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2.
Reprod Health ; 20(Suppl 1): 193, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol can be provided up to 63 days' gestation in India. This accounts for 67.5 percent of all abortions in the country. We conducted an assessment to determine the availability of medical abortion medicines, specifically the combi-pack, in India. METHODS: We applied the World Health Organization landscape assessment protocol at the national level. The assessment protocol included a five-step adaptation of an existing availability framework, including online data collection, desk review, country-level key informant interviews, and an analysis to identify barriers and opportunities to improve medical abortion availability. The assessment was conducted between August and March 2021. RESULTS: Medicines for medical abortion are included in the national essential drug list and available with prescription in India. The assessment identified 42 combi-pack products developed by 35 manufacturers. The quality of medical abortion medicines is regulated by national authorities; but as health is devolved to states, there are significant inter-state variations. This is seen across financing, procurement, manufacturing, and monitoring mechanisms for quality assurance of medical abortion medicines prior to distribution. There is a need to strengthen supply chain systems, ensure consistent availability of trained providers and build community awareness on use of medical abortion medicines for early abortions, at the time of the assessment. CONCLUSION: Opportunities to improve availability and quality of medical abortion medicines exist. For example, uniform implementation of regulatory standards, greater emphasis on quality-assurance during manufacturing, and standardizing of procurement and supply chain systems across states. Regular in-service training of providers on medical abortion is required. Finally, innovations in evidence dissemination and community engagement about the recently amended abortion law are needed.


Medical abortion is popular in India and benefits from a liberal legal context. It is important to understand the availability of quality abortion medicines in the country. Using the World Health Organization country assessment protocol and availability framework for medical abortion medicines we examined the availability of these medicines from supply to demand. We used this information to identify opportunities for increasing availability of quality-assured medical abortion medicines. We found that the context for medical abortion varies across states. Strengthening procurement and supply chain management, with a greater emphasis on quality-assurance and regulation of manufacturing should be instituted at the state-level. Training is also needed to increase provider knowledge of the latest national guidelines and laws to ensure respectful and person-centered services. Finally, the public should be informed about medical abortion as a safe and effective choice, especially for early abortions.


Assuntos
Abortivos , Aborto Induzido , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Misoprostol , Humanos , Índia , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Feminino , Gravidez , Abortivos/provisão & distribuição , Misoprostol/provisão & distribuição , Mifepristona/provisão & distribuição , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribuição
3.
Thorax ; 79(7): 676-679, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760170

RESUMO

Contemporary data on the availability, cost and affordability of essential medicines for chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) across low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) are missing, despite most people with CRDs living in LMICs. Cross-sectional data for seven CRD medicines in pharmacies, healthcare facilities and central medicine stores were collected from 60 LMICs in 2022-2023. Medicines for symptomatic relief were widely available and affordable, while preventative treatments varied widely in cost, were less available and largely unaffordable. There is an urgent need to address these issues if the Sustainable Development Goal 3 is to be achieved for people with asthma by 2030.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Medicamentos Essenciais , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribuição , Medicamentos Essenciais/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Custos de Medicamentos , Doenças Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Respiratórias/economia
4.
Reprod Health ; 20(Suppl 1): 191, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2019, the World Health Organization identified improving access to safe abortion as an important priority toward improving sexual and reproductive health and rights and achieving Sustainable Development Goals. One strategy for addressing this priority is strengthening access to medicines for medical abortion. All 11 countries in the South-East Asia Region have some indications for legal abortion and permit post-abortion care. Therefore, strengthening access to medical abortion medicines is a reasonable strategy for improving access to safe abortion for the Region. METHODOLOGY: We applied an adapted version of an existing World Health Organization landscape assessment protocol for the availability of medical abortion medicines at the country-level in the South-East Asia Region. We collected publicly available data on the existence of national health laws, policies, and standard treatment guidelines; inclusion of medical abortion medicines in the national essential medicines list; and marketing authorization status for medical abortion medicines for each country and verified by Ministries of health. The findings were once more presented, discussed and recommendations were formulated during regional technical consultation workshop. Each country teams participated in the process, and subsequently, the suggestions were validated by representatives from Ministries of Health.. RESULTS: Few countries in the Region currently have national policies and guidelines for comprehensive safe abortion. However, either mifepristone-misoprostol in combination or misoprostol alone (for other indications) is included in national essential medicines lists in all countries except Indonesia and Sri Lanka. Few countries earmark specific public funds for procuring and distributing medical abortion commodities. In countries where abortion is legal, the private sector and NGOs support access to medical abortion information and medicines. Several countries only allow registered medical practitioners or specialists to administer medical abortion. CONCLUSION: Following this rapid participatory assessment and technical consultation workshop, the World Health Organization South-East Asia Regional Technical Advisory and Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights technical committee recommended priority actions for policy and advocacy, service delivery, and monitoring and evaluation, and indicated areas for support.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Humanos , Sudeste Asiático , Feminino , Gravidez , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Abortivos , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribuição
5.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 10: e2300256, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781548

