplasts characterized by evident dilation of thylakoid membranes. The presence of degeneration areas in the cytoplasm was also recorded. During the stationary growth phase, control and culture cells were characterized by chloroplasts with a regular thylakoid system, whereas BPA analogues-exposed cells were characterized by a deep degradation of the cytoplasm but showed chloroplasts without evident alterations of the thylakoid system. Lipid bodies were visible in treated microalgae. Lastly, microalgae bioaccumulated mainly BPS and BPF, alone or in the MIX. Overall, results obtained revealed that BPA analogues can affect some important biochemical and ultrastructure features of microalgae, promoting ROS production. Lastly, the capability of microalgae to bioaccumulate bisphenols suggest a potential ecotoxicological risk for filter-feeders organisms.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Diatomáceas , Microalgas , Fenóis , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Fenóis/toxicidade , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Bioacumulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Harmful Algae ; 136: 102619, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876523

RESUMO

In August 2018, the harmful algae species Margalefidinium polykrikoides bloomed to levels previously unobserved in the open waters of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, in a transient but intense bloom. Detected by an Imaging FlowCytobot providing hourly data, it is characterized by a time span of less than a week and patchiness with sub-daily oscillations in concentration. The highest concentrations are recorded at lower salinity and higher temperature, suggesting the bloom may have developed in the upper bay and was transported south. The proportion of chains increased during the height of the bloom, and many of the images contained 4-cells per chain. The development of the bloom was favored by optimal temperature and salinity conditions as well as increased nitrogen coincident with greater precipitation and river flow. The period preceding bloom formation also saw a sharp decrease in the dominating large chain-forming diatom Eucampia sp. and highly abundant Skeletonema spp., thus reducing competition over resources for the slow-growing M. polykrikoides. The height of the bloom was reached during the lowest tidal range of the month when the turbulence and water displacement were lower. This time series highlights an out-of-the-ordinary bloom's environmental and biological conditions and the importance of frequent sampling during known favorable conditions.


Assuntos
Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Fitoplâncton , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhode Island , Salinidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Baías , Temperatura
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13764, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877025

RESUMO

Chemobrionic systems have attracted great attention in material science for development of novel biomimetic materials. This study aims to design a new bioactive material by integrating biosilica into chemobrionic structure, which will be called biochemobrionic, and to comparatively investigate the use of both chemobrionic and biochemobrionic materials as bone scaffolds. Biosilica, isolated from Amphora sp. diatom, was integrated into chemobrionic structure, and a comprehensive set of analysis was conducted to evaluate their morphological, chemical, mechanical, thermal, and biodegradation properties. Then, the effects of both scaffolds on cell biocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation capacity were assessed. Cells attached to the scaffolds, spread out, and covered the entire surface, indicating the absence of cytotoxicity. Biochemobrionic scaffold exhibited a higher level of mineralization and bone formation than the chemobrionic structure due to the osteogenic activity of biosilica. These results present a comprehensive and pioneering understanding of the potential of (bio)chemobrionics for bone regeneration.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Osteogênese , Engenharia Tecidual , Alicerces Teciduais , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Alicerces Teciduais/química , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Diatomáceas , Humanos , Animais
7.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 136, 2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most tail-anchored (TA) membrane proteins are delivered to the endoplasmic reticulum through a conserved posttranslational pathway. Although core mechanisms underlying the targeting and insertion of TA proteins are well established in eukaryotes, their role in mediating TA protein biogenesis in plants remains unclear. We reported the crystal structures of algal arsenite transporter 1 (ArsA1), which possesses an approximately 80-kDa monomeric architecture and carries chloroplast-localized TA proteins. However, the mechanistic basis of ArsA2, a Get3 (guided entry of TA proteins 3) homolog in plants, for TA recognition remains unknown. RESULTS: Here, for the first time, we present the crystal structures of the diatom Pt-Get3a that forms a distinct ellipsoid-shaped tetramer in the open (nucleotide-bound) state through crystal packing. Pulldown assay results revealed that only tetrameric Pt-Get3a can bind to TA proteins. The lack of the conserved zinc-coordination CXXC motif in Pt-Get3a potentially leads to the spontaneous formation of a distinct parallelogram-shaped dimeric conformation in solution, suggesting a new dimer state for subsequent tetramerization upon TA targeting. Pt-Get3a nonspecifically binds to different subsets of TA substrates due to the lower hydrophobicity of its α-helical subdomain, which is implicated in TA recognition. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying TA protein shielding by tetrameric Get3 during targeting to the diatom's cell membrane.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Multimerização Proteica
8.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 522, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778120

