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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 254(Pt 1): 127759, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38287597

RESUMO

In this work, the mucoadhesive substances from the fruits and seeds of Dillenia indica (DI), a plant present abundantly in India, have been extracted and utilised to prepare a hydrogel. A synthetically prepared amphiphilic polyphenol (L) has been incorporated within the hydrogel network to enhance the hydrogelation property. Moreover, the DI-L hydrogel's total phenolic content and radical scavenging prospects have been investigated. The DI-L hydrogel has shown good, sensitive, and efficient adsorptive removal of Fe(III) from the aqueous medium with an adsorption capacity of 6.157 mg/g for an initial concentration of 10 mg/L of Fe(III) solution. As a result, these findings elucidate the most innovative application of transforming fruit mucoadhesive into sustainable environmental solutions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Dilleniaceae , Hidrogéis , Polifenóis , Compostos Férricos , Adsorção
2.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 196(1): 332-349, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37129740

RESUMO

Endophytic fungi live symbiotically inside plants and are hidden source of natural bioactive molecules. The present study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of endophytic fungi isolated from the ethnomedicinal plant Dillenia indica L. The ethyl acetate crude extracts of the endophytic fungal strains were preliminarily evaluated for their phytochemical analysis, and the results showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, terpene, and saponins. The crude extracts of more than 60% of the isolates showed 50-90% antioxidant activity by DPPH and H2O2 assay. The inhibition percentage of ethyl acetate extracts ranges from 34.05 to 91.5%, whereas IC50 values vary from 72.2 to 691.14%. Among all the strains, Fomitopsis meliae crude extract showed a maximum inhibition percentage, i.e., 91.5%, with an IC50 value of 88.27 µg/mL. Chaetomium globosum showed significant activity having an inhibition percentage of 89.88% and an IC50 value of 74.44 µg/mL. The total phenolic and flavonoid content in the crude extract of Chaetomium globosum was 37.4 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g DW and 31.0 mg quercetin equivalent (GAE)/g DW. GC-MS analysis of crude extract of C. globosum revealed different compounds, such as squalene; butanoic acid, 2-methyl-; hexadecanoic acid; 2-propanone, 1-phenyl-; 5-oxo-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester; 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (z)- etc. Many of these belong to phenolics, which are natural antioxidant compounds. The findings suggested that endophytic fungi associated with Dillenia indica L. can be a potential source of novel antioxidant compounds.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Chaetomium , Dilleniaceae , Antioxidantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Fenóis/química , Fungos , Ácido Gálico
3.
Reprod Biol ; 23(4): 100819, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37918046

