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1.
Adv Neurobiol ; 35: 9-26, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874716

RESUMO

The function of endogenous opioids spans from initiating behaviors that are critical for survival, to responding to rapidly changing environmental conditions. A network of interconnected systems throughout the body characterizes the endogenous opioid system (EOS). EOS receptors for beta-endorphin, enkephalin, dynorphin, and endomorphin underpin the diverse functions of the EOS across biological systems. This chapter presents a succinct yet comprehensive summary of the structure of the EOS, EOS receptors, and their relationship to other biological systems.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Receptores Opioides , Animais , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/metabolismo , beta-Endorfina/metabolismo , Dinorfinas/metabolismo , Encefalinas/metabolismo , Peptídeos Opioides/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(12)2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38928237

RESUMO

The physiology of reproduction has been of interest to researchers for centuries. The purpose of this work is to review the development of our knowledge on the neuroendocrine background of the regulation of ovulation. We first describe the development of the pituitary gland, the structure of the median eminence (ME), the connection between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, the ovarian and pituitary hormones involved in ovulation, and the pituitary cell composition. We recall the pioneer physiological and morphological investigations that drove development forward. The description of the supraoptic-paraventricular magnocellular and tuberoinfundibular parvocellular systems and recognizing the role of the hypophysiotropic area were major milestones in understanding the anatomical and physiological basis of reproduction. The discovery of releasing and inhibiting hormones, the significance of pulse and surge generators, the pulsatile secretion of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and the subsequent pulsatility of luteinizing (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormones (FSH) in the human reproductive physiology were truly transformative. The roles of three critical neuropeptides, kisspeptin (KP), neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin (Dy), were also identified. This review also touches on the endocrine background of human infertility and assisted fertilization.


Assuntos
Sistemas Neurossecretores , Ovulação , Humanos , Ovulação/fisiologia , Feminino , Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiologia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/metabolismo , Animais , Hipófise/metabolismo , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Neurocinina B/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Dinorfinas/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/fisiologia
3.
Neuron ; 112(12): 1899-1901, 2024 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38901400

RESUMO

The dynamic suppression of threat-related behavior as a function of environmental constraint is critical for survival in mammals, yet the neurobiological underpinnings remain largely unknown. In this issue of Neuron, Wang et al.1 identified prefrontal dynorphin-expressing neurons as key elements for tracking threat-related behavioral states and regulating fear suppression.


Assuntos
Dinorfinas , Medo , Neurônios , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Dinorfinas/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Animais , Medo/fisiologia
4.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 162: 105713, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733895

RESUMO

The kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system is implicated in dysphoria and as an "anti-reward system" during withdrawal from opioids. However, no clear consensus has been made in the field, as mixed findings have been reported regarding the relationship between the KOR system and opioid use. This review summarizes the studies to date on the KOR system and opioids. A systematic scoping review was reported following PRISMA guidelines and conducted based on the published protocol. Comprehensive searches of several databases were done in the following databases: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane. We included preclinical and clinical studies that tested the administration of KOR agonists/antagonists or dynorphin and/or measured dynorphin levels or KOR expression during opioid intoxication or withdrawal from opioids. One hundred studies were included in the final analysis. Preclinical administration of KOR agonists decreased drug-seeking/taking behaviors and opioid withdrawal symptoms. KOR antagonists showed mixed findings, depending on the agent and/or type of withdrawal symptom. Administration of dynorphins attenuated opioid withdrawal symptoms both in preclinical and clinical studies. In the limited number of available studies, dynorphin levels were found to increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of opioid use disorder subjects (OUD). In animals, dynorphin levels and/or KOR expression showed mixed findings during opioid use. The KOR/dynorphin system appears to have a multifaceted and complex nature rather than simply functioning as an anti-reward system. Future research in well-controlled study settings is necessary to better understand the clinical role of the KOR system in opioid use.


