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1.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610086

RESUMO

Reading skills and developmental dyslexia, characterized by difficulties in developing reading skills, have been associated with brain anomalies within the language network. Genetic factors contribute to developmental dyslexia risk, but the mechanisms by which these genes influence reading skills remain unclear. In this preregistered study (https://osf.io/7sehx), we explored if developmental dyslexia susceptibility genes DNAAF4, DCDC2, NRSN1, and KIAA0319 are associated with brain function in fluently reading adolescents and young adults. Functional MRI and task performance data were collected during tasks involving written and spoken sentence processing, and DNA sequence variants of developmental dyslexia susceptibility genes previously associated with brain structure anomalies were genotyped. The results revealed that variation in DNAAF4, DCDC2, and NRSN1 is associated with brain activity in key language regions: the left inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and intraparietal sulcus. Furthermore, NRSN1 was associated with task performance, but KIAA0319 did not yield any significant associations. Our findings suggest that individuals with a genetic predisposition to developmental dyslexia may partly employ compensatory neural and behavioral mechanisms to maintain typical task performance. Our study highlights the relevance of these developmental dyslexia susceptibility genes in language-related brain function, even in individuals without developmental dyslexia, providing valuable insights into the genetic factors influencing language processing.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dislexia/diagnóstico por imagem , Dislexia/genética , Genótipo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Leitura
2.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610090

RESUMO

The impact of action video games on reading performance has been already demonstrated in individuals with and without neurodevelopmental disorders. The combination of action video games and posterior parietal cortex neuromodulation by a transcranial random noise stimulation could enhance brain plasticity, improving attentional control and reading skills also in adults with developmental dyslexia. In a double blind randomized controlled trial, 20 young adult nonaction video game players with developmental dyslexia were trained for 15 h with action video games. Half of the participants were stimulated with bilateral transcranial random noise stimulation on the posterior parietal cortex during the action video game training, whereas the others were in the placebo (i.e. sham) condition. Word text reading, pseudowords decoding, and temporal attention (attentional blink), as well as electroencephalographic activity during the attentional blink, were measured before and after the training. The action video game + transcranial random noise stimulation group showed temporal attention, word text reading, and pseudoword decoding enhancements and P300 amplitude brain potential changes. The enhancement in temporal attention performance was related with the efficiency in pseudoword decoding improvement. Our results demonstrate that the combination of action video game training with parietal neuromodulation increases the efficiency of visual attention deployment, probably reshaping goal-directed and stimulus-driven fronto-parietal attentional networks interplay in young adults with neurodevelopmental conditions.


Assuntos
Intermitência na Atenção Visual , Dislexia , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Leitura , Lobo Parietal , Dislexia/terapia
3.
Dyslexia ; 30(2): e1765, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497366

RESUMO

Given the rapid growth in educational policies targeting educators' knowledge of dyslexia, this study explored the technical adequacy of a common instrument for measuring that knowledge. The responses of 1141 preservice teachers were scored in three ways: polytomously with the original 4-point Likert scale, dichotomously as true-false, and dichotomously as though the options were multiple choice. An exploratory factor analysis suggested at least one-third of the items needed to be removed. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested a one-factor model with polytomous scoring had the best fit to the data, but only six items loaded. All models demonstrated unacceptable internal consistency reliability (<0.70). Because no technically adequate version of the measure was identified, questions remain about basing policy on scores from these instruments. However, the findings indicated ways this type of measure might be improved.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Humanos , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Professores Escolares , Escolaridade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
4.
Dyslexia ; 30(2): e1759, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433579

RESUMO

This study examined the multiple-deficit hypothesis among Arabic-speaking elementary school students. A total of 90 students, divided into three main groups based on their performance on an Arabic word-reading task: dyslexic (n = 30), regular age-matched (n = 30), and 3rd-grade regular students, who were matched to the dyslexic group in regard to their reading proficiency level (n = 30). Participants underwent a nine-domain Arabic reading experiment that measured accuracy and fluency to evaluate general reading proficiency. The performance of Arabic dyslexic students was significantly worse than age-matched controls, but similar to young matched controls based on the reading level of each cognitive task. Moreover, dyslexic students showed deficits in three or more cognitive functions, depending on severity. This study adds to the limited empirical research on the double-deficit hypothesis and its extension to the multiple-domain model among young Arabic students.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Criança , Humanos , Cognição , Estudantes
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6573, 2024 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503790

