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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627776

RESUMO

Background: Summaries of systematic reviews are a reference method for the dissemination of research evidence on the effectiveness of public health interventions beyond the scientific community. Motivated reasoning and cognitive dissonance may interfere with readers' ability to process the information included in such summaries. Methods: We conducted a web experiment on a panel of university-educated North Americans (N = 259) using a systematic review of the effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation as a test case. The outcome variables were the perceived tentativeness of review findings and attitude toward bicycle helmet legislation. We manipulated two types of uncertainty: (i) deficient uncertainty (inclusion vs. non-inclusion of information on limitations of the studies included in the review) and (ii) consensus uncertainty (consensual findings showing legislation effectiveness vs. no evidence of effectiveness). We also examined whether reported expertise in helmet legislation and the frequency of wearing a helmet while cycling interact with the experimental factors. Results: None of the experimental manipulations had a main effect on the perceived tentativeness. The presentation of consensual efficacy findings had a positive main effect on the attitude toward the legislation. Self-reported expertise had a significant main effect on the perceived tentativeness, and exposing participants with reported expertise to results showing a lack of evidence of efficacy increased their favorable attitude toward the legislation. Participants' helmet use was positively associated with their attitude toward the legislation (but not with perceived tentativeness). Helmet use did not interact with the experimental manipulations. Conclusions: Motivated reasoning and cognitive dissonance influence a reader's ability to process information contained in a systematic review summary.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Dissonância Cognitiva , Humanos , Autorrelato , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
2.
Subst Use Misuse ; 57(4): 640-648, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35188071

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Informed by cognitive dissonance theory, the current study investigated the ability of youths' belief that drug use is wrong to predict likelihood of past year substance use abstinence as well as frequency of use at grades 8, 10, and 12. METHOD: Study analyses were executed from a statewide epidemiological survey of more than 125,000 youth using multi-group Zero-Inflated Poisson regression modeling. RESULTS: Personal belief that drug use is wrong demonstrated the largest magnitude of effect at each grade among the individual, family, and school-based factors under examination; this finding emerged with respect to predicting past year substance use abstinence as well as rates of substance use among individuals reporting past year use. Although differences across grades were evident for the magnitude of effect within various risk and protective factors, the rank ordering in magnitude of effect between factors was consistent across grades 8, 10, and 12. CONCLUSION: Current results underscore the salience of youths' belief that drug use is wrong in explaining likelihood of past year substance use at multiple time points during adolescence.Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2022.2034877 .


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Dissonância Cognitiva , Cultura , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Cognition ; 223: 105039, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35124454

RESUMO

As adults, not only do we choose what we prefer, we also tend to adapt our preferences according to our previous choices. We do this even when choosing blindly and we could not have had any previous preference for the option we chose. These blind choice-induced preferences are thought to result from cognitive dissonance as an effort to reconcile our choices and values. In the present preregistered study, we asked when this phenomenon develops. We reasoned that cognitive dissonance may emerge around 2 years of age in connection with the development of children's self-concept. We presented N = 200 children aged 16 to 36 months with a blind choice between two toys, and then tested whether their choice had induced a preference for the chosen, and a devaluation of the discarded, toy. Indeed, children's choice-induced preferences substantially increased with age. 26- to 36-months-old children preferred a neutral over the previously blindly discarded toy, but the previously chosen over the neutral toy, in line with cognitive dissonance predictions. Younger infants showed evidence against such blind choice-induced preferences, indicating its emergence around 2 years of age. Contrary to our hypotheses, the emergence of blind choice-induced preferences was not related to measures of self-concept development in the second year of life. Our results suggest that cognitive dissonance develops around 2 years. We speculate about cognitive mechanisms that underlie this development, including later-developing aspects of the self-concept and increasingly abstract representational abilities.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Dissonância Cognitiva , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Jogos e Brinquedos
4.
Appetite ; 171: 105935, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045324

RESUMO

Animal minds are of central importance to debates about their rights and welfare. Remaining ignorant of evidence that animals have minds is therefore likely to facilitate their mistreatment. Studying samples of adults and students from the UK and US we found that, consistent with motivational perspectives on meat consumption, those who were more (vs. less) committed to eating meat were more motivated to avoid exposure to information about food-animals' sentience (Studies 1), showed less interest in exposure to articles about intelligent food animals (Studies 2a and 2b), and were quicker to terminate exposure to internet pop-ups containing information about food-animals' minds (Studies 3a and 3b). At the same time, those who were more (vs. less) committed to eating meat approached information about companion-animals' minds (Studies 2a-3b) and unintelligent food animals (Studies 2a and 2b) in largely the same ways. The findings demonstrate that, within the UK and US, the desire to eat meat is associated with strategies to avoid information that is likely to challenge meat consumption.