RESUMO

Maternal diabetes can influence the development of offspring during fetal life and postnatally. Curatella americana is a plant used as a menstrual cycle regulator and to prevent diabetes. This study evaluates the effects of C. americana aqueous extract on the estrous cycle and preimplantation embryos of adult female pups from diabetic rats. Female Sprague Dawley newborn rats received Streptozotocin or vehicle (citrate buffer). At adulthood, were submitted to the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, and mated. The female rats were obtained and were distributed into four experimental groups: OC and OC/T represent female pups of control mothers and received water or plant extract, respectively; OD and OD/T represent female pups of diabetic mothers and received water or plant extract, respectively. The estrous cycle was followed for 10 days, the rats were mated and on gestational day 4 was performed preimplantation embryo analysis. Phenolic composition and biogenic amines in the extract were analyzed about the influence of the thermal process. The female pups from diabetic dams exhibited glucose intolerance, irregular estral cycle and a higher percentage of pre-embryos in delayed development (morula stage). After C. americana treatment, OD/T group no present a regular estrous cycle. Furthermore, the infusion process increases phenolic compounds and biogenic amines levels, which can have anti-estrogenic effect, anticipates the early embryonic development, and impair pre-implantation embryos. Thus, the indiscriminate use of medicinal plants should be avoided in any life phases by women, especially during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Dilleniaceae , Humanos , Gravidez , Ratos , Animais , Feminino , Adulto , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Água , Aminas Biogênicas
4.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 28(5): 105, 2023 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37258477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress accelerates the process of apoptosis in tissues. Dilleniaindica (DI) is a medicinal plant, and its fruit contains many therapeutic properties. The therapeutic activity of the Methanolic Fruit Extract (MFE) of DI in attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis in the liver and kidney tissues of alloxan-induced diabetic mice was analyzed in the present study. METHODS: High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) profiling of MFE was conducted. GLUT4 protein expression analysis and lipid peroxidation assays were conducted to check for MFE effect by administering in diabetic mice. An ultrastructural study was conducted for both the tissues. In apoptotic studies, the TUNEL assay and apoptotic protein expression analysis was conducted. RESULTS: High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) profiling of MFE showed the presence of two crucial antioxidants, ascorbic acid, and naringenin. In GLUT-4 protein expression analysis, MFE suppresses hyperglycemia by upregulating GLUT4 protein expression. Lipid peroxidation assay showed a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) upon MFE administration in diabetic mice. An ultrastructural study was conducted, and MFE was found to restore cellular alterations in diabetic tissues. In apoptotic studies, the TUNEL assay shows that MFE treatment showed fewer apoptotic cells than the diabetic group. The study also observed decreased caspase 3 protein expression and increased Bcl-2 protein expression. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, it is inferred from the study that MFE can exert a protective effect by suppressing hyperglycemia and modulating oxidative stress and apoptosis in alloxan-administered diabetic mice.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Dilleniaceae , Hiperglicemia , Camundongos , Animais , Aloxano/farmacologia , Aloxano/uso terapêutico , Dilleniaceae/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Apoptose
5.
Molecules ; 28(6)2023 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36985517

RESUMO

The ethnomedicinal plant Curatella americana L. (Dilleniaceae) is a common shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado, whose ethanolic extract showed significant in vitro anti-Zika virus activity by the MTT colorimetric method. Currently, there is no drug in clinical use specifically for the treatment of this virus; therefore, in this work, the antiviral and cytotoxic properties of the ethanolic extract, fractions, and compounds were evaluated. The ethanolic extract of the leaves showed no cytotoxicity for the human MRC-5 cell and was moderately cytotoxic for the Vero cell (CC50 161.5 ± 2.01 µg/mL). This extract inhibited the Zika virus multiplication cycle with an EC50 of 85.2 ± 1.65 µg/mL. This extract was fractionated using the liquid-liquid partition technique, and the ethyl acetate fraction showed significant activity against the Zika virus with an EC50 of 40.7 ± 2.33 µg/mL. From the ethyl acetate fraction, the flavonoids quercetin-3-O-hexosylgallate (1), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (2), and quercetin (5) were isolated, and in addition to these compounds, a mixture of quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (3) and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (4) was also obtained. The isolated compounds quercetin and quercetin-3-O-hexosylgallate inhibited the viral cytopathic effect at an EC50 of 18.6 ± 2.8 and 152.8 ± 2.0, respectively. Additionally, analyses by liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer allowed the identification of another 24 minor phenolic constituents present in the ethanolic extract and in the ethyl acetate fraction of this species.


Assuntos
Dilleniaceae , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Humanos , Flavonoides/química , Quercetina , Etanol/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Infecção por Zika virus/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Arch Microbiol ; 205(2): 67, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653666