RESUMO

Diatoms are microalgae that live in marine and freshwater environments and are responsible for about 20% of the world's carbon fixation. Population dynamics of these cells is finely regulated by intricate signal transduction systems, in which oxylipins are thought to play a relevant role. These are oxygenated fatty acids whose biosynthesis is initiated by a lipoxygenase enzyme (LOX) and are widely distributed in all phyla, including diatoms. Here, we present a de novo transcriptome obtained from the RNA-seq performed in the diatom species Pseudo-nitzschia arenysensis, using both a wild-type and a LOX-silenced strain, which will represent a reliable reference for comparative analyses within the Pseudo-nitzschia genus and at a broader taxonomic scale. Moreover, the RNA-seq data can be interrogated to go deeper into the oxylipins metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Lipoxigenase , Transcriptoma , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/enzimologia , Lipoxigenase/genética , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo
9.
Mar Drugs ; 22(5)2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38786618

RESUMO

Ecophysiological stress and the grazing of diatoms are known to elicit the production of chemical defense compounds called oxylipins, which are toxic to a wide range of marine organisms. Here we show that (1) the viral infection and lysis of diatoms resulted in oxylipin production; (2) the suite of compounds produced depended on the diatom host and the infecting virus; and (3) the virus-mediated oxylipidome was distinct, in both magnitude and diversity, from oxylipins produced due to stress associated with the growth phase. We used high-resolution accurate-mass mass spectrometry to observe changes in the dissolved lipidome of diatom cells infected with viruses over 3 to 4 days, compared to diatom cells in exponential, stationary, and decline phases of growth. Three host virus pairs were used as model systems: Chaetoceros tenuissimus infected with CtenDNAV; C. tenuissimus infected with CtenRNAV; and Chaetoceros socialis infected with CsfrRNAV. Several of the compounds that were significantly overproduced during viral infection are known to decrease the reproductive success of copepods and interfere with microzooplankton grazing. Specifically, oxylipins associated with allelopathy towards zooplankton from the 6-, 9-, 11-, and 15-lipogenase (LOX) pathways were significantly more abundant during viral lysis. 9-hydroperoxy hexadecatetraenoic acid was identified as the strongest biomarker for the infection of Chaetoceros diatoms. C. tenuissimus produced longer, more oxidized oxylipins when lysed by CtenRNAV compared to CtenDNAV. However, CtenDNAV caused a more statistically significant response in the lipidome, producing more oxylipins from known diatom LOX pathways than CtenRNAV. A smaller set of compounds was significantly more abundant in stationary and declining C. tenuissimus and C. socialis controls. Two allelopathic oxylipins in the 15-LOX pathway and essential fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were more abundant in the stationary phase than during the lysis of C. socialis. The host-virus pair comparisons underscore the species-level differences in oxylipin production and the value of screening more host-virus systems. We propose that the viral infection of diatoms elicits chemical defense via oxylipins which deters grazing with downstream trophic and biogeochemical effects.


