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1.
J Phys Chem A ; 125(15): 3177-3188, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834773

RESUMO

Nicotine exposure results in health risks not only for smokers but also for second- and third-hand smokers. Unraveling nicotine's degradation mechanism and the harmful chemicals that are produced under different conditions is vital to assess exposure risks. We performed a theoretical study to describe the early chemistry of nicotine degradation by investigating two important reactions that nicotine can undergo: hydrogen abstraction by hydroxyl radicals and unimolecular dissociation. The former contributes to the control of the degradation mechanism below 800 K due to a non-Arrhenius kinetics, which implies an enhancement of reactivity as temperature decreases. The latter becomes important at higher temperatures due to its larger activation energy. This change in the degradation mechanism is expected to affect the composition of vapors inhaled by smokers and room occupants. Conventional cigarettes, which operate at temperatures higher than 1000 K, are more prone to yield harmful pyridinyl radicals via nicotine dissociation, while nicotine in electronic cigarettes and vaporizers, with operating temperatures below 600 K, will be more likely degraded by hydroxyl radicals, resulting in a vapor with a different composition. Although low-temperature nicotine delivery devices have been claimed to be less harmful due to their nonburning operating conditions, the non-Arrhenius kinetics that we observed for the degradation mechanism below 873 K suggests that nicotine degradation may be more rapidly initiated as temperature is reduced, indicating that these devices may be more harmful than it is commonly assumed.


Assuntos
Nicotina/metabolismo , Fumantes , Dispositivos para Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Cinética , Conformação Molecular , Nicotina/química , Teoria Quântica
2.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(5): 829-835, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196838

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The rapidly evolving landscape of vaping devices has complicated analyses of use patterns among youth and young adults. The current study describes the prevalence of use, substances vaped, and purchasing behaviors across five different vaping device categories. AIMS AND METHODS: Participants (n = 2505; mean age = 19.2, SD = 0.46) from a cohort in the Los Angeles area completed web-based surveys from June 2018 to October 2019. For each of four device type categories depicted via digital images (any pod-style vape, cigalike, box-mod, vape pen) and for JUUL specifically, participants reported ever and past 30-day use, substance vaped (mostly nicotine, nicotine and tetrahydrocannabinol [THC], mostly THC, neither), ownership of device (yes/no), where they obtained that device (eg, purchased themselves, from a friend), and if purchased, purchase location (eg, vape shop, online). RESULTS: Overall, 44.9% reported ever use, and 26.2% reported past 30-day use of at least one of the devices. The prevalence of past 30-day use was highest for pod-style vapes (any pod = 17.0%; JUUL = 15.1%). Among respondents who reported ever owning any device (n = 643 [25.7%]), 59.9% reported purchasing the device themselves, despite not being of legal purchasing age (15.4% of total sample); across all device types, products were most often purchased in vape shops or online. CONCLUSIONS: Across all devices, the prevalence of self-purchase of vaping devices among underage young adults in the Los Angeles area was high, and most were purchased from a vape shop or online. Tobacco control policies to prevent underage purchase of tobacco products-particularly among never smokers-are needed. IMPLICATIONS: A high proportion of underage young adults reported owning their own vaping device and having purchased it themselves from a vape shop or online. Stronger tobacco control policies and better enforcement efforts are needed to successfully prevent underage purchase of tobacco products.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Dronabinol , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Nicotina , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Los Angeles , Masculino , Prevalência , Política Pública , Fumantes , Dispositivos para Fumar/classificação , Dispositivos para Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle Social Formal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(10): 1901-1908, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219313