Assuntos
Receptores Opioides kappa , Receptores Opioides kappa/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides kappa/agonistas , Humanos , Animais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/metabolismo , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Dinorfinas/metabolismo , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/metabolismo
5.
Appetite ; 200: 107504, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768926

RESUMO

The dynorphin peptides are the endogenous ligands for the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) and regulate food intake. Administration of dynorphin-A1-13 (DYN) in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) increases palatable food intake, and this effect is blocked by co-administration of the orexin-A neuropeptide, which is co-released with DYN in PVN from neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus. While PVN administration of DYN increases palatable food intake, whether it increases food-seeking behaviors has yet to be examined. We tested the effects of DYN and norBNI (a KOR antagonist) on the seeking and consumption of sucrose using a progressive ratio (PR) and demand curve (DC) tasks. In PVN, DYN did not alter the sucrose breaking point (BP) in the PR task nor the elasticity or intensity of demand for sucrose in the DC task. Still, DYN reduced the delay in obtaining sucrose and increased licks during sucrose intake in the PR task, irrespective of the co-administration of orexin-A. In PVN, norBNI increased the delay in obtaining sucrose and reduced licks during sucrose intake in the PR task while increasing elasticity without altering intensity of demand in the DC task. However, subcutaneous norBNI reduced the BP for sucrose and increased the delay in obtaining sucrose in the PR task while reducing the elasticity of demand. Together, these data show different effects of systemic and PVN blockade of KOR on food-seeking, consummatory behaviors, and incentive motivation for sucrose and suggest that KOR activity in PVN is necessary but not sufficient to drive seeking behaviors for palatable food.


Assuntos
Dinorfinas , Motivação , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular , Receptores Opioides kappa , Receptores Opioides kappa/metabolismo , Dinorfinas/farmacologia , Dinorfinas/metabolismo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Masculino , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Orexinas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Naltrexona/farmacologia , Naltrexona/análogos & derivados , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Sacarose , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia
6.
Neuron ; 112(12): 2062-2078.e7, 2024 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614102

RESUMO

Prefrontal cortical (PFC) circuits provide top-down control of threat reactivity. This includes ventromedial PFC (vmPFC) circuitry, which plays a role in suppressing fear-related behavioral states. Dynorphin (Dyn) has been implicated in mediating negative affect and maladaptive behaviors induced by severe threats and is expressed in limbic circuits, including the vmPFC. However, there is a critical knowledge gap in our understanding of how vmPFC Dyn-expressing neurons and Dyn transmission detect threats and regulate expression of defensive behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that Dyn cells are broadly activated by threats and release Dyn locally in the vmPFC to limit passive defensive behaviors. We further demonstrate that vmPFC Dyn-mediated signaling promotes a switch of vmPFC networks to a fear-related state. In conclusion, we reveal a previously unknown role of vmPFC Dyn neurons and Dyn neuropeptidergic transmission in suppressing defensive behaviors in response to threats via state-driven changes in vmPFC networks.


Assuntos
Dinorfinas , Medo , Neurônios , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Animais , Dinorfinas/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Medo/fisiologia , Camundongos , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8229, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589425