Assuntos
Dissonância Cognitiva , Carne , Animais , Humanos , Motivação
5.
Appetite ; 169: 105812, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838870

RESUMO

We conceptualize the journey to ethical veganism in the stages of the transtheoretical model of change, from precontemplation through contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. At each stage, we explore the psychological barriers to progressing towards veganism, discuss how they manifest, and explore ways to overcome them. It is hoped that this paper can be used as a guide for animal advocates to identify the stage an individual is at, and understand and overcome the social and psychological barriers they may face to progressing. We argue that, while many people are ignorant of the cruel practices entailed in animal farming, many deliberately avoid thinking about the issue, are unable to appreciate the scale of the issue, and simply tend to favour the status quo. When engaging with the issue of farm animal suffering, meat-eaters are largely driven by cognitive dissonance, which manifests as motivated reasoning aimed at protecting one's image of oneself and one's society. This is facilitated by confirmation bias and complicit media which cater to the preferred views of their meat-eating audience. Even once convinced of veganism, habit and willpower present further barriers to acting on those beliefs. This is all in the context of a speciesist and carnistic culture where meat consumption is normal, farming is noble, and vegans are 'others'. We locate and elucidate each of these biases within the stages of the transtheoretical model and discuss the implications of this model for animal advocates and for further research.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegana , Veganos , Animais , Dissonância Cognitiva , Dieta Vegana/psicologia , Dieta Vegetariana/psicologia , Humanos , Carne , Princípios Morais , Veganos/psicologia
6.
J Adv Nurs ; 78(2): 486-497, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432326

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the experiences of healthcare personnel when they face resistiveness to care in people living with dementia in nursing homes. DESIGN: The study has a qualitative explorative design. METHODS: Three focus group interviews were conducted in June 2019. A total of 16 nurses and other healthcare personnel employed in three different nursing homes participated. A semi-structured interview guide was used during the focus group interviews. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using an inductive qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The analysis generated one overarching category-'Tension when facing resistiveness to care', which describes the discomfort healthcare personnel experienced when confronted with resistiveness to care in people with dementia-and two other categories: 'Attitude change' and 'Changing behaviour', which describes their strategies to reduce and/or manage the discomfort. Four subcategories-'Changing the mindset', Conceptual shift', Stepping back' and 'Not giving up'-described the actions taken by healthcare personnel to manage or reduce their cognitive dissonance. CONCLUSION: The strategies used to manage or reduce cognitive dissonance provide a new understanding of how healthcare personnel choose to approach resistiveness to care in people living with dementia. IMPACT: This study addresses cognitive dissonance, a discomfort experienced by healthcare personnel when facing resistiveness to care from people living with dementia. To reduce their dissonance, the participants employed several strategies, including coercive measures, when providing care. The theory of cognitive dissonance may help explain why healthcare personnel sometimes choose to employ coercive measures while providing care.


Assuntos
Dissonância Cognitiva , Demência , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
Eat Weight Disord ; 27(3): 1099-1112, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143404