Assuntos
Alelopatia , Diatomáceas , Oxilipinas , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Zooplâncton
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 935: 173330, 2024 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777054

RESUMO

The impacts of extreme coastal events (ECEs), such as marine inundations or extreme wind events, on lake ecosystems vary widely from minimal to catastrophic. Accurately predicting the response of a specific system remains challenging due to a limited understanding of the attributes that drive the resilience of lakes. In an attempt to better understand the possible impacts of ECEs on shallow brackish lakes, we employed a paleolimnological approach to reconstruct the responses of Broad Pond to four ECEs identifiable from clear sedimentary markers and dated to ca. 1740, 1790, 1862, and 1993 CE. We aimed to evaluate the overall impacts of ECEs on Broad Pond and their specific effects on various hydrobiont groups. We reinvestigated a previously studied sediment core covering the last ca. 400 years by examining terrestrial and aquatic pollen, spores and non-pollen palynomorphs, cladocerans, and chironomids. Additionally, available diatom data were reexamined. Overall, Broad Pond exhibited resilient responses to ECEs, as indicated by mostly limited compositional turnovers in our proxy records. Statistically significant relationships between species composition and ECEs were observed only for diatoms. The only prolonged change identified is the spread of previously near-absent chironomids in the aftermath of a slight lake refreshment likely associated with the ca. 1740 CE event. This event was also followed by a short-lived (ca. 15 years) five-fold increase in the abundance of Scenedesmus that could have been triggered by the effects of the ECE on nutrient availability. The impact of the remaining three ECEs was discernible only in the diatom record, consistently showing a decline in two calcifobic and oligotrophic species, Achnanthidium petersenii and Platessa oblongella, also evident for the ca. 1740 CE event. The relatively minor ecosystem alteration induced by ECEs in Broad Pond lacks a single explanation and requires consideration of multiple site- and event-specific factors.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos , Lagos/química , Terra Nova e Labrador , Ecossistema , Diatomáceas
11.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 15(22): 5838-5847, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788163

RESUMO

The light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) of diatoms, specifically fucoxanthin-Chl a/c binding proteins (FCPs), exhibit structural and functional diversity, as highlighted by recent structural studies of photosystem II-FCP (PSII-FCPII) supercomplexes from different diatom species. The excitation dynamics of PSII-FCPII supercomplexes isolated from the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was explored using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy at room temperature and 77 K. Energy transfer between FCPII and PSII occurred remarkably fast (<5 ps), emphasizing the efficiency of FCPII as a light-harvesting antenna. The presence of long-wavelength chlorophylls may further help concentrate excitations in the core complex and increase the efficiency of light harvesting. Structure-based calculations reveal remarkably strong excitonic couplings between chlorophylls in the FCP antenna and between FCP and the PSII core antenna that are the basis for the rapid energy transfer.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Transferência de Energia , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/química , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Clorofila/química
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 935: 173477, 2024 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788949

RESUMO

Human activities have caused an imbalance in the input nitrogen and phosphorus (N/P) in the biosphere. The imbalance of N/P is one of the characteristics of water eutrophication, which is the fundamental factor responsible for the blooms. The effects of the N/P imbalance on diatom and phycospheric bacteria in blooms are poorly understood. In this study, the N/P molar ratio in real water (14:1) and the predicted N/P molar ratio in future water (65:1) were simulated to analyze the response of Cyclotella sp. and phycospheric bacteria to the N/P imbalance. The results showed that the N/P imbalance inhibited the growth of Cyclotella sp., but prolonged diatom bloom duration. The resistance of Cyclotella sp. to the N/P imbalance is related to phycospheric bacteria, and there are dynamic regulatory mechanisms within the phycospheric bacteria community to resist the N/P imbalance: (1) the increase of HNA bacterial density, the decrease of LNA bacterial density, (2) the increase of phycospheric bacterial diversity and eutrophic bacteria abundance, and the change of denitrifying bacteria abundance, (3) the activity of nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism of HNA bacteria enhanced, while that of LNA bacteria decreased. And the gene hosts of nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism were most enriched in Proteobacteria, indicating that Proteobacteria played an important role in maintaining the stability of phycospheric bacteria and was the dominant phylum resistant to the N/P imbalance. This study clarified that the algal-bacteria system was resistant to the N/P imbalance and implied that the N/P imbalance had little effect on the occurrence of diatom bloom events due to the presence of phycospheric bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Diatomáceas , Eutrofização , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12408, 2024 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38811751