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has precipitated a global mental health crisis, with a particularly pronounced impact on the entrepreneurial sector. This paper presents a comparative analysis of mental health challenges among entrepreneurs in China during the pandemic, with a specific focus on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Dyslexia. The study assesses the prevalence of ADHD and dyslexia symptoms among established and emerging entrepreneurs in China, finding notable occurrences within this group. The research also examines the self-care practices of these entrepreneurs, shedding light on their approaches during the pandemic period. The findings highlight a complex interplay between mental health issues and entrepreneurial activities, suggesting that certain ADHD and dyslexia traits may offer unexpected benefits in the entrepreneurial realm. These insights are critical for developing supportive frameworks that leverage the strengths of neurodiverse entrepreneurs while mitigating associated challenges, especially in a post-pandemic economic landscape. The study concludes with policy and practice recommendations to bolster the wellbeing and resilience of entrepreneurs facing the multifaceted impacts of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , COVID-19 , Dislexia , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Dislexia/psicologia , China/epidemiologia
6.
Brain Struct Funct ; 229(4): 809-822, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436668

RESUMO

Stress and learning co-evolved in parallel, with their interdependence critical to the survival of the species. Even today, the regulation of moderate levels of stress by the central autonomic network (CAN), especially during pre- and post-natal periods, facilitates biological adaptability and is an essential precursor for the cognitive requisites of learning to read. Reading is a remarkable evolutionary achievement of the human brain, mysteriously unusual, because it is not pre-wired with a genetic address to facilitate its acquisition. There is no gene for reading. The review suggests that reading co-opts a brain circuit centered in the left hemisphere ventral occipital cortex that evolved as a domain-general visual processor. Its adoption by reading depends on the CAN's coordination of the learning and emotional requirements of learning to read at the metabolic, cellular, synaptic, and network levels. By stabilizing a child's self-control and modulating the attention network's inhibitory controls over the reading circuit, the CAN plays a key role in school readiness and learning to read. In addition, the review revealed two beneficial CAN evolutionary adjustments to early-life stress "overloads" that come with incidental costs of school under-performance and dyslexia. A short-term adaptation involving methylation of the FKBP5 and NR3C1 genes is a liability for academic achievement in primary school. The adaptation leading to dyslexia induces alterations in BDNF trafficking, promoting long-term adaptive fitness by protecting against excessive glucocorticoid toxicity but risks reading difficulties by disruptive signaling from the CAN to the attention networks and the reading circuit.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Dislexia , Criança , Humanos , Alfabetização/psicologia , Dislexia/genética , Leitura , Aprendizagem
7.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 49(3): 99-110, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466040

RESUMO

This study investigates pragmatic language impairment, Theory of Mind (ToM), and emotion regulation in adolescents with Developmental Dyslexia(DD). The Social Responsiveness Scale-2(SRS) and Children's Communication Checklist-2(CCC-2) scores were found to be statistically significantly higher in the DD group than in healthy controls. DD group had lower performance in ToM skills and they have more difficulties in emotion regulation. We also found that CCC-2 and ToM scores were significantly correlated in adolescents with DD. These results may be important in understanding the difficulties experienced in social functioning and interpersonal relationships in adolescents with DD.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Regulação Emocional , Teoria da Mente , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Comunicação
8.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 49(3): 111-137, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38469855

RESUMO

This systematic review aimed to examine the possible implication of visual-perceptual, visuo-attentional and oculomotor processing in the reading deficits frequently experienced by children with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), as previously shown in dyslexia. Using PRISMA methodological guidelines, we examined 49 studies; most of these reported visual-processing deficits in this population, raising the importance of directly studying the visuo-perceptual and visuo-attentional processes and eye-movement control involved in the learning-to-read process in NF1. The discussion provides a reflection for a better understanding of how visual-processing skills interact with reading deficits in NF1, as well as new avenues for their screening and care.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Neurofibromatose 1 , Criança , Humanos , Leitura , Neurofibromatose 1/complicações , Neurofibromatose 1/epidemiologia , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Dislexia/etiologia , Percepção Visual , Aprendizagem
9.
JCI Insight ; 9(6)2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38516893