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is an urgent need to improve access to cancer therapy globally. Several independent initiatives have been undertaken to improve access to cancer medicines, and additional new initiatives are in development. Improved sharing of experiences and increased collaboration are needed to achieve substantial improvements in global access to essential oncology medicines. METHODS: The inaugural Access to Essential Cancer Medicines Stakeholder Meeting was organized by ASCO and convened at the June 2022 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago, IL, with two subsequent meetings, Union for International Cancer Control World Cancer Congress held in Geneva, Switzerland, in October 2022 and at the ASCO Annual Meeting in June of 2023. Invited stakeholders included representatives from cancer institutes, physicians, researchers, professional societies, the pharmaceutical industry, patient advocacy organizations, funders, cancer organizations and foundations, policy makers, and regulatory bodies. The session was moderated by ASCO. Past efforts and current and upcoming initiatives were initially discussed (2022), updates on progress were provided (2023), and broad agreement on resulting action steps was achieved with participants. RESULTS: Summit participants recognized that while much work was ongoing to enhance access to cancer therapeutics globally, communication and synergy across projects and organizations could be enhanced by providing a platform for collaboration and shared expertise. CONCLUSION: The summit resulted in new cross-stakeholder insights and planned collaboration addressing barriers to accessing cancer medications. Specific actions and timelines for implementation and reporting were established.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Neoplasias , Humanos , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/provisão & distribuição , Participação dos Interessados , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribuição
6.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 68(1): 61-68, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582330

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The government of Nepal adopted the 2017 Nepalese National Strategy for Palliative Care (NSPC), which proposed that Essential Palliative Care Medicines (EPCMs) listed by the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care (IAHPC) should be available at each healthcare institution. In 2017 after the issuing of NSPC, the Lancet Commission developed an EPCM list. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the inclusion of EPCMs recommended by both IAHPC and Lancet in national medicinal programmes, their availability, and affordability in Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study of the availability of EPCMs in Nepal, and their inclusion in the national essential medicines list, government health insurance medicines list, government fixed rate medicines list, and free medicines list. Affordability was assessed using the World Health Organization Daily-Define-Dose and the Nepal Government-defined minimum daily wage. RESULTS: A total of 27 of 33 (82%) of the IAHPC-EPCMs and 41 of 60 (68%) of the recommended formulations were available in Nepal. All the Lancet Commission recommended EPCMs were available in Nepal. Morphine was available in all formulations used in palliative care. 22%, 18%, and 10% of IAHPC-EPCMs were available cost-free via district hospitals, primary healthcare centers, and health posts, respectively. The government had not included opioids on both free and fixed price lists. A total of 24 of 33 (73%) IAHPC-EPCMs were available on the Government Health Insurance Medicines List. A total of 19 of 41 (46%) available EPCMs were affordable. CONCLUSION: Many EPCM formulations included in NSPC of Nepal are not available, and most available EPCMs are unaffordable if purchased out-of-pocket. While the availability is better with the government health insurance scheme, many people are not registered for this. Further improvements should follow the development of a Nepalese palliative care formulary.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos , Nepal , Cuidados Paliativos/economia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Medicamentos Essenciais/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribuição
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9074, 2024 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643204

RESUMO

Serious hematological adverse drug reactions (HADRs) may lead to or prolong hospitalization and even cause death. The aim of this study was to determine the regulatory factors associated with HADRs caused by drugs that were authorized up to July 2023 by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and to evaluate the frequency of HADRs. Using a cross-sectional approach, the type and frequency of HADRs were collected from the Summaries of Product Characteristics of Drugs Authorized by the EMA and analyzed within proprietary, nonproprietary, and biosimilar/biological frameworks. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to investigate the associations of generic status, biosimilar status, conditional approval, exceptional circumstances, accelerated assessment, orphan drug status, years on the market, administration route, and inclusion on the Essential Medicines List (EML) with HADRs. In total, 54.78% of proprietary drugs were associated with HADRs at any frequency, while anemia, leucopenia, and thrombocytopenia were observed in approximately 36% of the patients. The predictors of any HADR, anemia, and thrombocytopenia of any frequency are generic status, biosimilar status, and inclusion on the EML, while the only protective factor is the administration route. Biosimilars and their originator biologicals have similar frequencies of HADRs; the only exception is somatropin. Knowledge of the regulatory factors associated with HADRs could help clinicians address monitoring issues when new drugs are introduced for the treatment of patients.