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Investigate the efficacy of a dissonance-based (DB) intervention (i.e., the Body Project), during which some examples of intuitive eating were provided by peer leaders, in improving intuitive eating and targeting risk and protective factors for eating disorders (ED) among Brazilian women with body dissatisfaction. METHODS: Participants were randomized to a four-session DB intervention (n = 38) or assessment-only control (AOC) (n = 36), and completed validated measures assessing intuitive eating, body appreciation, self-esteem, body-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and disordered eating pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at 4- and 24-week follow-ups. RESULTS: The DB condition demonstrated significantly greater increases in intuitive eating, body appreciation and self-esteem scores compared to AOC from pre-intervention to post-intervention (between-condition Cohen's d = 0.73-0.98), 4-week (between-condition Cohen's d = 1.25-1.87) and 24-week follow-up (between-condition Cohen's d = 0.82-1.38). Also, the DB condition showed significantly greater decreases in body-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating scores from pre-intervention to post-intervention (between-condition Cohen's d = 0.76-1.04), 4-week (between-condition Cohen's d = 1.27-1.71) and 24-week follow-up (between-condition Cohen's d = 1.04-1.19). Regarding negative affect, DB condition showed significantly greater reduction only at 24-week follow-up (between-condition Cohen's d = 0.60). CONCLUSION: Results reinforce the efficacy of DB interventions in reducing ED risk factors for young women and support the preliminary efficacy of these programs in improving intuitive eating, body appreciation, and self-esteem. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I, randomized controlled trial. ReBEC (Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials; available at http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/ ) number of registration: RBR-2f57cs. Date of registration: June 1, 2020.


Assuntos
Insatisfação Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Imagem Corporal , Brasil , Dissonância Cognitiva , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0259473, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851979

RESUMO

The present study, conducted immediately after the 2020 presidential election in the United States, examined whether Democrats' and Republicans' polarized assessments of election legitimacy increased over time. In a naturalistic survey experiment, people (N = 1,236) were randomly surveyed either during the week following Election Day, with votes cast but the outcome unknown, or during the following week, after President Joseph Biden was widely declared the winner. The design unconfounded the election outcome announcement from the vote itself, allowing more precise testing of predictions derived from cognitive dissonance theory. As predicted, perceived election legitimacy increased among Democrats, from the first to the second week following Election Day, as their expected Biden win was confirmed, whereas perceived election legitimacy decreased among Republicans as their expected President Trump win was disconfirmed. From the first to the second week following Election Day, Republicans reported stronger negative emotions and weaker positive emotions while Democrats reported stronger positive emotions and weaker negative emotions. The polarized perceptions of election legitimacy were correlated with the tendencies to trust and consume polarized media. Consumption of Fox News was associated with lowered perceptions of election legitimacy over time whereas consumption of other outlets was associated with higher perceptions of election legitimacy over time. Discussion centers on the role of the media in the experience of cognitive dissonance and the implications of polarized perceptions of election legitimacy for psychology, political science, and the future of democratic society.


Assuntos
Emoções , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Política , Dissonância Cognitiva , Democracia , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/ética , Estados Unidos
9.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 30(4): 602-613, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Micronutrient deficiencies are common among bariatric patients; this study aimed to determine whether a cognitive dissonance-based virtual program improved adherence to multivitamin use in bariatric patients from northern Mexico. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial of the supplementation strategy was conducted over three months. The participants were randomized to an intervention or waitlisted control group and received two psycho-educative and four cognitive dissonance virtual sessions. Multiple linear regression was used to determine standardized estimates of associations between the intervention and dependent variables. Two path analyses were evaluated considering baseline and post-test measurements. RESULTS: Intervention was associated with higher concentrations of Hb (ß=0.758, p<0.001), vitamin D (ß=0.577, p<0.001), iron (ß=0.523, p<0.001), folate (ß=0.494, p<0.01), calcium (ß=0.452, p<0.01), higher adherence (ß=0.467, p<0.001), and level of knowledge (ß=0.298, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The dissonance-based intervention potentiated the level of supplementation adherence. A higher level of adherence was reflected in micronutrient concentrations, thus providing confirmation of intervention. Thus, support is found for a multidisciplinary clinical practice that enhances nutrition status after bariatric surgery for obesity.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Obesidade Mórbida , Dissonância Cognitiva , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Micronutrientes , Vitaminas
10.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(10): 793-804, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Test the hypothesis that the efficacy of a dissonance-based obesity/eating disorder prevention program, Project Health, could be enhanced by implementing it in single-sex groups and adding food response inhibition and attention training. METHOD: Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, young adults (N = 261; Mage = 19.3, 79% female; 64% White) were randomized to (a) single-sex or (b) mixed-sex groups that completed food response inhibition and attention training or (c) single-sex or (d) mixed-sex groups that completed generic response inhibition and attention training with nonfood images. Preregistered primary outcomes (body fat, Body Mass Index [BMI]), eating disorder symptoms and other outcomes were assessed at pretest and posttest. RESULTS: For one preregistered primary outcome, body fat loss, there was a significant interaction between the two manipulated factors (d = -.28), as well as significant main effects for sex composition of groups (d = -.18) and food response inhibition and attention training (d = -0.17), with the largest body fat loss occurring for single-sex groups implemented with food response inhibition and attention training. Although the two manipulated factors did not significantly affect the other outcomes (including BMI, the other preregistered primary outcome), there was a significant reduction in eating disorder symptoms across the conditions (within participant d = -.78), converging with prior evidence that Project Health produced larger reductions in symptoms than educational control participants. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that implementing Project Health in single-sex groups with food response inhibition and attention training produced the largest body fat loss effects, as well as significant reductions in eating disorder symptoms, suggesting that efforts to disseminate this prevention program are warranted. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Dissonância Cognitiva , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
11.
Eat Behav ; 43: 101572, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626891