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting 5-20% of reproductive-age women. However, the treatment of PCOS is mainly based on symptoms and not on its pathophysiology. Neuroendocrine disturbance, as shown by an elevated LH/FSH ratio in PCOS patients, was thought to be the central mechanism of the syndrome, especially in lean PCOS. LH and FSH secretion are influenced by GnRH pulsatility of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus. Kisspeptin is the main regulator of GnRH secretion, whereas neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin regulate kisspeptin secretion in KNDy neurons. This study aims to deepen the understanding of the neuroendocrine disorder in lean PCOS patients and its potential pathophysiology-based therapy. A cross-sectional study was performed at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Kencana Hospital and the IMERI UI HRIFP cluster with 110 lean PCOS patients as subjects. LH, FSH, LH/FSH ratio, kisspeptin, NKB, dynorphin, leptin, adiponectin, AMH, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, testosterone, and SHBG were measured. Bivariate and path analyses were performed to determine the relationship between variables. There was a negative association between dynorphin and kisspeptin, while NKB levels were not associated with kisspeptin. There was no direct association between kisspeptin and the LH/FSH ratio; interestingly, dynorphin was positively associated with the LH/FSH ratio in both bivariate and pathway analyses. AMH was positively correlated with the LH/FSH ratio in both analyses. Path analysis showed an association between dynorphin and kisspeptin levels in lean PCOS, while NKB was not correlated with kisspeptin. Furthermore, there was a correlation between AMH and the LH/FSH ratio, but kisspeptin levels did not show a direct significant relationship with the LH/FSH ratio. HOMA-IR was negatively associated with adiponectin levels and positively associated with leptin and FAI levels. In conclusion, AMH positively correlates with FAI levels and is directly associated with the LH/FSH ratio, showing its important role in neuroendocrinology in lean PCOS. From the path analysis, AMH was also an intermediary variable between HOMA-IR and FAI with the LH/FSH ratio. Interestingly, this study found a direct positive correlation between dynorphin and the LH/FSH ratio, while no association between kisspeptin and the LH/FSH ratio was found. Further research is needed to investigate AMH and dynorphin as potential therapeutic targets in the management of lean PCOS patients.


Assuntos
Hormônio Luteinizante , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Feminino , Humanos , Dinorfinas/metabolismo , Leptina , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Adiponectina , Neurocinina B/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante
8.
Sleep ; 47(5)2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447008

RESUMO

Dynorphin is an endogenous opiate localized in many brain regions and spinal cord, but the activity of dynorphin neurons during sleep is unknown. Dynorphin is an inhibitory neuropeptide that is coreleased with orexin, an excitatory neuropeptide. We used microendoscopy to test the hypothesis that, like orexin, the dynorphin neurons are wake-active. Dynorphin-cre mice (n = 3) were administered rAAV8-Ef1a-Con/Foff 2.0-GCaMP6M into the zona incerta-perifornical area, implanted with a GRIN lens (gradient reflective index), and electrodes to the skull that recorded sleep. One month later, a miniscope imaged calcium fluorescence in dynorphin neurons during multiple bouts of wake, non-rapid-eye movement (NREM), and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Unbiased data analysis identified changes in calcium fluorescence in 64 dynorphin neurons. Most of the dynorphin neurons (72%) had the highest fluorescence during bouts of active and quiet waking compared to NREM or REM sleep; a subset (20%) were REM-max. Our results are consistent with the emerging evidence that the activity of orexin neurons can be classified as wake-max or REM-max. Since the two neuropeptides are coexpressed and coreleased, we suggest that dynorphin-cre-driven calcium sensors could increase understanding of the role of this endogenous opiate in pain and sleep.


Assuntos
Dinorfinas , Neurônios , Sono REM , Vigília , Zona Incerta , Animais , Camundongos , Dinorfinas/metabolismo , Dinorfinas/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Orexinas/metabolismo , Orexinas/fisiologia , Sono REM/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Zona Incerta/fisiologia , Zona Incerta/fisiopatologia
9.
Brain Behav Immun ; 119: 36-50, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555991

RESUMO

This study aimed to elucidate the opioid mechanisms underlying dexamethasone-induced pain antihypersensitive effects in neuropathic rats. Dexamethasone (subcutaneous and intrathecal) and membrane-impermeable Dex-BSA (intrathecal) administration dose-dependently inhibited mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in neuropathic rats. Dexamethasone and Dex-BSA treatments increased expression of dynorphin A in the spinal cords and primary cultured microglia. Dexamethasone specifically enhanced dynorphin A expression in microglia but not astrocytes or neurons. Intrathecal injection of the microglial metabolic inhibitor minocycline blocked dexamethasone-stimulated spinal dynorphin A expression; intrathecal minocycline, the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist Dex-21-mesylate, dynorphin A antiserum, and κ-opioid receptor antagonist GNTI completely blocked dexamethasone-induced mechanical antiallodynia and thermal antihyperalgesia. Additionally, dexamethasone elevated spinal intracellular cAMP levels, leading to enhanced phosphorylation of PKA, p38 MAPK and CREB. The specific adenylate cyclase inhibitor DDA, PKA inhibitor H89, p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and CREB inhibitor KG-501 completely blocked dexamethasone-induced anti-neuropathic pain and increased microglial dynorphin A exprression. In conclusion, this study reveal that dexamethasone mitigateds neuropathic pain through upregulation of dynorphin A in spinal microglia, likely involving the membrane glucocorticoid receptor/cAMP/PKA/p38 MAPK/CREB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico , AMP Cíclico , Dexametasona , Dinorfinas , Microglia , Neuralgia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Medula Espinal , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno , Animais , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Dinorfinas/metabolismo , Ratos , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5804, 2024 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461355