Assuntos
Anemia , Medicamentos Biossimilares , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Medicamentos Essenciais , Leucopenia , Trombocitopenia , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Medicamentos Biossimilares/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Medicamentos Genéricos , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Leucopenia/induzido quimicamente , Anemia/induzido quimicamente , Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Aprovação de Drogas
8.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 9(1): 12, 2024 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a major global public health burden. Effective diabetes management is highly dependent on the availability of affordable and quality-assured essential medicines (EMs) which is a challenge especially in low-and-middle-income countries such as Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the accessibility of EMs used for diabetes care in central Ethiopia's public and private medicine outlets with respect to availability and affordability parameters. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 60 selected public and private medicine outlets in central Ethiopia from January to February 2022 using the World Health Organization/Health Action International (WHO/HAI) standard tool to assess access to EMs. We included EMs that lower glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol as these are all critical for diabetes care. Availability was determined as the percentage of surveyed outlets per sector in which the selected lowest-priced generic (LPG) and originator brand (OB) products were found. The number of days' wages required by the lowest paid government worker (LPGW) to purchase a one month's supply of medicines was used to measure affordability while median price was determined to assess patient price and price markup difference between public procurement and retail prices. RESULTS: Across all facilities, availability of LPG and OB medicines were 34.6% and 2.5% respectively. Only two glucose-lowering (glibenclamide 5 mg and metformin 500 mg) and two blood pressure-lowering medications (nifedipine 20 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg) surpassed the WHO's target of 80% availability. The median price based on the least measurable unit of LPG diabetes EMs was 1.6 ETB (0.033 USD) in public and 4.65 ETB (0.095 USD) in private outlets. The cost of one month's supply of diabetes EMs was equivalent to 0.3 to 3.1 days wages in public and 1.0 to 11.0 days wages in private outlets, respectively, for a typical LPGW. Thus, 58.8% and 84.6% of LPG diabetes EMs included in the price analysis were unaffordable in private and public outlets, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There are big gaps in availability and affordability of EMs used for diabetes in central Ethiopia. Policy makers should work to improve access to diabetes EMs. It is recommended to increase government attention to availing affordable EMs for diabetes care including at the primary healthcare levels which are more accessible to the majority of the population. Similar studies are also recommended to be conducted in different parts of Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Medicamentos Essenciais , Humanos , Etiópia , Estudos Transversais , Setor Público , Custos e Análise de Custo , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Glucose
10.
AMA J Ethics ; 26(4): E282-288, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564742

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) published its first Essential Medicines List (EML) in 1977, and it is updated biennially. One might reasonably think drugs on the EML are there because they are critical to effective, evidence-based patient care and intervention. One might not reasonably guess, however, that a particular drug's supply chain vulnerabilities that make it a shortage risk would contribute to a drug's listing on the EML. This commentary on a case first describes why the WHO makes the EML and suggests reasons why it might be important to consider a drug's shortage risk when revising and updating it. This commentary also suggests how distinguishing "essential" drugs from "vulnerable" drugs could bolster supply chain resiliency and mitigate drug shortages' disruptions to patient care.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 47: 45, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38681113

RESUMO

Introduction: a world bank performance-based financing program. The Saving One Million Lives program for results supported integrated supportive supervision (ISS) in selected primary health facilities (PHF) in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The study assessed the impact of ISS on health service outputs and outcomes such as infrastructure, basic equipment, human resources for health (HRH), essential drugs, number of children receiving immunization, number of mothers who gave birth in the facility, number of new and continuing users of modern family planning and the number of pregnant women screened for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). Methods: a cross-sectional survey of 70 SOME-supported facilities was used for the study. Parametric and non-parametric method of analysis was employed to compare the mean values of study indicators gathered over the 4 rounds of ISS visits from January 2018 to August 2020. Results: the study demonstrated that ISS approach has a positive effect on PHC service outputs and outcomes such as infrastructure, basic equipment, health human resources (HRH), essential drugs, contraceptives prevalence rate, skilled birth attendant as well as postnatal care. However, there was no significant impact on HIV screening for pregnant women. Conclusion: integrated supportive supervision approach has a positive effect on the quality of health care delivery in PHCs in Ekiti State, Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that periodic ISS visits should be routinely carried out in all PHCs across the State in the country and can be further extended to secondary and tertiary facilities.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Nigéria , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gravidez , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Recursos em Saúde , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribuição
13.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59324