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Evaluations of multiple tobacco product use and temporal changes in patterns of use are complicated by a large number of combinations and transitions. Visualization tools could easily identify most common patterns and transitions. METHODS: Set intersection bar plots describe ever use of five tobacco products among 12-17 years old youth in wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study (N = 11 497). Heat maps visualize unweighted frequencies of transitions from ever use at wave 1 (2013-2014) to past 12-month use at wave 2 (2014-2015). Weighted calibrated heat maps assess differences in relative frequencies of transitions by pattern at wave 1 and identify differences in transitions by sex. RESULTS: The most common tobacco product ever use patterns in wave 1 were of cigarettes only, e-cigarettes only or hookah only, followed by ever use of both cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Initiation of use between waves was uncommon. The most frequent transition among those who reported use at wave 2 but not at wave 1 (N = 971) was to e-cigarette use (N = 301). However, among e-cigarette-only ever users at wave 1 (N = 260), about half did not report any product use at wave 2. Use of three or more products remained stable. Adolescent girls compared to boys appeared more likely to report hookah use at both waves. CONCLUSION: Set intersection bar plots and heat maps are useful for visualizing tobacco product use patterns and transitions, especially for multiple products. Both techniques could identify common problematic tobacco use patterns across and within populations. IMPLICATIONS: Given the growing complexity of the youth tobacco use landscape, approaches to efficiently communicate patterns of multiple tobacco product use should be used more often. This study introduces set intersection bar plots and modified versions of heat maps to the tobacco product literature and illustrates their use in the PATH youth sample. These techniques are useful for visualizing absolute and relative frequencies of multiple possible patterns and transitions. They also suggest targets for subsequent statistical inference such as sex differences in hookah use. The methods can be applied more generally for data visualization wherever large number of combinations occurs.


Assuntos
Dispositivos para Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Addict Behav ; 105: 106345, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the sources of vaping products reported by adolescents, and the characteristics of adolescents who reported purchasing a vaping product in the past year in the United States (US), Canada (CA), and England (EN). METHODS: Data were from the 2017 ITC Youth Tobacco and Vaping Survey, a web-based survey of 12,128 respondents aged 16-19 years recruited from commercial panels in the US, CA, and EN. Respondents who have vaped in the past 12 months were asked whether they had purchased a vaping product, and from where (vape shop, online, retail), as well as whether anyone refused to sell them a vaping product because of their age. Respondents who reported vaping in the past 30 days were asked where they had obtained their vaping product from a social and/or commercial source. RESULTS: Only about 7.5% of respondents reported having purchased a vaping product in the past year. Among those who had vaped in the past year, 32.6% reported having purchased a vaping product in the past year. Purchasing prevalence was significantly higher among US respondents compared to those from CA and EN; purchase prevalence was also higher among Canadian adolescents than respondents from England. The most commonly reported purchase location for vaping products in all counties was vape shops. Among past 30-day vapers, 42.5% reported getting their vaping products only from social sources, 41.4% only from commercial sources, and 13.4% from both types of sources. Purchasing a vaping product in the past year was associated with being male, of legal age to buy tobacco and vaping products, and greater frequency of smoking and vaping in the past 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Most adolescents have not purchased a vaping product, but among those who had, vape shops were the mostly commonly reported location for buying a vaping product. Purchasing of a vape product was more commonly reported by those who vape more frequently and by those of legal age to buy a vaping product.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Dispositivos para Fumar/economia , Vaping/economia , Adolescente , Canadá , Comércio/tendências , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Política Pública , Dispositivos para Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(1): 77-82, ene.-feb. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The TackSHS project aims to comprehensively elucidate the impact that exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) from cigarettes and second-hand aerosols (SHA) from electronic cigarettes have on the respiratory health of the European population according to socioeconomic characteristics and other determinants. METHOD: The TackSHS project involves a series of coordinated studies carried out by 11 academic and public health organisations from six European countries. The project will investigate: a) the determinants of SHS and SHA exposure assessed at the individual level (surveys on representative general population samples) and in common environments (environmental sampling in specific settings); b) the overall disease burden, mortality and morbidity attributable to such exposure; and c) its economic impact in terms of direct health care costs. The project will also examine specific acute respiratory health changes in healthy individuals and patients with respiratory diseases exposed to SHS and SHA. In addition, the project will examine the effectiveness of a novel intervention to reduce SHS exposure in households where smoking is permitted. All these studies are inter-related and involve collaborative coordination among the participant organisations. CONCLUSIONS: The comprehensive, integrated approach of the TackSHS project will enable a significant step forward from the current status quo in the understanding of the impact of SHS and SHA exposure on health and provide the basis for health policy recommendations to help European countries to further reduce the harm caused by SHS and SHA exposure