RESUMO

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) remains a major public health concern. The dynorphin (DYN)/κ-opioid receptor (KOP) system is involved in actions of alcohol, particularly its withdrawal-associated negative affective states. This study tested the ability of LY2444296, a selective, short-acting, KOP antagonist, to decrease alcohol self-administration in dependent male and female Wistar rats at 8 h abstinence. Animals were trained to orally self-administer 10% alcohol (30 min/day for 21 sessions) and were made dependent via chronic intermittent alcohol vapor exposure for 6 weeks or exposed to air (nondependent). After 6 weeks, the effect of LY2444296 (0, 3, and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) was tested on alcohol self-administration at 8 h of abstinence. A separate cohort of rats was prepared in parallel, and their somatic withdrawal signs and alcohol self-administration were measured after LY2444296 administration at 8 h, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks abstinence. LY2444296 at 3 and 10 mg/kg significantly reduced physical signs of withdrawal in dependent rats at 8 h abstinence, only. Furthermore, 3 and 10 mg/kg selectively decreased alcohol self-administration in dependent rats at only 8 h abstinence. These results highlight the DYN/KOP system in actions of alcohol during acute abstinence, suggesting KOP antagonism could be beneficial for mitigating acute withdrawal signs and, in turn, significantly reduce excessive alcohol consumption associated with AUD.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Humanos , Ratos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Opioides kappa , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/psicologia , Etanol , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Dinorfinas , Autoadministração
11.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300282, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483883

RESUMO

Recent transcriptomic studies identified Gucy2d (encoding guanylate cyclase D) as a highly enriched gene within inhibitory dynorphin interneurons in the mouse spinal dorsal horn. To facilitate investigations into the role of the Gucy2d+ population in somatosensation, Gucy2d-cre transgenic mice were created to permit chemogenetic or optogenetic manipulation of this subset of spinal neurons. Gucy2d-cre mice created via CRISPR/Cas9 genomic knock-in were bred to mice expressing a cre-dependent reporter (either tdTomato or Sun1.GFP fusion protein), and the resulting offspring were characterized. Surprisingly, a much wider population of spinal neurons was labeled by cre-dependent reporter expression than previous mRNA-based studies would suggest. Although the cre-dependent reporter expression faithfully labeled ~75% of cells expressing Gucy2d mRNA in the adult dorsal horn, it also labeled a substantial number of additional inhibitory neurons in which no Gucy2d or Pdyn mRNA was detected. Moreover, cre-dependent reporter was also expressed in various regions of the brain, including the spinal trigeminal nucleus, cerebellum, thalamus, somatosensory cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. Injection of AAV-CAG-FLEX-tdTomato viral vector into adult Gucy2d-cre mice produced a similar pattern of cre-dependent reporter expression in the spinal cord and brain, which excludes the possibility that the unexpected reporter-labeling of cells in the deep dorsal horn and brain was due to transient Gucy2d expression during early stages of development. Collectively, these results suggest that Gucy2d is expressed in a wider population of cells than previously thought, albeit at levels low enough to avoid detection with commonly used mRNA-based assays. Therefore, it is unlikely that these Gucy2d-cre mice will permit selective manipulation of inhibitory signaling mediated by spinal dynorphin interneurons, but this novel cre driver line may nevertheless be useful to target a broader population of inhibitory spinal dorsal horn neurons.