RESUMO

Tubular aggregate myopathy (TAM) and Stormorken syndrome (STRMK) are clinically overlapping disorders characterized by childhood-onset muscle weakness and a variable occurrence of multisystemic signs, including short stature, thrombocytopenia, and hyposplenism. TAM/STRMK is caused by gain-of-function mutations in the Ca2+ sensor STIM1 or the Ca2+ channel ORAI1, both of which regulate Ca2+ homeostasis through the ubiquitous store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) mechanism. Functional experiments in cells have demonstrated that the TAM/STRMK mutations induce SOCE overactivation, resulting in excessive influx of extracellular Ca2+. There is currently no treatment for TAM/STRMK, but SOCE is amenable to manipulation. Here, we crossed Stim1R304W/+ mice harboring the most common TAM/STRMK mutation with Orai1R93W/+ mice carrying an ORAI1 mutation partially obstructing Ca2+ influx. Compared with Stim1R304W/+ littermates, Stim1R304W/+Orai1R93W/+ offspring showed a normalization of bone architecture, spleen histology, and muscle morphology; an increase of thrombocytes; and improved muscle contraction and relaxation kinetics. Accordingly, comparative RNA-Seq detected more than 1,200 dysregulated genes in Stim1R304W/+ muscle and revealed a major restoration of gene expression in Stim1R304W/+Orai1R93W/+ mice. Altogether, we provide physiological, morphological, functional, and molecular data highlighting the therapeutic potential of ORAI1 inhibition to rescue the multisystemic TAM/STRMK signs, and we identified myostatin as a promising biomarker for TAM/STRMK in humans and mice.


Assuntos
Transtornos Plaquetários , Dislexia , Ictiose , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais , Proteína ORAI1 , Baço , Animais , Camundongos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Eritrócitos Anormais , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Miose/tratamento farmacológico , Miose/genética , Miose/metabolismo , Fadiga Muscular , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/tratamento farmacológico , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/genética , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/metabolismo , Proteína ORAI1/genética , Proteína ORAI1/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/anormalidades
10.
Res Dev Disabil ; 147: 104713, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458040

RESUMO

Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty that affects the development of literacy and language-related skills, unrelated to intellectual ability. While the impact of parenting an individual with dyslexia (IWD) for married parents has been widely studied, little is known about the impact on single parents. This study explored the lived experiences of single parents of an IWD. Six female participants completed semi-structured interviews discussing their experience of the diagnostic process, support received and general parenting perspectives. Interview transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Three main themes were identified: Navigating the diagnosis; Various levels of support; Battling Misconceptions and Lack of Knowledge. Findings suggested that single parents had a mixed experience, both after receiving the diagnosis and in terms of the support they received from family and schools. Differences in the quality of statutory support were highlighted, implicating the need for improved dyslexia support in schools. Unique challenges of parenting an IWD as a single parent were also identified, highlighting important implications. Future research should explore differences in single fathers' experiences and the impact of dyslexia comorbidities on single parents.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Poder Familiar , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Pais Solteiros , Pais , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Reino Unido
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7148, 2024 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531968

RESUMO

Despite intense and costly treatments, developmental dyslexia (DD) often persists into adulthood. Several brain skills unrelated to speech sound processing (i.e., phonology), including the spatial distribution of visual attention, are abnormal in DD and may represent possible treatment targets. This study explores the efficacy in DD of rightward prismatic adaptation (rPA), a visuomotor adaptation technique that enables visuo-attentive recalibration through shifts in the visual field induced by prismatic goggles. A digital intervention of rPA plus cognitive training was delivered weekly over 10 weeks to adolescents with DD (aged 13-17) assigned either to treatment (N = 35) or waitlist (N = 35) group. Efficacy was evaluated by repeated measures MANOVA assessing changes in working memory index (WMI), processing speed index (PSI), text reading speed, and words/pseudowords reading accuracy. rPA treatment was significantly more effective than waitlist (p ≤ 0.001; ηp2 = 0.815). WMI, PSI, and reading speed increased in the intervention group only (p ≤ 0.001, ηp2 = 0.67; p ≤ 0.001, ηp2 = 0.58; p ≤ 0.001, ηp2 = 0.29, respectively). Although modest change was detected for words and pseudowords accuracy in the waitlist group only (words: p ≤ 0.001, d = 0.17, pseudowords: p = 0.028; d = 0.27), between-group differences were non-significant. rPA-coupled cognitive training enhances cognitive and reading abilities in adolescents with DD. This innovative approach could have implications for early remedial treatment.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Adolescente , Humanos , Dislexia/psicologia , Treino Cognitivo , Leitura , Memória de Curto Prazo , Fonética
12.
Neuropsychologia ; 197: 108850, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467371