OBJETIVO: El proyecto TackSHS pretende caracterizar el impacto global de la exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco (HAT) y al aerosol de los cigarrillos electrónicos (ACE) en la salud respiratoria de la población europea según variables socioeconómicas y otros determinantes. MÉTODO: El proyecto TackSHS consiste en una serie de estudios coordinados y gestionados por 11 organizaciones académicas y de salud pública de seis países europeos. El proyecto estudiará: a) los determinantes de la exposición al HAT y al ACE a nivel individual (encuestas en muestras representativas de la población general) y en espacios comunes (muestras ambientales en lugares específicos); b) su carga general de enfermedad y la morbimortalidad atribuible a tal exposición; y c) su impacto económico en términos de costes sanitarios directos e indirectos. Además, el proyecto investigará cambios específicos a corto plazo en la salud respiratoria en personas sanas y en pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias expuestos al HAT y al ACE. También examinará la efectividad de una intervención novedosa para reducir la exposición al HAT en hogares donde se permite fumar. Todos estos estudios están interrelacionados y conllevan una coordinación colaborativa entre las instituciones participantes. CONCLUSIÓN: El enfoque integral del proyecto TackSHS permitirá un avance significativo en la evidencia sobre la comprensión del impacto de la exposición al HAT y al ACE en la salud, y proporcionará una base para desarrollar recomendaciones políticas sanitarias para ayudar a los países europeos a reducir los daños causados por la exposición al HAT y al ACE


Assuntos
Humanos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Dispositivos para Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Protocolos Clínicos
6.
Tob Control ; 29(Suppl 1): s5-s12, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992658

RESUMO

A working group (WG) of experts from diverse fields related to nicotine and tobacco addiction was convened to identify elements and measures from the Host: Social/Cognitive domain to include in the Tobacco Regulatory Research Collection in the PhenX Toolkit, a catalogue of measures for biomedical research. This paper describes the methods used to identify, select, approve and include measures in the toolkit with potential relevance to users of both conventional and newer tobacco products, such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). In addition to 25 complementary measures primarily focused on cigarette use already present in the PhenX Toolkit, the WG recommended 11 additional social/cognitive measures focused on children and adult users or potential users of tobacco products. Of these, 10 were self-administered measures: frequency of communication with parents about smoking, quality of communication with parents about smoking, susceptibility to tobacco use, behaviour economics/purchase behaviour, motivation to quit (both single and multi-item measures), hedonic tone or response to pleasurable situations, multigroup ethnic identity, peer and family influence on smoking, attentional control and house rules about tobacco use. The remaining selected measure was computer based (distress tolerance). Although validated tools for use in the Host: Social/Cognitive realm are available, much remains to be done to develop, standardise and validate the tools for application to users of e-cigarettes and other non-combusted tobacco products, non-English language speakers and adolescents.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/normas , Guias como Assunto , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Sociais , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comitês Consultivos , Consenso , Humanos , Fenótipo , Projetos de Pesquisa , Dispositivos para Fumar , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência
7.
Tob Control ; 29(Suppl 1): s20-s26, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992660