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. The rational use of medicines offers a cost-saving strategy to maximize therapeutic outcomes for developing and developed countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rational use of medicines for selected noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) at three pharmacies at public hospitals in Jamaica using the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) prescribing indicators. Methods. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, prescriptions for adult outpatients containing at least one medicine for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma that were filled between January and July 2019 were reviewed using WHO’s prescribing indicators for the rational use of medicines. Data were analyzed and expressed as descriptive and inferential statistics. For all analyses conducted, significance was determined at P < 0.05. Results. A total of 1500 prescriptions covering 5979 medicines were reviewed; prescriptions were mostly written for female patients aged 42–60 years. Polypharmacy was observed in 35.6% (534) of prescriptions, and there was an average of 4 medicines per prescription, with a maximum of 17. Most of the prescriptions at each site were filled, with the main reason for not dispensing a medicine being that it was out of stock. Generic prescribing was high for all sites, accounting for more than 95% (5722) of prescribed medicines. There was full compliance with prescribing according to the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines at two of the sites, but it was just off the target at Site 1, by 1.4%. Conclusions. The WHO guidelines for the rational use of medicines were followed with respect to the proportion of medicines prescribed from the WHO Model List and the proportion of antibiotics prescribed. The number of medicines per prescription and the proportion of medicines prescribed by generic name did not meet the WHO criteria. However, prescribing was aligned with treatment guidelines for the selected NCDs.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. El uso racional de los medicamentos proporciona una estrategia de ahorro de costos para maximizar los resultados terapéuticos tanto en los países en desarrollo como en los países desarrollados. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el uso racional de medicamentos para algunas enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT) seleccionadas en tres farmacias de hospitales públicos de Jamaica, usando los indicadores de prescripción de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Métodos. En este estudio transversal retrospectivo se examinaron las prescripciones realizadas a pacientes ambulatorios adultos que incluían al menos un medicamento para enfermedades cardiovasculares, diabetes, cáncer, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica o asma, dispensadas entre enero y julio del 2019, utilizando los indicadores de prescripción para el uso racional de medicamentos de la OMS. Los datos se analizaron y expresaron mediante estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Para todos los análisis realizados se estableció un nivel de significación de p <0,05. Resultados. Se examinó un total de 1 500 prescripciones que incluían 5 979 medicamentos; la mayor parte de ellas correspondían a pacientes de sexo femenino de 42 a 60 años. Se observó que había polimedicación en el 35,6% (534) de las prescripciones, con un promedio de 4 y un máximo de 17 medicamentos por receta. En todos los centros se dispensó la mayor parte de los medicamentos prescritos, y el motivo principal para no hacerlo fue la falta de existencias del medicamento en cuestión. La prescripción de genéricos fue elevada en todos los centros y supuso más del 95% (5 722) de los medicamentos prescritos. En dos centros la prescripción se realizó en su totalidad de acuerdo con la Lista Modelo de Medicamentos Esenciales de la OMS, pero en el centro 1 no se alcanzó el objetivo por un 1,4%. Conclusiones. Se siguieron las directrices de la OMS para el uso racional de medicamentos en cuanto a la proporción de medicamentos prescritos de la Lista Modelo de la OMS y la proporción de antibióticos prescritos. El número de medicamentos por receta y la proporción de medicamentos prescritos mediante su nombre genérico no cumplieron con los criterios de la OMS. Sin embargo, las prescripciones estaban en consonancia con las directrices de tratamiento de las enfermedades no transmisibles seleccionadas.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. O uso racional de medicamentos é uma estratégia de contenção de custos para maximizar os resultados terapêuticos em países desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o uso racional de medicamentos para algumas doenças não transmissíveis selecionadas em três farmácias de hospitais públicos na Jamaica a partir dos indicadores de prescrição preconizados pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Métodos. Estudo transversal retrospectivo que avaliou receitas médicas de pacientes ambulatoriais adul- tos contendo pelo menos um medicamento prescrito para doença cardiovascular, diabetes, câncer, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica ou asma e dispensadas entre janeiro e julho de 2019. A avaliação foi realizada a partir dos indicadores de prescrição preconizados pela OMS para o uso racional de medicamentos. Os dados obtidos foram analisados por meio de estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais. O nível de significância de p <0,05 foi adotado em todas as análises. Resultados. Ao todo, foram analisadas 1 500 receitas médicas compreendendo 5 979 medicamentos. Em sua maioria, as receitas foram prescritas para pacientes do sexo feminino com idades entre 42 e 60 anos. A polifarmácia foi observada em 35,6% (534) das receitas; em média, foram prescritos 4 medicamentos, até um máximo de 17. As farmácias estudadas dispensaram a maior parte dos medicamentos receitados. O principal motivo para não fornecer algum medicamento foi o desabastecimento. O percentual de medicamentos genéricos foi alto em todos os locais, representando mais de 95% (5 722) do volume receitado. Houve plena observância da Lista Modelo de Medicamentos Essenciais da OMS nas receitas analisadas em dois dos locais estudos, e observância quase completa (diferença de 1,4%) no local 1. Conclusões. As diretrizes da OMS de uso racional de medicamentos foram cumpridas no que se refere ao percentual de medicamentos receitados de acordo com a Lista Modelo da OMS e o percentual de antibióticos receitados. Os critérios da OMS não foram cumpridos quanto ao número de medicamentos por receita e ao percentual receitado usando o nome genérico. Porém, os medicamentos foram receitados de acordo com as diretrizes terapêuticas para as doenças não transmissíveis selecionadas.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Medicamentos , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Medicamentos Essenciais , Usos Terapêuticos , Redução de Custos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Medicamentos Essenciais , Usos Terapêuticos , Redução de Custos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Medicamentos Essenciais , Usos Terapêuticos , Redução de Custos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
14.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 37(2): e0013923, 2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436564