RESUMO

Assam, India being the pool for ethnomedicinal plants harbors diverse endophytic fungi constituting major bioactive metabolites. The present study was designed to screen the antioxidant, antibacterial activities along with the chemical constituents of the endophytic fungi isolated from the fruits of Dillenia indica (commonly known as Otenga in Assam). Screening of such metabolic compounds and their antioxidant, antibacterial activities can have tremendous potential in suppressing certain diseases. Agar well diffusion method has been used to carry out the antibacterial assay against three pathogenic bacteria two gram positive [Bacillus subtilis (MTCC No. 441); Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC No. 740)] and one gram negative [Escherichia coli (MTCC No. 739)]. Aspergillus fumigatus of ethyl acetate extract showed a prominent activity against Staphylococcus aureus followed by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidants have the potential to neutralize and inhibit the action of free radicals. The highest scavenging activity was exhibited by ethyl acetate extract of Aspergillus fumigatus in DPPH assay. Furthermore, the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids and saponins. Result showed that ethyl acetate extract of Aspergillus fumigatus showed the highest phenolic content (236.81 ± 0.2 mg.g-1) and least was shown by Aspergillus flavus (92.12 ± 1.4 mg.g-1). Total flavonoids content for Aspergillus fumigatus (39.08 ± 0.2 mg.g-1) was found to be highest compared to other isolates. Molecular identification of the endophytic fungus showing highest activity was done based on 18S rRNA. The sequenced was submitted in Genbank with accession number MH540721 showing high similarities with Aspergillus fumigatus strain 3,162,954. A. fumigatus strain is subjected to GC/MS analysis that revealed the chemical constituents 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1-heptanol, dodecane, 1-fluoro-pentanoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester, 1-octanol, 2-butyl-1-dodecanol. Thus, the present work reveals that endophytic fungi colonizing in ethnomedicinal plant Dillenia indica could be a promising source for antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Further work is needed to add value in various therapeutic and pharmaceutical fields.


Assuntos
Dilleniaceae , Plantas Medicinais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Fungos , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillus niger , Flavonoides/metabolismo
7.
J Basic Microbiol ; 63(3-4): 340-358, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002312

RESUMO

There is an urgent call to search for novel natural compounds against developing multidrug-resistant microorganisms. The present work focuses on the characterization of a plant-associated fungus having bioactivity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. A fungal strain P31 was isolated from bark of Dillenia pentagyna and identified as Pestalotiopsis microspora. The maximum anti-MRSA activity was observed from extract of P31 grown in sabouraud dextrose broth. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values of P31 extract were 14 µg/ml for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 32 µg/ml for MRSA strain, respectively. A crude P31 extract showed strong bactericidal activity by killing all treated MRSA cells within 24 h of treatment at their respective MIC value. A scanning electron microscopic study visualized morphological damage of MRSA cells. The membrane permeability of P31 extract-treated MRSA cells gradually increased which caused release of internal cytoplasmic nucleic acids, proteins and potassium ions (K+ ) from cells suggesting cell lysis or leakage from cells. A very low concentration of P31 extract was able to inhibit biofilm formed by MRSA cells. Thin layer chromatographic separation followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the P31 extract revealed a number of antimicrobial compounds along with an anti-MRSA compound 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. In addition, the P31 extract also showed in-vitro human blood clot lysis activity at various concentrations. The clot lysis activity of P31 extract was found maximum at 500 µg/ml. These findings suggest that fungal isolate P31 has potential as a source of anti-MRSA compounds useful in staph infections.


Assuntos
Dilleniaceae , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Pestalotiopsis , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
8.
Folia Microbiol (Praha) ; 68(2): 219-229, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205912