RESUMO

The current paper describes the PhenX (Phenotypes and eXposures) Toolkit Tobacco Regulatory Research Agent specialty area and the Agent Working Group's (WG's) 6-month consensus process to identify high-priority, scientifically supported measures for cross-study comparison and analysis. Eleven measures were selected for inclusion in the Toolkit. Eight of these are interviewer-administered or self-administered protocols: history of switching to lower tar and nicotine cigarettes, passive exposures to tobacco products, tobacco brand and variety (covering cigars, cigarettes and smokeless tobacco separately), tobacco product adulteration (vent-blocking or filter-blocking) and tobacco warning label exposure and recall. The remaining three protocols are either laboratory-based or visual inspection-based: measurement of nicotine content in smoked or smokeless tobacco products and the physical properties of these two classes of products. Supplemental protocols include a biomarker of exposure and smoking topography. The WG identified the lack of standard measurement protocols to assess subjective ratings of tobacco product flavours and their appeal to consumers as a major gap. As the characteristics of tobacco products that influence perception and use are tobacco regulatory research priorities, the reliable assessment of flavours remains an area requiring further development.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/normas , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Dispositivos para Fumar/normas , Fumar/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Comitês Consultivos , Consenso , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Rotulagem de Produtos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Software , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência
8.
Addict Behav ; 102: 106133, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704431

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Given the increased availability of tobacco products and devices, rising trends of vaping, and changing marijuana policies in the United States (U.S.), this study reports the prevalence of U.S. young adults using tobacco products/devices for marijuana consumption and associations with substance use problems. METHODS: U.S. nationally representative data from Wave 3 (2015-2016) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study were used to assess young adults' (18-24 years old, unweighted sample = 8453) ever marijuana use and ever use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), hookah, or cigars for marijuana consumption. A multinomial logistic regression predicted the Substance Use Problem subscale of the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs inventory categorized into low (0-1), moderate (2-3) and high (4 or more) symptoms. RESULTS: Weighted analyses indicated about half of young adults (52.1%) had ever used marijuana. Of this group, the majority (80.1%) ever used any tobacco product/device for marijuana use including: ENDS (24.5%), hookah (25.2%), or cigar (74.0%). Ever use of tobacco products/devices for marijuana significantly predicted moderate (RRR = 1.70, p < 0.01) and high (RRR = 4.67, p < 0.01) substance use problems controlling for sex, race, employment, education, and past 30-day cigarette, cigar, ENDS, hookah, marijuana and alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: Use of tobacco products/devices for marijuana consumption is common among U.S. young adults and it is associated with substance use problems. A better understanding of how tobacco devices are being used to support use of both substances and the outcomes of co-use are needed to inform policy and public health interventions.


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Dispositivos para Fumar , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Addict Behav ; 98: 106052, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415971

RESUMO

Understanding variability in smoking patterns may inform smoking cessation interventions. Retrospective reports of cigarettes smoked per day may be biased and typically do not provide temporal precision regarding when cigarettes are smoked. However, real-time, user-initiated tracking, such as logging each time a cigarette is smoked, can be burdensome over long time frames. In this study, adult, non-treatment seeking daily smokers (N = 22) used an electronic, smart lighter to light and timestamp cigarettes for 14 days. Participants reported number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) via a mobile device (daily diary) and retrospectively reported CPD at the end of the study using the Timeline Followback (TLFB). Self-reported lighter satisfaction and adherence varied with 68% of participants reporting that they liked using the lighter and participants reporting using the lighter for 92% of cigarettes smoked, on average. Lighter-estimated CPD did not differ from daily diary-estimated CPD, but was significantly lower than TLFB estimates. The lighter resulted in greater day-to-day variability relative to other methods and fewer rounded cigarette counts (digit bias) relative to the TLFB. The lighter appears to be feasible for capturing data on smoking patterns in daily smokers. Though false positive cigarettes are likely low, additional technologies that augment data captured from the lighter may be necessary to reduce false negatives (missed cigarettes) and alternative lighter designs may appeal more to certain smokers.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Dispositivos para Fumar , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação Pessoal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato
10.
Behav Brain Res ; 372: 112061, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254537