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorders are traditionally characterised by a range of associated cognitive impairments in, for example, sensory processing, facial recognition, visual imagery, attention, and coordination. In this critical review, we propose a major reframing, highlighting the variety of unique cognitive strengths that people with neurodevelopmental differences can exhibit. These include enhanced visual perception, strong spatial, auditory, and semantic memory, superior empathy and theory of mind, along with higher levels of divergent thinking. Whilst we acknowledge the heterogeneity of cognitive profiles in neurodevelopmental conditions, we present a more encouraging and affirmative perspective of these groups, contrasting with the predominant, deficit-based position prevalent throughout both cognitive and neuropsychological research. In addition, we provide a theoretical basis and rationale for these cognitive strengths, arguing for the critical role of hereditability, behavioural adaptation, neuronal-recycling, and we draw on psychopharmacological and social explanations. We present a table of potential strengths across conditions and invite researchers to systematically investigate these in their future work. This should help reduce the stigma around neurodiversity, instead promoting greater social inclusion and significant societal benefits.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Dislexia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Percepção Visual , Cognição
13.
Dyslexia ; 30(2): e1762, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442946

RESUMO

This study aimed to test the efficacy of a newly developed computer-based game naming computerized executive functions (CEF) task on the reading ability of children suffering from dyslexia. Forty dyslexic school students from the fourth and fifth grades were randomized to one of the experimental and control groups. Subjects of the experimental group received 12 sessions of Computerized Executive Functions Training (CEFT), while subjects of the control group played a neutral computer game throughout the 12 sessions. All participants responded to the Reading and Dyslexia Test (NEMA) as the pre- and post-test measure. Results revealed a significant improvement in the reading ability of subjects of the experimental group compared to the control group. Subjects of the experimental group indicated a greater improvement in some components of the NEMA scale including word reading, word chains reading, picture naming, text comprehension, word comprehension and letter fluency relative to the control group. CEFT had no significant effect in modifying the category fluency, phoneme elimination and rhyming components of the NEMA scale. Applying CEFT improves the reading performance of children with dyslexia by enforcing their cognitive abilities like working memory, inhibition control and cognitive flexibility which are necessary for normal reading ability.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Leitura , Criança , Humanos , Dislexia/terapia , Função Executiva , Instituições Acadêmicas , Cognição
14.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230863

RESUMO

This article presents the findings of a study comparing a computer-assisted teaching program to traditional instructor-led teaching for elementary school children. The study evaluated reading and writing skills and employed a group design. Results showed that both teaching approaches were effective in improving reading performance, with slightly better gains in the instructor-led version. Both conditions facilitated learning transfer to new words with spelling difficulties, although the computer-assisted condition demonstrated higher generalization in final tests. Motivational and attentional factors, easily addressed by instructors but challenging in computer programs, were highlighted. The instructor-led condition's personalized feedback and differential consequences potentially contributed to the observed differences in learning gains. Individual differences in learners' input and performance were emphasized, suggesting the need for program adaptations. The advantages of computer-assisted teaching, such as scalability and individualized pacing, were discussed, along with the need for further refinements and automation. Strategies for enhancing teaching sequence flexibility and reducing the instructor's decision-making burden were proposed. The study contributes valuable insights into computer-assisted reading instructions for children with spelling difficulties, emphasizing their benefits and areas for improvement. The research underscores the importance of designing effective technology-mediated interventions and provides guidance for future developments in this field. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ensino/psicologia , Materiais de Ensino , Avaliação Educacional , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia , Instrução por Computador , Redação , Dislexia/psicologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3506, 2024 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347056

RESUMO

Considerable evidence suggests that musical education induces structural and functional neuroplasticity in the brain. This study aimed to explore the potential impact of such changes on word-reading proficiency. We investigated whether musical training promotes the development of uncharted orthographic regions in the right hemisphere leading to better reading abilities. A total of 60 healthy, right-handed culturally matched professional musicians and controls took part in this research. They were categorised as normo-typical readers based on their reading speed (syl/sec) and subdivided into two groups of relatively good and poor readers. High density EEG/ERPs were recorded while participants engaged in a note or letter detection task. Musicians were more fluent in word, non-word and text reading tests, and faster in detecting both notes and words. They also exhibited greater N170 and P300 responses, and target-non target differences for words than controls. Similarly, good readers showed larger N170 and P300 responses than poor readers. Increased reading skills were associated to a bilateral activation of the occipito/temporal cortex, during music and word reading. Source reconstruction also showed a reduced activation of the left fusiform gyrus, and of areas devoted to attentional/ocular shifting in poor vs. good readers, and in controls vs. musicians. Data suggest that music literacy acquired early in time can shape reading circuits by promoting the specialization of a right-sided reading area, whose activity was here associated with enhanced reading proficiency. In conclusion, music literacy induces measurable neuroplastic changes in the left and right OT cortex responsible for improved word reading ability.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Música , Humanos , Leitura , Alfabetização , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
16.
J Neurosci Res ; 102(2): e25305, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361418