RESUMO

Plants form associations with different microbes; some promote their growth and protect from biotic and abiotic stresses in different ways. However, the biological role of fungi associated with the rhizosphere of medicinal plants is not well explored. In the present study, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from the rhizosphere of Dillenia indica were screened for their phosphate solubilization and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production potential. The selected fungal strains were identified by macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular characteristics. Phosphate solubilization was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated using Pikovskaya's (PVK) agar and PVK broth medium using different substrates such as AlPO4, Ca3(PO4)2, and FePO4. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Aspergillus fumigatus with respect to the phosphate source showed solubilization index (SI) of 1.7 ± 0.03 and 2.1 ± 0.04, and solubilized phosphate up to 138.8 ± 0.058 µg/mL and 121.6 ± 0.062 µg/mL. These fungal strains are also good producers of IAA and significantly enhance the growth of Vigna radiata and Cicer arietinum seedlings. This is the first report on A. fumigatus and C. gloeosporioides from the rhizosphere of Dillenia indica and their phosphate solubilization and IAA production ability.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum , Dilleniaceae , Fosfatos/química , Aspergillus fumigatus , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo
9.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 21: 15347354221128832, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different parts of Dillenia pentagyna have long been used in traditional medicines to cure several diseases including cancer. However, the mechanism(s) of anti-cancer effects are still unknown. We aimed to elucidate the anti-metastatic potential of ethanolic extracts of leaves of D. pentagyna (EELDP) and active fractions of it in highly metastatic human cancer cells. METHODS: We screened different HPLC fractions of EELDP based on their anti-metastatic effect. We used TLC and ESI-MS for determining the presence of various phytochemicals in EELDP and fractions. We monitored in vitro anti-metastasis effect of EELDP (0-0.6 mg/ml) and active fractions (0-0.050 mg/ml) on various human cancer cells like A549, HeLa, and U2OS. RESULTS: EELDP significantly reduced cell viability and cell migration in A549, HeLa, and U2OS cells. However, higher sensitivity was observed in A549 cells. We screened 2 active HPLC fractions F6 and F8 having anti-MMPs activity. EELDP and active fractions reduced metastasis via the NF-κB pathway, decreased the expression of Vimentin, N-cadherin, and increased the expression of Claudin-1. CONCLUSION: Significant reduction of metastasis by EELDP at a dose of 0.1 mg/ml or by active fractions at 0.050 mg/ml implicates that the active compound(s) present in crude or fractions are extremely potent to control highly metastatic cancer.


Assuntos
Dilleniaceae , Neoplasias , Humanos , Dilleniaceae/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células A549 , Movimento Celular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(6): 341, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35593972

RESUMO

Endophytes are microbes that live inside the tissues of plants without causing any disease. Many of these belonging to fungi have been exploited earlier for their biological activities. This study focused on the exploration and characterization of culturable endophytic fungi inhabiting the medicinal plant Dillenia indica L. during four different seasons (summer, monsoon, autumn, and winter) from 2018 to 2019. A total of 2360 segments from different parts (leaves, fruits, and stem) were screened to isolate endophytic fungi. During the study, 25 species of fungi belonging to 20 genera were isolated from the selected plant. The identification of these fungi was validated at morphological, microscopic, and molecular levels. Results indicate the plant has the highest affinity for Daldinia eschscholtzii, followed by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Cladosporium cladosporioides. Further, the percent frequency was highest in leaves, followed by stem and fruits. The results were further supported by a similar trend of colonization rate for different plant parts. The monsoon season had the highest number of isolates (312), followed by summer (208), winter (164), and autumn (114). Species diversity was highest during the monsoon season and lowest during the winter. These fungi also produce amylase, lipase, protease, asparaginase, cellulase, and ligninolytic enzymes. This study focused only on culturable fungal endophytes, yet the scope can be extended for other non-culturable microbes and their interaction by using high-throughput genomics and novel next-generation sequencing (NGS) tools. The results indicate that Dillenia indica L. harbors novel endophytic fungi having industrial applications.


Assuntos
Dilleniaceae , Plantas Medicinais , Endófitos , Fungos , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Estações do Ano
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 293: 115287, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421527