RESUMO

The pharmacological effects of tobacco products are primarily mediated by nicotine; however, research suggests that several non-nicotine tobacco constituents may alter the reinforcing effects of nicotine. This study evaluated the reinforcing effects of aqueous solutions of smoke/aerosol condensate from cigarettes, little cigars, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), and waterpipe tobacco in a self-administration procedure to determine if abuse liability of these tobacco products differed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 64 total) were trained to self-administer intravenous nicotine (30 µg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio 5 schedule of reinforcement. Following nicotine dose-effect assessment (1, 7.5, 15, and 30 µg/kg/infusion), rats were given access to smoke/aerosol condensate derived from their assigned tobacco product. Rats responded for smoke/aerosol condensate containing 1, 7.5, 15, and 30 µg/kg/infusion nicotine, with the ratio of nicotine:non-nicotine constituents held constant across doses for each tobacco product. Responding for nicotine or smoke/aerosol condensate was also assessed on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Cigarette, little cigar, and e-cigarette smoke/aerosol condensates shifted the nicotine dose-effect curve leftward, whereas waterpipe tobacco smoke condensate shifted the dose-effect curve rightward. Smoke/aerosol condensate from all tobacco products produced similar levels of responding compared to nicotine alone during the progressive ratio phase. Results suggest that non-nicotine constituents in cigarettes, little cigars, and e-cigarettes differentially enhance nicotine's reinforcing potency. In contrast, waterpipe tobacco blunted nicotine's reinforcing potency, suggesting that it may contain unique constituents that dampen nicotine's reinforcing effects.


Assuntos
Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Aerossóis , Animais , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Masculino , Nicotina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reforço Psicológico , Autoadministração , Dispositivos para Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tabaco para Cachimbos de Água/efeitos adversos
11.
12.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(3): 486-493, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685192

RESUMO

Smoking in car interiors is of particular concern because concentrations of potentially harmful substances can be expected to be high in such small spaces. To assess the potential exposure for occupants, especially children, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of the pollution in 7 passenger cars while tobacco cigarettes and new electronic smoking products (IQOS, e-cigarette) were being smoked. We collected data on the indoor climate and indoor air pollution with fine and ultrafine particles and volatile organic compounds while the cars were being driven. Smoking of an IQOS had almost no effect on the mean number concentration (NC) of fine particles (>300 nm) or on the PM2.5 concentration in the interior. In contrast, the NC of particles with a diameter of 25-300 nm markedly increased in all vehicles (1.6-12.3 × 104/cm3). When an e-cigarette was vaped in the interior, 5 of the 7 tested cars showed a strong increase in the PM2.5 concentration to 75-490 µg/m3. The highest PM2.5 levels (64-1988 µg/m3) were measured while tobacco cigarettes were being smoked. With the e-cigarette, the concentration of propylene glycol increased in 5 car interiors to 50-762 µg/m3, whereby the German indoor health precaution guide value for propylene glycol was exceeded in 3 vehicles and the health hazard guide value in one. In 4 vehicles, the nicotine concentration also increased to 4-10 µg/m3 while the e-cigarette was being used. The nicotine concentrations associated with the IQOS and e-cigarette were comparable, whereas the highest nicotine levels (8-140 µg/m3) were reached with tobacco cigarettes. Cigarette use also led to pollution of the room air with formaldehyde (18.5-56.5 µg/m3), acetaldehyde (26.5-141.5 µg/m3), and acetone (27.8-75.8 µg/m3). Tobacco cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and the IQOS are all avoidable sources of indoor pollutants. To protect the health of other non-smoking passengers, especially that of sensitive individuals such as children and pregnant women, these products should not be used in cars.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Automóveis , Dispositivos para Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Aldeídos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Cetonas/análise , Masculino , Nicotina/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
13.
Salud Publica Mex ; 60(5): 598-604, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550122

RESUMO

The new tobacco products that include electronic cigarettes (called "E Cig", "e-hookahs", "mods", "vape-pens"), electronic nicotine delivery systems (SEAN, Spanish acronym), similar systems without nicotine (SSSN, Spanish acronym) and alternative nicotine consumption systems (SACN, Spanish acronym), are positioned in the global market with a discourse of harm reduction and risk minimization. This manuscript summarizes the scientific evidence and presents a regulatory proposal for this technological innovation, oriented to guide the decision making of legislators, government institutions and organized civil society. The scientific evidence concludes that there is no safe tobacco product for health. The addictive nature of nicotine and the health damages for children, adolescents and pregnant women is the fundamental argument. These new products promote the transition to conventional cigarettes and have not shown efficacy for smoking cessation, on the contrary, they promote dual use. High-level regulation must be formulated without the intervention of the manufacturers or institutions with a conflict of interest in the context of the complete and integral World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control implementation.