RESUMO

SUMMARYThe World Health Organisation's 2022 AWaRe Book provides guidance for the use of 39 antibiotics to treat 35 infections in primary healthcare and hospital facilities. We review the evidence underpinning suggested dosing regimens. Few (n = 18) population pharmacokinetic studies exist for key oral AWaRe antibiotics, largely conducted in homogenous and unrepresentative populations hindering robust estimates of drug exposures. Databases of minimum inhibitory concentration distributions are limited, especially for community pathogen-antibiotic combinations. Minimum inhibitory concentration data sources are not routinely reported and lack regional diversity and community representation. Of studies defining a pharmacodynamic target for ß-lactams (n = 80), 42 (52.5%) differed from traditionally accepted 30%-50% time above minimum inhibitory concentration targets. Heterogeneity in model systems and pharmacodynamic endpoints is common, and models generally use intravenous ß-lactams. One-size-fits-all pharmacodynamic targets are used for regimen planning despite complexity in drug-pathogen-disease combinations. We present solutions to enable the development of global evidence-based antibiotic dosing guidance that provides adequate treatment in the context of the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and, moreover, minimizes the emergence of resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Medicamentos Essenciais/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos Essenciais/farmacocinética , Saúde Global
15.
J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother ; 38(2): 170-179, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441942