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Curatella americana L. is employed in popular medicine for treating diabetes. However, the understanding around its outcomes during pregnancy is unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the phytochemical and hypoglycemic analysis of the C. americana extract and its maternal-fetal effect on diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Diabetes was chemically induced 24 h after birth in Wistar female newborn rats. At adulthood, after diabetes status confirmation, the rats were mated and randomized into four experimental groups: Nondiabetic (Control): given water; Treated: given C. americana extract; Diabetic, and Treated Diabetic rats. The aqueous extract of C. americana leaves (300 mg/kg) was administered daily through oral route during pregnancy. Maternal toxicity and biochemical profile, reproductive outcomes, fetal development, and phenolic composition and biogenic amines in aqueous extract were analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Phytochemical analysis revealed that the main phenolic components are 3-hydroxytyrosol, kaempferol, and quercetin, while tryptophan and putrescine derivatives were identified as the dominant amines. C. americana extract treatment improved the lipid profile, although no effect on hyperglycemic control in diabetic rats was observed. Maternal diabetes or C. americana extract caused embryo losses confirmed by the lower number of pre-embryos in early pregnancy and higher percentage of abnormal morphologically pre-embryos. C. americana extract previously caused premature pre-embryo fixation before implantation window in nondiabetic and diabetic mothers and intrauterine growth restriction in the fetuses of treated nondiabetic dams, complicating the embryo fetal development. These findings reinforce the caution of indiscriminate use of medicinal plants, especially during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Dilleniaceae , Animais , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Água
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 292: 115237, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35351574

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Dillenia indica L. is an edible plant from the Dilleniaceae family present in the forest of India and other Asian countries. Different parts of this plant are being used in the traditional system of medicines for various diseases like diabetes, indigestion, asthma, jaundice, and rheumatic pain by various rural communities. This plant is very common among Khamptis traditional healers, the rural community of the Dhemaji district of Assam, ethnic communities of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve of Northeast, India for various medicinal uses. It is observed as a 'vat' suppressant and 'pitta' boosting medicine in Ayurveda. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of hydroethanolic extract of Dillenia indica leaf (DI-HET) against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as it is reported effective against jaundice in traditional medicine. We are also planning to see the various molecular mechanisms responsible for its effect if it is efficacious. STUDY DESIGN/METHOD: An in vitro model for NAFLD was employed in this study. For this HepG2 cells were incubated with 100 µM of oleic acid (OA) for 24 h. For evaluation of the effect of DI-HET, the extracts (5 or 10 µg/mL) were pretreated to the OA group. Fenofibrate was the positive control. Various parameters relevant to lipogenesis and ß-oxidation of fatty acids like intracellular lipid accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial stress, and key proteins were studied. RESULTS: DI-HET significantly reduced the intracellular lipid accumulation in OA treated cells. And also substantially decreased the expression of lipogenic proteins and increased ß-oxidation in the OA group. OA induced ROS generation was found to reduce with DI-HET treatment. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of LXR-α, SREBP-1C, SREBP-2, HMGCR, FAS, CD-36, and ACOX-1 were downregulated while that of SIRT-1, p-LKB-, p-AMPK, p-ACC, CPT-1, and PPAR-α upregulated in DI-HET treatment. LCMS/MS analysis showed the presence of polyphenols like naringenin, catechin, epicatechin, shikimic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, and kaempferol. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that DI-HET is effective against NAFLD by activation of the SIRT-1/p-LKB-1/AMPK signaling pathway via polyphenols present in the extract.


Assuntos
Dilleniaceae , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Sirtuínas , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Dilleniaceae/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/metabolismo , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/farmacologia , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuínas/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262985, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113889

RESUMO

The Dilleniaceae is known to produce nectarless flowers pollinated by bees, but the fact that bats ingest Dillenia biflora pollen led us to question pollination assumptions for these trees. We aimed to identify the pollinators of D. biflora, check for nectar presence, and investigate potential for cleistogamy and global prevalence of this pollination system. We examined aspects of the pollination of D. biflora on two Fijian islands using video recordings, direct observations, hand pollination, measurements (flowers, bite marks, nectar), and monitoring. The flowers, receptive for one night, contained copious nectar and had permanently closed globose corollas that required removal by bats for pollination. All the 101 flowers that retained their corolla died and did not produce seeds by cleistogamy. The bat Notopteris macdonaldi was well adapted to corolla removal. Keeping corollas closed until bats manipulate the nectar-rich flowers is a beneficial strategy in high-rainfall environments with many flower parasites. We propose to name a pollination system reliant exclusively on bats "chiropteropisteusis." From clues in the literature, other species in the geographical range of Dillenia are probably chiropteropisunous. Chiropteropisteusis should be investigated in the Old-World range of Dillenia, many species of which are threatened. The remarkable "fall" of the entire corolla observed by an earlier botanist for several species in the genus is most likely attributable to bats. This discovery has important implications for the conservation of bat-dependent trees and their associated fauna, particularly considering the high level of threat faced by flying-foxes globally.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/fisiologia , Dilleniaceae/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Néctar de Plantas/fisiologia , Pólen/química , Polinização , Animais
14.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(23): 6064-6068, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35220841