Los nuevos productos de tabaco, entre los que se incluyen los cigarros electrónicos (denominados "E Cigs", "e-hookahs", "mods", "vape-pens"), los sistemas electrónicos de administración de nicotina (SEAN), los sistemas similares sin nicotina (SSSN) y los sistemas alternativos de consumo de nicotina (SACN), incursionan en el mercado global con un discurso de reducción del daño y minimización del riesgo. Este manuscrito resume la evidencia científica y una propuesta regulatoria sobre esta innovación tecnológica, con el fin de orientar la toma de decisiones de legisladores, instituciones gubernamentales y la sociedad civil organizada. La evidencia científica concluye que no existe un producto de tabaco seguro para la salud; la naturaleza adictiva de la nicotina y los daños a la salud causados en niños, adolescentes y mujeres embarazadas constituyen el argumento fundamental. Estos nuevos productos promueven la transición al consumo de cigarros combustibles y no han demostrado eficacia para la cesación tabáquica; por el contrario, promueven el uso dual. Toda regulación debe formularse sin la intervención de los fabricantes o instituciones con conflicto de interés y en el marco de la implementación completa e integral del Convenio Marco de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para el Control del Tabaco.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , México , Dispositivos para Fumar
14.
JAMA Intern Med ; 178(12): 1608-1615, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326017

RESUMO

Importance: Hip-hop is the leading music genre in the United States and its fan base includes a large proportion of adolescents and young adults of all racial and ethnic groups, particularly minorities. The appearance of combustible and electronic tobacco and marijuana products, especially brand placement and use by popular and influential artists, may increase the risk of tobacco and marijuana use and decrease perceptions of harm. Objective: To assess the prevalence of the appearance and use of combustible and electronic tobacco and marijuana products, including brand placement, in leading hip-hop songs. Design, Setting, and Participants: Analysis of top 50 songs from 2013 to 2017 of Billboard magazine's weekly Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs with videos that included the appearance or use of combustible tobacco and marijuana products (manufactured cigarettes, cigars, hookah or waterpipe, pipe, hand-rolled tobacco and marijuana products, marijuana buds); appearance of exhaled smoke or vapor without an identifiable source product; appearance or use of electronic tobacco and marijuana products (eg, electronic cigarettes); tobacco or marijuana brand placement; appearance or use of combustible and electronic tobacco and marijuana by main or featured artist. Data were collected from December 6, 2017, to June 4, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of (1) appearance or use of combustible tobacco and marijuana products, (2) appearance of smoke or vapor, (3) appearance or use of electronic tobacco and marijuana products, (4) tobacco or marijuana brand placement, and (5) appearance or use of combustible and electronic tobacco and marijuana by main or featured artist. Probability of appearance or use of combustible and electronic tobacco and marijuana products by quartile of viewership of videos. Results: The proportion of leading hip-hop videos containing combustible use, electronic use, or smoke or vapor ranged from 40.2% (76 of 189) in 2015, to 50.7% (102 of 201) in 2016. For each year, the leading category of combustible use was hand-rolled products. The appearance of branded products increased from 0% in 2013 (0 of 82) to 9.9% in 2017 (10 of 101) for combustible products, and from 25.0% in 2013 (3 of 12) to 87.5% in 2017 (14 of 16) for electronic products. The prevalence of combustible or electronic product use or exhaled smoke or vapor increased by quartile of total number of views: 41.9% (8700 to 19 million views) among songs in the first quartile of viewership and 49.7% among songs in the fourth quartile of viewership (112 million to 4 billion views). Conclusions and Relevance: Combustible and electronic tobacco and marijuana use frequently occurred in popular hip-hop music videos. The genre's broad appeal, use of branded products by influential artists, and rise of electronic product and marijuana use may contribute to a growing public health concern of tobacco and marijuana use.