RESUMO

Eutrophication is a main threat to continental aquatic ecosystems. Prevention and amelioration actions have been taken under the assumption of a stable climate, which needs reconsideration. Here, we show that reduced precipitation can bring a lake ecosystem to a more productive regime even with a decline in nutrient external load. By analyzing time series of several decades in the largest lake of the Iberian Peninsula, we found autocorrelated changes in the variance of state variables (i.e., chlorophyll and oxygen) indicative of a transient situation towards a new ecosystem regime. Indeed, exceptional planktonic diatom blooms have occurred during the last few years, and the sediment record shows a shift in phytoplankton composition and an increase in nutrient retention. Reduced precipitation almost doubled the water residence time in the lake, enhancing the relevance of internal processes. This study demonstrates that ecological quality targets for aquatic ecosystems must be tailored to the changing climatic conditions for appropriate stewardship.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Eutrofização , Lagos , Nutrientes , Fitoplâncton , Nutrientes/análise , Chuva , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila/metabolismo , Mudança Climática , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Espanha
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 934: 172983, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744389

RESUMO

Microbial communities assemble stochastically and deterministically, but how different assembly processes shape diatom community structure across riverine habitats is unclear, especially in sediment-laden environments. In this study, we deciphered the mechanisms of riverine diatom community assembly in the water column and riverbed substrate with varying sediment concentrations. Water and sediment samples were collected from 44 sampling sites along the Yellow River mainstream during two seasons. Diatom communities were characterized based on high-throughput sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA genes coupled with multivariate statistical analyses. A total of 198 diatom species were taxonomically assigned, including 182 free-living and particle-attached species and 184 surface-sediment species. Planktonic communities were structurally different from benthic communities, with Cyclotella being dominant mainly in the middle and lower reaches of the river with higher sediment concentrations. Both stochastic and deterministic processes affected diatom community assembly in different habitats. Species dispersal was more important in the water than in the substrate, and this process was strengthened by increased sediment concentration across habitats. Diatom communities exhibited lower network complexity and enhanced antagonistic or competitive interactions between species in response to higher sediment concentrations compared with lower sediment concentrations mainly in the source region of the river. Differences in the species composition and community diversity of planktonic diatoms were closely correlated with the proportion of bare land area, nitrogen nutrients, precipitation, and sediment concentration. In particular, particle-attached diatoms responded sensitively to environmental factors. These findings provide strong evidence for sediment-mediated assembly and interactions of riverine diatom communities.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Rios , Rios/microbiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , China , Biodiversidade , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 934: 173105, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750737

RESUMO

The decline of river and stream biodiversity results from multiple simultaneous occuring stressors, yet few studies explore responses explore responses across various taxonomic groups at the same locations. In this study, we address this shortcoming by using a coherent data set to study the association of nine commonly occurring stressors (five chemical, one morphological and three hydraulic) with five taxonomic groups (bacteria, fungi, diatoms, macro-invertebrates and fish). According to studies on single taxonomic groups, we hypothesise that gradients of chemical stressors structure community composition of all taxonomic groups, while gradients of hydraulic and morphological stressors are mainly related to larger organisms such as benthic macro-invertebrates and fish. Organisms were sampled over two years at 20 sites in two catchments: a recently restored urban lowland catchment (Boye) and a moderately disturbed rural mountainous catchment (Kinzig). Dissimilarity matrices were computed for each taxonomic group within a catchment. Taxonomic dissimilarities between sites were linked to stressor dissimilarities using multivariable Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Stressor gradients were longer in the Boye, but did in contrast to the Kinzig not cover low stress intensities. Accordingly, responses of the taxonomic groups were stronger in the Kinzig catchment than in the recently restored Boye catchment. The discrepancy between catchments underlines that associations to stressors strongly depend on which part of the stressor gradient is covered in a catchment. All taxonomic groups were related to conductivity. Bacteria, fungi and macro-invertebrates change with dissolved oxygen, and bacteria and fungi with total nitrogen. Morphological and hydraulic stressors had minor correlations with bacteria, fungi and diatoms, while macro-invertebrates were strongly related to fine sediment and discharge, and fish to high flow peaks. The results partly support our hypotheses about the differential associations of the different taxonomic groups with the stressors.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Rios/microbiologia , Animais , Fungos , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Peixes , Bactérias/classificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12423, 2024 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816478