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study is a secondary analysis testing the effects of an internet eating disorder prevention program on reward-based eating drive in a high-risk sample of college-aged women. METHOD: We analyzed data from 278 women who were randomized to internet dissonance-based intervention (DBI-I), internet cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBTI), or no intervention (NI). Both active conditions consisted of self-guided activities completed over the course of four weeks. Linear mixed effects modeling was used to test the effect of internet intervention on reward-based eating drive. RESULTS: DBI-I was associated with greater reductions in reward-based eating over time than NI. No other Condition × Time effects were found. DISCUSSION: The results provide preliminary support for DBI-I as a strategy for reducing reward-based eating drive in a high-risk population relative to no intervention.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Dissonância Cognitiva , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Recompensa , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(Suppl 2): S135-S144, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515772

RESUMO

Healthy aging is in part dependent upon people's willingness and ability to mobilize the effort necessary to support behaviors that promote health and well-being. People may have the best information relating to health along with the best intentions to stay healthy (e.g., health-related goals), but positive outcomes will ultimately be dependent upon them actually investing the necessary effort toward using this information to achieve their goals. In addition, the influences on effort mobilization may vary as a function of physical, psychological, and social changes experienced by the individual across the life span. Building on the overall theme of this special issue, we explore the relationships between motivation, effort mobilization, and healthy aging. We begin by characterizing the relationship between motivation and effort, and identify the factors that influence effort mobilization. We then consider the factors associated specifically with aging that may influence effort mobilization (e.g., changes in cardiovascular and neural mechanisms) and, ultimately, the health and well-being of older adults. Finally, distinguishing between those influential factors that are modifiable versus intractable, we identify ways to structure situations and beliefs to optimize mobilization in support of healthy aging.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável , Intenção , Motivação , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Idoso , Dissonância Cognitiva , Promoção da Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental
13.
14.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(3): 229-242, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present research examined whether concurrent expert testimony ("hot tubbing") and court-appointed testimony reduced adversarial allegiance in clinical experts' judgments compared with traditional adversarial expert testimony. HYPOTHESES: We predicted Hypothesis 1: Defense experts would render more not responsible judgments and lower ratings of criminal responsibility than would prosecution experts; Hypothesis 2: Adversarial allegiance effects on experts' judgments would be heightened for adversarial experts and attenuated for concurrent experts over time; Hypothesis 3: Adversarial and concurrent experts would report higher dissonance than would court-appointed experts and adversarial experts' ratings would increase over time, concurrent experts' ratings would decrease, and court-appointed experts' ratings would remain unchanged. METHOD: Clinicians and advanced clinical doctoral students conducted simulated criminal responsibility evaluations for the prosecution, defense, or court. We categorized participants as favoring the prosecution or defense based on their preexisting attitudes and randomly assigned them to the adversarial, concurrent, or court-appointed expert testimony conditions. Participants completed a dichotomous responsibility judgment, strength of responsibility ratings, and cognitive dissonance measure after initial evidence review (n = 93), report completion (n = 52), and testimony (n = 48). Concurrent experts generated a joint report outlining areas of agreement and disagreement before providing testimony. RESULTS: Concurrent testimony did not eliminate adversarial allegiance. Adversarial and concurrent experts' perceptions of responsibility did not significantly differ (d = .04, 95% CI [-.64, .71]) or change over time (ηp2 = .03); however, prosecution experts-across testimony types-rated the defendant as significantly more responsible than did defense experts (d = 1.87, 95% CI [1.06, 2.67]). Concurrent and adversarial experts did not differ in their reports and minimally differed in testimony content. CONCLUSIONS: Experts who initially favored the prosecution or defense showed adversarial allegiance regardless of expert testimony method, and we observed no attenuation of this bias over the course of their case involvement. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Viés , Prova Pericial/métodos , Defesa por Insanidade , Julgamento , Adulto , Dissonância Cognitiva , Dissidências e Disputas/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Prev Sci ; 22(8): 1086-1095, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152570