Assuntos
Música , Dispositivos para Fumar , Fumar , Gravação em Vídeo , Humanos
15.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(5): 598-604, sep.-oct. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004652

RESUMO

Resumen Los nuevos productos de tabaco, entre los que se incluyen los cigarros electrónicos (denominados "E Cigs", "e-hookahs", "mods", "vape-pens"), los sistemas electrónicos de administración de nicotina (SEAN), los sistemas similares sin nicotina (SSSN) y los sistemas alternativos de consumo de nicotina (SACN), incursionan en el mercado global con un discurso de reducción del daño y minimización del riesgo. Este manuscrito resume la evidencia científica y una propuesta regulatoria sobre esta innovación tecnológica, con el fin de orientar la toma de decisiones de legisladores, instituciones gubernamentales y la sociedad civil organizada. La evidencia científica concluye que no existe un producto de tabaco seguro para la salud; la naturaleza adictiva de la nicotina y los daños a la salud causados en niños, adolescentes y mujeres embarazadas constituyen el argumento fundamental. Estos nuevos productos promueven la transición al consumo de cigarros combustibles y no han demostrado eficacia para la cesación tabáquica; por el contrario, promueven el uso dual. Toda regulación debe formularse sin la intervención de los fabricantes o instituciones con conflicto de interés y en el marco de la implementación completa e integral del Convenio Marco de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para el Control del Tabaco.


Abstract: The new tobacco products that include electronic cigarettes (called "E Cig", "e-hookahs", "mods", "vape-pens"), electronic nicotine delivery systems (SEAN, Spanish acronym), similar systems without nicotine (SSSN, Spanish acronym) and alternative nicotine consumption systems (SACN, Spanish acronym), are positioned in the global market with a discourse of harm reduction and risk minimization. This manuscript summarizes the scientific evidence and presents a regulatory proposal for this technological innovation, oriented to guide the decision making of legislators, government institutions and organized civil society. The scientific evidence concludes that there is no safe tobacco product for health. The addictive nature of nicotine and the health damages for children, adolescents and pregnant women is the fundamental argument. These new products promote the transition to conventional cigarettes and have not shown efficacy for smoking cessation, on the contrary, they promote dual use. High-level regulation must be formulated without the intervention of the manufacturers or institutions with a conflict of interest in the context of the complete and integral World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control implementation.


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde Pública , Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Guias como Assunto , Dispositivos para Fumar , México
16.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 164, 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170593

RESUMO

Heated tobacco products (HTPs) are new tech devices that release nicotine and other volatile compounds into an inhalable aerosol by heating the tobacco. At their operating temperatures, tobacco combustion is unlikely.The aim of this randomized cross-over study was to measure the exposure levels of the combustion marker, carbon monoxide in the exhaled breath (eCO) of subjects after use of two HTPs and to compare these levels with participants' own brand of cigarettes.A total of 12 healthy smokers who reported smoking ≥10 conventional cigarettes per day for at least 5 years took part in the study. Product administration consisted of a first round of 10 puffs, which was followed by an identical second round after a 5 min pause in between rounds. After obtaining a baseline eCO value, this measure was recorded at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 min after the first puff of the first round. In contrast to combustible cigarettes, no eCO elevations were observed in the exhaled breath after use of the HTPs under investigation in any of the study participants.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Dispositivos para Fumar , Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Administração por Inalação , Estudos Cross-Over , Expiração/fisiologia , Humanos , Fumar/tendências , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Pediatrics ; 141(2)2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29295893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nearly 2.9 million US adolescents engaged with online tobacco marketing in 2013 to 2014. We assess whether engagement is a risk factor for tobacco use initiation, increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. METHODS: We analyzed data from 11 996 adolescents sampled in the nationally representative, longitudinal Population Assessment for Tobacco and Health study. At baseline (2013-2014), we ascertained respondents' engagement with online tobacco marketing. At follow-up (2014-2015), we determined if respondents had initiated tobacco use, increased frequency of use, progressed to poly-product use, or quit. Accounting for known risk factors, we fit a multivariable logistic regression model among never-users who engaged at baseline to predict initiation at follow-up. We fit similar models to predict increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. RESULTS: Compared with adolescents who did not engage, those who engaged reported higher incidences of initiation (19.5% vs 11.9%), increased frequency of use (10.3% vs 4.4%), and progression to poly-product use (5.8% vs 2.4%), and lower incidence of cessation at follow-up (16.1% vs 21.5%). Accounting for other risk factors, engagement was positively associated with initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.57), increased frequency of use (aOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.24-2.00), progression to poly-product use (aOR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20-2.43), and negatively associated with cessation (aOR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.50-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Engagement with online tobacco marketing represents a risk factor for adolescent tobacco use. FDA marketing regulation and cooperation of social-networking sites could limit engagement.