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the antibacterial potential of endophytic fungi isolated from Dillenia indica L. and identified bioactive compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity. A total of twenty-five endophytic fungi were preliminarily screened for their antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria, i.e., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus subtilis by dual culture assay. The strains having antibacterial activity were selected and crude extracts were prepared from them. The crude extracts were screened for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion assay. The ethyl acetate extract of Fomitopsis meliae showed the highest activity against selected human pathogenic bacteria, with a zone of inhibition ranging from 15 to 29 mm. The Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of F. meliae showed the presence of 40 compounds with predominance of Dodecane (8.87%), Ethyl 2-thiopheneacetate (4.12%), Tetradecane (13.86%), Hexadecane (12.05%), Octadecane (6.67%), Benzaldehyde, 4-(1-methylethyl)- (10.83%), Griseofulvin (3.31%).


Assuntos
Coriolaceae , Dilleniaceae , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Endófitos/química , Fungos , Antibacterianos/química , Escherichia coli , Bacillus subtilis , Misturas Complexas
15.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 503-509, fev 11, 2022. fig, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359302

RESUMO

Introdução: a espécie vegetal Curatella americana produz anualmente inflorescências com aroma adocicado rica em óleo essencial. Objetivo: avaliar as características físico-químicas, e atividades antifúngica e antioxidante do óleo essencial da flor de Curatella americana. Metodologia: as flores foram coletadas em quatro áreas de Cerrado no estado de Goiás; o rendimento de óleo essencial foi obtido através de hidrodestilação; as características físicas foram determinadas para densidade e solubilidade, a atividade antioxidante foi determinada pela redução do radical livre DPPH; a atividade antifúngica foi determinada por inibição das cepas de Candida, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Aspergillus flavus. Resultados: o rendimento de óleo foi de 0,18%, densidade de 0,907 g mL-1, solubilidade positiva para EtOH 70%, atividade antioxidante de CI50 µL mL-1 1,95. Atividade de inibição fúngica apenas para Candida tropicalis na concentração de 8% com halo de antibiose de 10 mm. Sensibilidade discreta nas maiores concentrações de 25, 50 e 100 µL-1 para Aspergillus flavus e Sclerotinia sclerotiorum e baixa atividade de inibição para Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Conclusão: o óleo essencial da flor de Curatella americana apresentou baixo rendimento, entretanto, alta eficiência na redução do radical livre DPPH. As atividades antifúngicas apresentaram bons resultados de inibição, entretanto, torna-se necessário a adição de outros óleos essenciais para aumento das taxas de inibição micelial.


Introduction: the plant species Curatella americana produces annual inflorescences with a sweet flavour rich in essential oil. Objective: to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of the Curatella americana flower. Methodology: the flowers were collected in four areas of Cerrado in the state of Goiás; the essential oil yield was obtained through hydrodistillation; the physical characteristics were determined for density and solubility, the antioxidant activity was determined by the reduction of the free radical DPPH; antifungal activity was determined by inhibiting the strains of Candida, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Aspergillus flavus. Results: the oil yield was 0.18%, density 0.907 g mL-1, positive solubility for EtOH 70%, antioxidant activity of IC50 µL mL-1 1.95. Fungal inhibition activity only for Candida tropicalis at a concentration of 8% with a 10 mm antibiosis halo. Discrete sensitivity in the highest concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 µL-1 for Aspergillus flavus and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and low inhibition activity for Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Conclusion: The essential oil of the Curatella americana flower showed low yield, however, high efficiency in reducing DPPH free radical. Antifungal activities showed good inhibition results, however, it is necessary to add other essential oils to increase mycelial inhibition rates.