RESUMO

Foraminifera are single-celled protists which are important mediators of the marine carbon cycle. In our study, we explored the potential impact of polystyrene (PS) microplastic particles on two symbiont-bearing large benthic foraminifera species-Heterostegina depressa and Amphistegina lobifera-over a period of three weeks, employing three different approaches: investigating (1) stable isotope (SI) incorporation-via 13C- and 15N-labelled substrates-of the foraminifera to assess their metabolic activity, (2) photosynthetic efficiency of the symbiotic diatoms using imaging PAM fluorometry, and (3) microscopic enumeration of accumulation of PS microplastic particles inside the foraminiferal test. The active feeder A. lobifera incorporated significantly more PS particles inside the cytoplasm than the non-feeding H. depressa, the latter accumulating the beads on the test surface. Photosynthetic area of the symbionts tended to decrease in the presence of microplastic particles in both species, suggesting that the foraminiferal host cells started to digest their diatom symbionts. Compared to the control, the presence of microplastic particles lead to reduced SI uptake in A. lobifera, which indicates inhibition of inorganic carbon and nitrogen assimilation. Competition for particulate food uptake was demonstrated between algae and microplastic particles of similar size. Based on our results, both species seem to be sensitive to microplastic pollution, with non-feeding H. depressa being more strongly affected.


Assuntos
Recifes de Corais , Foraminíferos , Microplásticos , Foraminíferos/metabolismo , Foraminíferos/fisiologia , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Simbiose , Poliestirenos
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(23): 34738-34755, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713353

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the interactions between diatoms and ecological factors in various streams and to test the suitability of diatom indices to evaluate the ecological status of 44 streams in the Ceyhan River Basin during the spring and autumn periods of 2021 and the summer of 2022. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated the significant effects of electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand (BOD5), total phosphorus (TP), and total nitrogen (TN) on the distribution of diatom species of streams in the Ceyhan River Basin. Of the streams, Aksu and Erkenez streams were associated with high EC, BOD5, and TP and characterized by pollution-tolerant species. Pollution-sensitive species showed close integration with Aksu Spring Brook, Gözpinar Creek, Göksun Creek, and Yesilgöz Spring Brook, which related to a high dissolved oxygen gradient. Different eco-regional diatom indices displayed different scores, representing from bad to high ecological status in the Ceyhan River basin. Among the diatom indices, Trophic Index Turkey (TIT) proved to be the more suitable metric to assess the ecological status of streams. TIT indicated deterioration of water quality in Karasu (S06), Erkenez (S07) streams, and downstream areas of the Ceyhan River and the least distributed sampling stations in the basin. Results suggested that eco-regionally developed diatom indices, like TIT, are required to more accurately assess the ecological status of streams in the Mediterranean region. The study provides a fundamental assessment of the ecological status of streams in the Ceyhan River Basin using an appropriate diatom index before the Pazarcik-centered earthquake on February 6, 2023. Findings allow someone to assess the impact of the earthquake on diatom communities and ecological factors in the region in the future studies.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Rios/química , Turquia , Ecossistema , Ecologia , Fósforo/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Estações do Ano
18.
ISME J ; 18(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709871