RESUMO

The cost-effectiveness of delivery methods for an eating disorder prevention program is reported. In an effectiveness trial (enrollment 2013-2015) comparing three formats (clinician-led, peer-led, and Internet-delivered) for delivering the Body Project eating disorder prevention program to college women versus an educational video control, the peer-led method was more effective than the three alternatives at preventing onset of eating disorders over 4-year follow-up. Eating disorder incidence was 19.3% for clinician-led groups, 8.1% for peer-led groups, 15.5% for Internet-based eBody Project participants, and 17.6% for educational video controls. Delivery costs per person are reported for the Body Project, including participant time, and the cost-effectiveness is calculated for peer-led groups versus the video control. Data analyses were conducted in 2019-2021. Delivery costs per person for the Body Project, including participant time, were approximately $96 for clinician-led groups, $80 for peer-led groups, and $22 for the eBody Project, compared with $9 for the educational video control. For each additional case of eating disorder onset that was prevented by the peer-led groups, compared with the video control, the cost was about $740. There were no differences in health care utilization across condition. Eating disorder prevention costs via the Body Project compare very favorably with the costs for treating an eating disorder, which previously have been estimated to range from approximately $20,300 for cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa to approximately $119,200 for adequate care treatment of anorexia nervosa. These analyses demonstrate the economic value of the Body Project for preventing eating disorders among college-age women when delivered in peer-facilitated groups. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01949649.


Assuntos
Dissonância Cognitiva , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Grupo Associado
16.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 33(6): 415, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081654
17.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(4): 301-315, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014692

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Two randomized-controlled studies explored the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of the EVERYbody Project, a gender-inclusive, diversity-focused, dissonance-based body image intervention for college students. METHOD: Trial 1 (N = 98; 80% female, 14% male, and 6% gender-expansive) piloted the two-session intervention delivered by an expert (faculty or staff) and peer cofacilitators compared to a waitlist control. Trial 2 (N = 141; 79% female, 15% male, and 6% gender-expansive) utilized peer leaders, comparing the EVERYbody Project to a video and expressive writing intervention. Around half of the participants in both trials self-identified in one or more specific marginalized identity category. Changes in eating disorder symptoms and risk factors were assessed through 1-month follow-up. Trial 1 also assessed the intervention's impact on students with marginalized identities through qualitative interviews. RESULTS: In Trial 1, the EVERYbody Project produced greater reductions in eating disorder symptoms, internalized appearance norms, body dissatisfaction, and negative affect compared to the waitlist control through 1-month follow-up, with medium effect sizes. The impact was similar in students with marginalized and majority identities, and qualitative interviews suggested specific positives of the intervention. In Trial 2, there were significant changes in two of four outcomes for participants in the EVERYbody Project compared to the video and expressive writing intervention, but overall, the intervention impact was modest. CONCLUSIONS: The EVERYbody Project is a feasible and acceptable inclusive dissonance-based body image program. It appears to be beneficial when delivered via experts, but research is needed to establish whether the program can be delivered using peer leaders with greater impact. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Dissonância Cognitiva , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Docentes , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 87: 102046, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048952