Assuntos
Candidíase , Óleos Voláteis , Aflatoxinas , Flores , Dilleniaceae
16.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; 45(6): 2699-2705, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666582

RESUMO

Doliocarpus dentatus (Dilleniaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat inflammation and pain; however, studies evaluating its toxicity potential, as well as its effects on anxiety and depression, are scarce. This study investigated the toxicological profile of an ethanolic extract from leaves of D. dentatus (EEDd), and its effects on anxiety and depression models in mice. Male and female mice received either a single dose (500, 1000 or 2000 mg/kg) or repeated doses (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg) of EEDd by oral gavage. During the subacute toxicity assay, behavioral tests were performed on days 4, 14, 21 and 28. No evidence of toxicity was observed in the animals in both acute and subacute tests. However, males treated with the highest dose presented a reduction in the absolute weight of the kidney, an elevation in the AST levels, in addition to an alteration in the urea levels. The treatment did not affect other biochemical parameters, and did not induce any depressive-like behavior. EEDd exhibited low toxicity after single and repeated exposures. Since some analyzed parameters were compromised, further toxicity studies should be carried out.


Assuntos
Dilleniaceae , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Folhas de Planta , Etanol/toxicidade , Ureia
17.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20263, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403679

RESUMO

Abstract The objective of the study was to evaluate the gelling properties of Dillenia indica mucilage in benzyl benzoate emulgel formulation. Mucilage was extracted from the fruits of Dillenia indica using established methods and characterized by rheology and swelling. Emulsion (F1) was prepared using the continental emulsification method. Gelling agents (2 %w /v) were prepared by dispersing in distilled water with constant stirring at a moderate speed using a magnetic stirrer. F1 was added to the gel (0-75 %w /w) to obtain emulgel formulations and evaluated using viscosity, globule size, pH, release profiles and kinetic modeling. Data were expressed as mean ± SD, and similarity factor (f2) was used to compare all formulations. Formulation viscosity was significantly higher with carbopol than with Dillenia; globule sizes increased with concentration of gelling agents, and pH reduced as the concentration of Dillenia increased. All formulations showed controlled release properties with t80 ranging between 114 and 660 min. The release was governed by Korsmeyer-Peppas model. Formulation F5 prepared with 50 % Dillenia showed highest similarity to F4 prepared with 75 %w /w carbopol. Dillenia indica demonstrated acceptable gelling properties comparable with that of carbopol and could be improved for use in emulgel formulations.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/administração & dosagem , Dilleniaceae/anatomia & histologia , Geleificantes , Mucilagem Vegetal/agonistas , Emulsões/análise , Métodos
18.
Trop Biomed ; 38(1): 122-129, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797534

RESUMO

The aqueous extracts of thirty-four (34) tropical plants were tested in vitro for potential antimarine leech (Zeylanicobdella arugamensis) activity. The anti-leech activity was determined by exposing 8 adult leeches (Z. arugamensis) (9.3 ± 1.5 mm, aged 15 days) to 20 µl of plant extract (0.5 g/ml) for 5 min in a 24-well plate. After 5 min of exposure, the leeches were rinsed and transferred into seawater, to enable them to revive from the effect of the extract. Leech movements were observed from time to time and the numbers of paralyzed or dead leeches were recorded at 5, 20, 30 and 240 min. The efficacy of the plant extract in killing the adult Z. arugamensis during the 5 min exposure is reflected on the anti-leech property of the extract. The anti-leech property of positive plant extracts was also determined at different exposure time (1, 3, 5 min) and dilutions (1/2 (0.25 g/ml), 1/5 (0.1 g/ml) and 1/10 (0.05 g/ml). The extracts of 4 plants (Melastoma malabathricum, Piper betle, Tetracera indica and Etlingera coccinea) demonstrated anti-leech activity. The effects of M. malabathricum, P. betle and E. coccinea extracts on the leeches were very rapid causing death as early as a few seconds upon exposure. However, all four positive plant extracts were found not effective in killing the leeches at 1/10 dilution (0.05 g/ml). A Scanning Electron Microscopy examination on leeches exposed to the positive plant extracts exhibited effects such as protruding proboscis and shrunken or swollen bodies.