RESUMO

Chirality, a fundamental property of matter, is often overlooked in the studies of marine organic matter cycles. Dihydroxypropanesulfonate (DHPS), a globally abundant organosulfur compound, serves as an ecologically important currency for nutrient and energy transfer from phytoplankton to bacteria in the ocean. However, the chirality of DHPS in nature and its transformation remain unclear. Here, we developed a novel approach using chiral phosphorus-reagent labeling to separate DHPS enantiomers. Our findings demonstrated that at least one enantiomer of DHPS is present in marine diatoms and coccolithophores, and that both enantiomers are widespread in marine environments. A novel chiral-selective DHPS catabolic pathway was identified in marine Roseobacteraceae strains, where HpsO and HpsP dehydrogenases at the gateway to DHPS catabolism act specifically on R-DHPS and S-DHPS, respectively. R-DHPS is also a substrate for the dehydrogenase HpsN. All three dehydrogenases generate stable hydrogen bonds between the chirality-center hydroxyls of DHPS and highly conserved residues, and HpsP also form coordinate-covalent bonds between the chirality-center hydroxyls and Zn2+, which determines the mechanistic basis of strict stereoselectivity. We further illustrated the role of enzymatic promiscuity in the evolution of DHPS metabolism in Roseobacteraceae and SAR11. This study provides the first evidence of chirality's involvement in phytoplankton-bacteria metabolic currencies, opening a new avenue for understanding the ocean organosulfur cycle.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Fitoplâncton , Rhodobacteraceae , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Rhodobacteraceae/metabolismo , Rhodobacteraceae/genética , Haptófitas/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Biotransformação , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Alcanossulfonatos
19.
New Phytol ; 243(1): 145-161, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736026

RESUMO

Diatoms are a diverse group of phytoplankton usually dominating areas characterized by rapidly shifting light conditions. Because of their high growth rates and interesting biochemical profile, their biomass is considered for various commercial applications. This study aimed at identifying strains with superior growth in a photobioreactor (PBR) by screening the natural intraspecific diversity of ecotypes isolated from different habitats. We investigated the effect of PBR light fluctuating on a millisecond scale (FL, simulating the light in a PBR) on 19 ecotypes of the diatom Skeletonema marinoi isolated from the North Sea-Baltic Sea area. We compare growth, pigment ratios, phylogeny, photo-physiological variables and photoacclimation strategies between all strains and perform qPCR and absorption spectra analysis on a subset of strains. Our results show that the ecotypes responded differently to FL, and have contrasting photo-physiological and photoprotective strategies. The strains from Kattegat performed better in FL, and shared common photoacclimation and photoprotection strategies that are the results of adaptation to the specific light climate of the Kattegat area. The strains that performed better with FL conditions had a high light (HL)-acclimated phenotype coupled with unique nonphotochemical quenching features. Based on their characteristics, three strains were identified as good candidates for growth in PBRs.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Ecossistema , Ecótipo , Luz , Fotobiorreatores , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/efeitos da radiação , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Filogenia , Aclimatação , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação
20.
Gene ; 924: 148589, 2024 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777108

RESUMO

Nitrogen is the principal nutrient deficiency that increases lipids and carbohydrate content in diatoms but negatively affects biomass production. Marine diatom Chaetoceros muelleri is characterized by lipid and carbohydrate accumulation under low nitrogen concentration without affecting biomass. To elucidate the molecular effects of nitrogen concentrations, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of C. muelleri grown under four nitrogen concentrations (3.53 mM, 1.76 mM, 0.44 mM, and 0.18 mM of NaNO3). This research revealed that changes in global transcription in C. muelleri are differentially expressed by nitrogen concentration. "Energetic metabolism", "Carbohydrate metabolism" and "Lipid metabolism" pathways were identified as the most upregulated by N deficiency. Due to N limitation, alternative pathways to self-supply nitrogen employed by microalgal cells were identified. Additionally, nitrogen limitation decreased chlorophyll content and caused a greater response at the transcriptional level with a higher number of unigenes differentially expressed. By contrast, the highest N concentration (3.53 mM) recorded the lowest number of differentially expressed genes. Amt1, Nrt2, Fad2, Skn7, Wrky19, and Dgat2 genes were evaluated by RT-qPCR. In conclusion, C. muelleri modify their metabolic pathways to optimize nitrogen utilization and minimize nitrogen losses. On the other hand, the assembled transcriptome serves as the basis for metabolic engineering focused on improving the quantity and quality of the diatom for biotechnological applications. However, proteomic and metabolomic analysis is also required to compare gene expression, protein, and metabolite accumulation.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Nitrogênio , Transcriptoma , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Biomassa
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