Assuntos
Internet , Marketing , Dispositivos para Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uso de Tabaco/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Subst Use Misuse ; 53(10): 1638-1644, 2018 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29338581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perceived discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking and other substance use among members of disadvantaged minority groups. However, most studies have focused on a single minority group, have not considered the individual's attribution for the discrimination, and have not considered emerging tobacco products. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the associations between perceived discrimination and use of six tobacco products (cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, hookah, and smokeless tobacco) in a diverse sample of 1,068 adults in the United States. METHODS: Participants were recruited on Amazon's Mechanical Turk and participated in an online survey. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between perceived discrimination and use of each tobacco product. Interactions between discrimination and demographic characteristics, and between discrimination and perceived reasons for discrimination, were evaluated. RESULTS: Controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination was a risk factor for current use of five of the six tobacco products. These associations were consistent across racial/ethnic groups and regardless of the individual's attribution for the reason for the discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that perceived discrimination is a risk factor for the use of multiple tobacco products, and that this association is not limited to particular demographic groups or types of discrimination. Public health programs could potentially reduce tobacco-related disease by teaching healthier ways to cope with discrimination.


Assuntos
Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Percepção Social , Adulto , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Dispositivos para Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Addict Behav ; 77: 67-72, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with mental health conditions represent a priority population for tobacco control. This population smokes cigarettes at disproportionately higher rates than the general population, but less is known about the relationship between non-cigarette tobacco use and mental health status. METHOD: In 2013, 2370 young adults recruited from 11 colleges in North Carolina and Virginia completed an online survey on tobacco use. We compared past 6-month self-reported mental health diagnosis, past 30-day depression score, and past 7-day stress score to past 30-day cigarette, e-cigarette, waterpipe, cigar, and smokeless tobacco use. Models adjusted for age, gender, race, ethnicity, and mother's education. Non-cigarette products were also adjusted for past 30-day cigarette use. RESULTS: Among participants, 249 (10.5%) reported a mental health diagnosis, most commonly depression (5.5%), ADHD/ADD (4.5%), and anxiety (0.8%). Those who reported a mental health diagnosis had greater odds of using cigarettes (AOR=1.55; CI=1.01, 2.27). Mean stress score was 16.0 (SD=6.9) of possible 40. Higher stress scale score was associated with increased odds of e-cigarette (AOR=1.03; CI=1.01, 1.05), waterpipe (AOR=1.04; CI=1.01, 1.06), and cigarette (AOR=1.02; CI=1.00, 1.04) use. Mean depression score was 7.2 (SD=5.6) of possible 33. Higher depression scale score was associated with increased odds for e-cigarette (AOR=1.04; CI=1.01, 1.08) and cigarette (AOR=1.03; CI=1.01, 1.06) use. CONCLUSION: Findings in this study provide further evidence of a potential relationship between non-cigarette tobacco products and mental health status. Tobacco control efforts aimed at reducing tobacco use disparities among mental health populations should focus on non-cigarette tobacco products in addition to cigarettes.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Dispositivos para Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Virginia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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