Assuntos
Dinorfinas , Proteína Vermelha Fluorescente , Corno Dorsal da Medula Espinal , Camundongos , Animais , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Células do Corno Posterior/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Guanilato Ciclase/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo
12.
Alcohol ; 116: 53-64, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423261

RESUMO

The central amygdala (CeA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) are reciprocally connected nodes of the extended amygdala thought to play an important role in alcohol consumption. Studies of immediate-early genes indicate that BNST and CeA are acutely activated following alcohol drinking and may signal alcohol reward in nondependent drinkers, while stress signaling in the extended amygdala following chronic alcohol exposure drives increased drinking via negative reinforcement. However, the temporal dynamics of neuronal activation in these regions during drinking behavior are poorly understood. In this study, we used fiber photometry and the genetically encoded calcium sensor GCaMP6s to assess acute changes in neuronal activity during alcohol consumption in BNST and CeA before and after a chronic drinking paradigm. Activity was examined in the pan-neuronal population and separately in dynorphinergic neurons. BNST and CeA showed increased pan-neuronal activity during acute consumption of alcohol and other fluid tastants of positive and negative valence, as well as highly palatable chow. Responses were greatest during initial consummatory bouts and decreased in amplitude with repeated consumption of the same tastant, suggesting modulation by stimulus novelty. Dynorphin neurons showed similar consumption-associated calcium increases in both regions. Following three weeks of continuous alcohol access (CA), calcium increases in dynorphin neurons during drinking were maintained, but pan-neuronal activity and BNST-CeA coherence were altered in a sex-specific manner. These results indicate that BNST and CeA, and dynorphin neurons specifically, are engaged during drinking behavior, and activity dynamics are influenced by stimulus novelty and chronic alcohol.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Dinorfinas , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Etanol/farmacologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Agitação Psicomotora
13.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 750, 2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286800

RESUMO

The hippocampus is pivotal in integrating emotional processing, learning, memory, and reward-related behaviors. The dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) is particularly crucial for episodic, spatial, and associative memory, and has been shown to be necessary for context- and cue-associated reward behaviors. The nucleus accumbens (NAc), a central structure in the mesolimbic reward pathway, integrates the salience of aversive and rewarding stimuli. Despite extensive research on dHPC→NAc direct projections, their sufficiency in driving reinforcement and reward-related behavior remains to be determined. Our study establishes that activating excitatory neurons in the dHPC is sufficient to induce reinforcing behaviors through its direct projections to the dorso-medial subregion of the NAc shell (dmNAcSh). Notably, dynorphin-containing neurons specifically contribute to dHPC-driven reinforcing behavior, even though both dmNAcSh dynorphin- and enkephalin-containing neurons are activated with dHPC stimulation. Our findings unveil a pathway governing reinforcement, advancing our understanding of the hippocampal circuity's role in reward-seeking behaviors.


Assuntos
Dinorfinas , Núcleo Accumbens , Éteres Fosfolipídicos , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Recompensa , Neurônios/fisiologia
14.
J Mol Endocrinol ; 72(2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38085702

RESUMO

The exact neural construct underlying the dynamic secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has only recently been identified despite the detection of multiunit electrical activity volleys associated with pulsatile luteinising hormone (LH) secretion four decades ago. Since the discovery of kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin neurons in the mammalian hypothalamus, there has been much research into the role of this neuronal network in controlling the oscillatory secretion of gonadotrophin hormones. In this review, we provide an update of the progressive application of cutting-edge techniques combined with mathematical modelling by the neuroendocrine community, which are transforming the functional investigation of the GnRH pulse generator. Understanding the nature and function of the GnRH pulse generator can greatly inform a wide range of clinical studies investigating infertility treatments.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Hormônio Luteinizante , Animais , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Neurocinina B/metabolismo , Dinorfinas/metabolismo , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo
15.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 416(2): 545-557, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38040942