Assuntos
Sanguessugas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Dilleniaceae/química , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Melastomataceae/química , Piper betle/química , Zingiberaceae/química
19.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 38: 116142, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892286

RESUMO

Multi- drug resistant microbial pathogens are a serious global health problem and thus new antibacterial agents, which are effective both alone and in combination with traditional antibiotics, are urgently needed. Hence, the objective of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of 6ß-hydroxy-3-oxolup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (6ß-hydroxy betunolic acid) isolated from the bark of Schumacheria castaneifolia and its effect when combined with oxacillin. Antibacterial potential of 6ß-hydroxy betunolic acid alone was performed using broth micro dilution assay against sixteen bacterial strains which included eight standard strains [Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213 and ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218 and ATCC 25922), carbapenemase producing Kebsiella pneumonia (ATCC BAA 1705), carbapenemase non-producing K. pneumonia (ATCC BAA 1706) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)] and four strains each of clinically isolated meropenem resistant Acinetobactor sp. and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) which were included in the urgent threat list and serious threat list, respectively in 2019 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. Its effect when combined with oxacillin was tested against S. aureus (ATCC 29213) and MRSAs using a checkerboard dilution method. The results indicated that 6ß-hydroxy betunolic acid had antibacterial activity against the tested Gram positive organisms with MICs ranging from 16 to 32 mg L-1 (MIC of oxacillin and meropenem ranged from 0.25-16 and 0.03-128 mg L-1 respectively). The high MIC values (>1024 mg L-1) of 6ß-hydroxy betunolic acid against Gram negative strains indicated a likely lack of activity. Further, 6ß-hydroxy betunolic acid exhibited synergistic effect with oxacillin against Staphylococcus aureus (0.49) and showed an additive effect against all the tested MRSAs. The present study suggested that the antibacterial activity of the 6ß-hydroxy betunolic acid is restricted to Staphylococcus isolates and possibly Enterococcus faecalis. Further testing on different types of Gram positives and identification of the exact mechanism of action would be of importance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Dilleniaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Conformação Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(4): 1257-1267, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386607

RESUMO

Nutrient-poor ecosystems globally exhibit high plant diversity. One mechanism enabling the co-existence of species in such ecosystems is facilitation among plants with contrasting nutrient-acquisition strategies. The ecophysiological processes underlying these interactions remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that root positioning plays a role between sympatric species in nutrient-poor vegetation. We investigated how the growth traits of the focal mycorrhizal non-cluster-rooted Hibbertia racemosa change when grown in proximity of non-mycorrhizal Banksia attenuata, which produces cluster roots that increase nutrient availability, compared with growth with conspecifics. Focal plants were placed in the centre of rhizoboxes, and biomass allocation, root system architecture, specific root length (SRL), and leaf nutrient concentration were assessed. When grown with B. attenuata, focal plants decreased root investment, increased root growth towards B. attenuata, and positioned their roots near B. attenuata cluster roots. SRL was greater, and the degree of localized root investment correlated positively with B. attenuata cluster-root biomass. Total nutrient contents in the focal individuals were greater when grown with B. attenuata. Focal plants directed their root growth towards the putatively facilitating neighbour's cluster roots, modifying root traits and investment. Preferential root positioning and root morphological traits play important roles in positive plant-plant interactions.


Assuntos
Dilleniaceae/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comunicação , Dilleniaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dilleniaceae/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Micorrizas , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteaceae/metabolismo , Proteaceae/fisiologia
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