RESUMO

This report provides a review of randomized controlled trials that tested whether an eating disorder prevention program significantly reduced future onset of eating disorders, which is important because eating disorders are common and result in marked functional impairment. We identified 15 trials involving 5080 participants (mean ages ranging from 14.5 to 22.3) that reported 19 tests of whether selective eating disorder prevention programs significantly reduced future onset of eating disorders relative to some type of minimal control condition or a credible alternative intervention. Healthy lifestyle modification prevention programs, dissonance-based prevention programs, and a self-esteem/self-efficacy prevention program significantly reduced future onset of eating disorders, though the later was only evaluated in one trial. Psychoeducational, cognitive behavioral, behavioral weight gain, interpersonal, and family-therapy-based prevention programs did not significantly reduce future onset of eating disorders. The average prevention effect size was statistically significant (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = [1.09, 2.46], t = 2.54, p = .020) and there was heterogeneity in effect sizes (Q [18] = 35.96, p = .007). Prevention effects were significantly larger for trials that recruited participants with elevations on a single risk factor versus with elevations in multiple risk factors and for healthy lifestyle modification prevention programs versus cognitive behavioral prevention programs, though the remaining examined factors did not moderate intervention effect sizes (e.g., risk of bias). The fact that lifestyle modification and dissonance-based prevention programs significantly reduced future onset of eating disorders in multiple trials, producing a 54% to 77% reduction in future eating disorder onset implies that broadly implementing these prevention programs could reduce the population prevalence of eating disorders.


Assuntos
Dissonância Cognitiva , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Autoimagem
19.
Cortex ; 139: 1-11, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799054

RESUMO

The free choice paradigm constitutes one of the most explored paradigms of cognitive dissonance research. Typically, once asked to choose between two similarly rated items, subjects subsequently exhibit an increased preference for chosen items and a decreased preference for rejected ones. Recent studies have demonstrated that such choice-induced preference change (CIPC) occur exclusively for remembered choices, suggesting a mechanism that ensures subjective coherence across time. In the present work we predicted that in order for CIPC to occur, not only must past choices be remembered, but executive networks responsible for detecting and solving conflicts must also be functioning. We confirmed this prediction in a group of patients with frontal lobe lesions. While non-dysexecutive (NODYS) patients behaved as their matched controls did, dysexecutive (DYS) patients failed to change their subjective preferences even when they could remember their previous choices. We have therefore demonstrated the crucial role of executive functions mediated by the frontal lobe in cognitive dissonance resolution.


Assuntos
Dissonância Cognitiva , Função Executiva , Comportamento de Escolha , Lobo Frontal , Humanos
20.
Appetite ; 164: 105227, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812938

RESUMO

The 'meat paradox' is the psychological conflict between people's enjoyment of meat and their moral discomfort in relation to animal suffering. To date, most studies on the meat paradox have been in Western contexts where meat-eating is a cultural norm. In comparison, little is known about how the meat paradox is experienced in emerging economies such as India, where the longstanding cultural commitment to vegetarianism is under challenge. Further, most studies to date have been quantitative. This study bridges the knowledge gap by providing a qualitative comparison of the meat paradox in urban Australia and India, using cognitive dissonance theory as its main framework. We conducted in-depth interviews with twenty-two Sydney residents and thirty-three Mumbai residents, aged 23-45 years. The interviews were analysed using a grounded theory approach. In both countries, common strategies to reduce dissonance included distancing, belief in a human-animal hierarchy, carnism and criticisms of alternative dietary practices. Despite these commonalities, the manner in which these strategies manifested was different in each country, reflecting key socio-cultural and institutional differences. Australian participants became aware of the ethical challenges of meat consumption primarily via the media, whereas many Indian participants had direct experience of animal slaughter in wet markets. Thus, while Australian participants had reduced their meat consumption or turned to 'kinder' alternatives, Indian participants resorted to distancing and emotional numbing to reduce dissonance. Further, participants in both countries highlighted instances of moral hypocrisy in relation to vegetarian/vegan practices. While Australian participants discussed self-proclaimed vegetarians who might succumb to a dietary lapse, Indian participants discussed inconsistencies in relation to religious and caste-based norms.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Carne , Animais , Austrália , Dissonância Cognitiva , Dieta Vegetariana , Humanos , Índia
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