RESUMO

Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a persistent inflammation of the sinonasal mucosa. CRSwNP treatments are associated with inconsistent efficacy and recurrence of symptoms. Dynorphin 1-17 (DYN 1-17) and its fragments have been shown to modulate the immune response in various inflammatory conditions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different pH and degrees of inflammation on DYN 1-17 metabolism in human CRSwNP tissues. DYN 1-17 was incubated with grade 3 and grade 4 inflamed tissues of CRSwNP patients at pH 5.5 and pH 7.4 over a range of incubation periods. The resulting fragments were identified using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system coupled to quadrupole-time of flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry based on their accurate mass. The rate of DYN 1-17 fragmentation was slower at pH 5.5 in comparison to pH 7.4. The extent and rate of metabolism of DYN 1-17 were much lower in grade 3 inflamed tissue (31-32 fragments) than in grade 4 (34-41 fragments). N-Terminal fragments (DYN 1-15, 1-11, 1-10, and 1-6) were metabolized slower at pH 5.5 as compared to pH 7.4. DYN 1-12, 1-8, 2-10, 4-10, 5-10, and 8-14 were only observed under the inflammatory pH while DYN 5-17 and 6-17 were only identified upon incubation with grade 4 CRSwNP tissues. DYN 1-17 metabolism was significantly affected by the pH level and the severity of the inflammation of CRSwNP tissues, indicating the potential roles of DYN 1-17 and its fragments in modulating the inflammatory response and their avenue as therapeutics in future studies.


Assuntos
Dinorfinas , Pólipos Nasais , Humanos , Dinorfinas/metabolismo , Pólipos Nasais/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Inflamação , Biotransformação
16.
Biol Reprod ; 110(2): 275-287, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37930247

RESUMO

The timing of puberty onset is reliant on increased gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). This elicits a corresponding increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) due to a lessening of sensitivity to the inhibitory actions of estradiol (E2). The mechanisms underlying the increase in GnRH release likely involve a subset of neurons within the arcuate (ARC) nucleus of the hypothalamus that contain kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin (KNDy neurons). We aimed to determine if KNDy neurons in female sheep are critical for: timely puberty onset; the LH surge; and the response to an intravenous injection of the neurokinin-3 receptor (NK3R) agonist, senktide. Prepubertal ewes received injections aimed at the ARC containing blank-saporin (control, n = 5) or NK3-saporin (NK3-SAP, n = 6) to ablate neurons expressing NK3R. Blood samples taken 3/week for 65 days following surgery were assessed for progesterone to determine onset of puberty. Control ewes exhibited onset of puberty at 33.2 ± 3.9 days post sampling initiation, whereas 5/6 NK3-SAP treated ewes didn't display an increase in progesterone. After an artificial LH surge protocol, surge amplitude was lower in NK3-SAP ewes. Finally, ewes were treated with senktide to determine if an LH response was elicited. LH pulses were evident in both groups in the absence of injections, but the response to senktide vs saline was similar between groups. These results show that KNDy cells are necessary for timely puberty onset and for full expresson of the LH surge. The occurrence of LH pulses in NK3-SAP treated ewes may indicate a recovery from an apulsatile state.


Assuntos
Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo , Hormônio Luteinizante , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Substância P/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Animais , Ovinos , Hormônio Luteinizante/farmacologia , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Saporinas/farmacologia , Progesterona/farmacologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Neurocinina B/metabolismo , Dinorfinas/farmacologia , Dinorfinas/metabolismo , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo
17.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 20495, 2023 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37993510