RESUMO

Brain imaging work aimed at increased classification of dyslexia has underscored an important relationship between anterior (i.e., the inferior frontal gyrus; IFG) and posterior (i.e., superior temporal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus) brain regions. The extent to which the three components of the inferior frontal gyrus, namely the pars orbitalis, triangularis, and opercularis, are differentially related to the posterior regions, namely the superior temporal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus, needs further elucidation. Information about the nature of the anterior-posterior connections would facilitate our understanding of the neural underpinnings associated with dyslexia. Adult participants (N = 38; 16 with dyslexia) took part in an MRI study, whereby high-resolution structural scans were obtained. Volumetric asymmetry of the three regions of the IFG, the superior temporal gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus was extracted. Significant differences were found for each of the three IFG regions, such that skilled readers had a greater leftward asymmetry of the orbitalis and triangularis, and greater rightward asymmetry of the opercularis, when compared to individuals with dyslexia. Furthermore, the pars triangularis was significantly associated with leftward asymmetry of the superior temporal gyrus for skilled but not dyslexic participants. For individuals with dyslexia, the cortical asymmetry of the IFG, and the corresponding connections with other reading-related brain regions, is inherently different from skilled readers. We discuss our findings in the context of the print-to-speech framework to further our understanding of the neural underpinnings associated with dyslexia.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Substância Cinzenta , Adulto , Humanos , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Dislexia/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo , Leitura , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Mapeamento Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
17.
Neuropsychologia ; 195: 108821, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340962

RESUMO

This study utilized a neuroimaging task to assess working memory (WM) network recruitment during single word reading. Associations between WM and reading comprehension skills are well documented. Several converging models suggest WM may also contribute to foundational reading skills, but few studies have assessed this contribution directly. Two groups of children (77 developmental dyslexia (DD), 22 controls) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task to identify activation of a priori defined regions of the WM network. fMRI trials consisted of familiar word, pseudoword, and false font stimuli within a 1-back oddball task to assess how activation in the WM network differs in response to stimuli that can respectively be processed using word recognition, phonological decoding, or non-word strategies. Results showed children with DD recruited WM regions bilaterally in response to all stimulus types, whereas control children recruited left-lateralized WM regions during the pseudoword condition only. Group-level comparisons revealed activation differences in the defined WM network regions for false font and familiar word, but not pseudoword conditions. This effect was driven by increased activity in participants with DD in right hemisphere frontal, parietal, and motor regions despite poorer task performance. Findings suggest the WM network may contribute to inefficient decoding and word recognition strategies in children with DD.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Leitura , Criança , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Dislexia/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Atenção
18.
Dyslexia ; 30(2): e1764, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38385948

RESUMO

Attention has been hypothesized to act as a sequential gating mechanism for the orderly processing of letters and words. These same visuoattentional processes are often assumed to partake in some but not all types of visual search. In the current study, 24 dyslexic and 36 typical readers completed an attentionally demanding visual conjunction search. Visual feature search served as an internal control. It has been suggested that reading problems should go hand in hand with specific problems in visual conjunction search-particularly elevated conjunction search slopes (time per search item)-often interpreted as a problem with visual attention. Results showed that reading problems were associated with slower visual search, especially conjunction search. However, reading deficits were not associated with increased conjunction search slopes but instead with increased search intercepts, traditionally not interpreted as reflecting attention. We discuss these results in the context of hypothesized visuoattentional problems in dyslexia. Remaining open to multiple interpretations of the data, the current study demonstrates that difficulties in visual search are associated with reading problems, in accordance with growing literature on visual cognition problems in developmental dyslexia.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Humanos , Dislexia/complicações , Leitura , Cognição , Nonoxinol
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4109, 2024 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374129

RESUMO

We compared reading words and pseudo-words presented in single displays (as typical of psycholinguistic research) with stimuli presented in multiple displays (as typical of real-life conditions and clinical testing) under controlled conditions. Italian sixth-grade children with and without a reading deficit showed an advantage in reading times for multiple over single displays. This finding was partly ascribed to the capacity to overlap the non-decisional component of the response, an effect present in control readers as well as children with dyslexia. Furthermore, there were several indications in the data that the requirement to read sequentially taxes performance by augmenting the relative impact of the experimental manipulations used. This effect was present in both groups of children, but proportionally stronger in children with dyslexia. The study contributes to filling the gap between single and multiple displays, a condition more like real-life situations.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Criança , Humanos , Psicolinguística , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
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