RESUMO

Palliative care is essential for life-threatening illnesses. However, Nepal still faces significant challenges in accessing primary palliative care services, including required medications, particularly in rural areas. This commentary highlights the need for policies and guidelines to ensure equitable access to palliative care with medicines. While limited studies in Nepal confirmed the demand, challenges persist in rural areas with deficient access to quality healthcare. This article discusses the existing efforts and noteworthy initiatives implemented by healthcare institutions. However, these efforts are currently limited in scale. We recommend including essential palliative care medicines in government healthcare policies, establishing training programs for healthcare professionals, and developing comprehensive policies with detailed field research work to meet the growing demand. Addressing these issues will significantly improve the quality of life for palliative care patients in Nepal.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos , Nepal , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Humanos , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribuição , Política de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , População Rural , Pessoal de Saúde/educação
16.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e077545, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lockdowns and border closures impacted medicine availability during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess the availability of essential, generic medicines for chronic diseases at public pharmaceutical supply agencies in Ethiopia. DESIGN: Comparative cross-sectional study. SETTING: The availability of essential, generic medicines for chronic diseases was assessed at two public pharmaceutical supply agency hubs. PARTICIPANTS: The current study included public supply agency hub managers, warehouse managers and forecasting officers at the study setting. OUTCOMES: The assessment encompassed the availability of chronic medicines on the day of data collection, as well as records spanning 8 months before the outbreak and 1 year during the pandemic. A total of 22 medicines were selected based on their inclusion in the national essential drug list for public health facilities, including 17 medicines for cardiovascular disease and 5 for diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: The results of the study indicate that the mean availability of the selected basket medicines was 43.3% (95% CI: 37.1 to 49.5) during COVID-19, which was significantly lower than the availability of 67.4% (95% CI: 62.2 to 72.6) before the outbreak (p<0.001). Prior to COVID-19, the overall average line-item fill rate for the selected products was 78%, but it dropped to 49% during the pandemic. Furthermore, the mean number of days out of stock per month was 11.7 (95% CI: 9.9 to 13.5) before the outbreak of COVID-19, which significantly increased to 15.7 (95% CI: 13.2 to 18.2) during the pandemic, indicating a statistically significant difference (p<0.001). Although the prices for some drugs remained relatively stable, there were significant price hikes for some products. For example, the unit price of insulin increased by more than 130%. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic worsened the availability of essential chronic medicines, including higher rates of stockouts and unit price hikes for some products in the study setting. The study's findings imply that the COVID-19 pandemic has aggravated already-existing medicine availability issues. Efforts should be made to develop contingency plans and establish mechanisms to monitor medicine availability and pricing during such crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicamentos Essenciais , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 403, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The debate surrounding access to medicines in Nigeria has become increasingly necessary due to the high cost of essential medicine drugs and the prevalence of counterfeit medicines in the country. The Nigerian government has proposed the implementation of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to address these issues and guarantee universal access to essential medicines. Access was investigated using the 3 A's (accessibility, affordability, and availability). This paper investigates whether the NHIS is a viable pathway to sustained access to medicines in Nigeria. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study using a mixed-methods design. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized for the study. SETTING: This study was conducted at NHIS-accredited public and private facilities in Enugu State. PARTICIPANTS: 296 randomly selected enrollees took part in the quantitative component, while, 6 participants were purposively selected for the qualitative component, where in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted face-to-face with NHIS desk officers in selected public and private health facilities. RESULTS: The quantitative findings showed that 94.9% of respondents sought medical help. Our data shows that 78.4% of the respondents indicated that the scheme improved their access to care (accessibility, affordability, and availability). The qualitative results from the NHIS desk officers showed that respondents across all the socio-economic groups reported that the NHIS had marginally improved access to medicine over the years. It was also observed that most of the staff in NHIS-accredited facilities were not adequately trained on the scheme's requirements and that most times, essential drugs were not readily available at the accredited facilities. CONCLUSION: The study findings revealed that although the NHIS has successfully expanded access to medicines, there remain several challenges to its effective implementation and sustainability. Additionally, the scheme's coverage of essential medicines is could be improved even more, leading to reduced access to needed drugs for many Nigerians. A focus on the 3As for the scheme means that all facility categories (private and public) and their interests (where necessary) must be considered in further planning of the scheme to ensure that things work out well.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Instalações de Saúde , População da África Ocidental , Humanos , Nigéria , Estudos Transversais , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Seguro Saúde , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde
18.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 22(1): 1-11, Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231369

RESUMO

Background: Indonesia has recently implemented a national policy to ensure equitable access to medicines, promote their rational use, and maintain a reliable and quality supply, specifically for essential medicines. Several organizations have conducted evaluations on essential medicines use but have yielded varying results and cannot reflect the actual situation. Objectives: This study aims to discover the current situation regarding essential medicines and identify the most important factors to be considered during future indicator-based evaluations in health facilities in Indonesia. Methods: This qualitative study was carried out using FGDs and interview from January to February 2022. The sample population consisted of ten experts selected based on predetermined criteria. The discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim in the original language, thematically coded with Nvivo, and analyzed for common themes. Results: This study found 32 factors related to the use of essential medicines in Indonesia, divided into three categories of components, namely access, medicine handling quality, and rational use. Furthermore, a total of 10, 8, and 14 main factors were related to access, handling quality, and rational use, respectively. The discussion provided various perspectives on measuring drug use, specifically essential medicines. Based on expert opinions, evaluating the utilization of essential medicines by relying on existing guidelines was insufficient due to superficiality and irrelevance within the Indonesian health system. Conclusion: Based on the results, one of the crucial factors to consider during evaluation was the accessibility of medicines, which encompassed their availability in health facilities and affordability to patients... (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Medicamentos Essenciais , Previdência Social , Pessoal de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Instituições Privadas de Saúde , Uso de Medicamentos , Indonésia
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