RESUMO

The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse and surge are considered to be generated by arcuate kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin A (KNDy) neurons and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) kisspeptin neurons, respectively, in female rodents. The majority of KNDy and AVPV kisspeptin neurons express κ-opioid receptors (KORs, encoded by Oprk1) in female rodents. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effect of a conditional Oprk1-dependent Kiss1 deletion in kisspeptin neurons on the luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse/surge and fertility using Kiss1-floxed/Oprk1-Cre rats, in which Kiss1 was deleted in cells expressing or once expressed the Oprk1/Cre. The Kiss1-floxed/Oprk1-Cre female rats, with Kiss1 deleted in a majority of KNDy neurons, showed normal puberty while having a one-day longer estrous cycle and fewer pups than Kiss1-floxed controls. Notably, ovariectomized (OVX) Kiss1-floxed/Oprk1-Cre rats showed profound disruption of LH pulses in the presence of a diestrous level of estrogen but showed apparent LH pulses without estrogen treatment. Furthermore, Kiss1-floxed/Oprk1-Cre rats, with Kiss1 deleted in approximately half of AVPV kisspeptin neurons, showed a lower peak of the estrogen-induced LH surge than controls. These results suggest that arcuate and AVPV kisspeptin neurons expressing or having expressed Oprk1 have a role in maintaining normal GnRH pulse and surge generation, the normal length of the estrous cycle, and the normal offspring number in female rats.


Assuntos
Kisspeptinas , Hormônio Luteinizante , Ratos , Feminino , Animais , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/farmacologia , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Neurocinina B/genética , Neurocinina B/metabolismo , Dinorfinas/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/metabolismo
18.
Endocrinology ; 164(12)2023 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37936337

RESUMO

The mechanism by which arcuate kisspeptin (ARNKISS) neurons co-expressing glutamate, neurokinin B, and dynorphin intermittently synchronize their activity to drive pulsatile hormone secretion remains unclear in females. In order to study spontaneous synchronization within the ARNKISS neuron network, acute brain slices were prepared from adult female Kiss1-GCaMP6 mice. Analysis of both spontaneous synchronizations and those driven by high frequency stimulation of individual ARNKISS neurons revealed that the network exhibits semi-random emergent excitation dependent upon glutamate signaling through AMPA receptors. No role for NMDA receptors was identified. In contrast to male mice, ongoing tachykinin receptor tone within the slice operated to promote spontaneous synchronizations in females. As previously observed in males, we found that ongoing dynorphin transmission in the slice did not contribute to synchronization events. These observations indicate that a very similar AMPA receptor-dependent mechanism underlies ARNKISS neuron synchronizations in the female mouse supporting the "glutamate two-transition" model for kisspeptin neuron synchronization. However, a potentially important sex difference appears to exist with a more prominent facilitatory role for tachykinin transmission in the female.


Assuntos
Dinorfinas , Kisspeptinas , Camundongos , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Dinorfinas/metabolismo , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Neurocinina B/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Glutamatos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo
19.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 7903, 2023 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38036497

RESUMO

Ample evidence has suggested the stress etiology of depression, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood yet. Here, we report that chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) attenuates the excitatory output of the claustrum (CLA) to the prelimbic cortex (PL) through the dynorphin/κ-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling, being critical for depression-related behaviors in male mice. The CSDS preferentially impairs the excitatory output from the CLA onto the parvalbumin (PV) of the PL, leading to PL micronetwork dysfunction by disinhibiting pyramidal neurons (PNs). Optogenetic activation or inhibition of this circuit suppresses or promotes depressive-like behaviors, which is reversed by chemogenetic inhibition or activation of the PV neurons. Notably, manipulating the dynorphin/KOR signaling in the CLA-PL projecting terminals controls depressive-like behaviors that is suppressed or promoted by optogenetic activation or inhibition of CLA-PL circuit. Thus, this study reveals both mechanism of the stress etiology of depression and possibly therapeutic interventions by targeting CLA-PL circuit.


Assuntos
Claustrum , Receptores Opioides kappa , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Receptores Opioides kappa/metabolismo , Dinorfinas , Depressão/etiologia , Claustrum/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
Ageing Res Rev ; 92: 102086, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37821047

RESUMO

The Kisspeptin1 (KISS1)/neurokinin B (NKB)/Dynorphin (Dyn) [KNDy] neurons in the hypothalamus regulate the reproduction stage in human beings and rodents. KNDy neurons co-expressed all KISS1, NKB, and Dyn peptides, and hence commonly regarded as KISS1 neurons. KNDy neurons contribute to the "GnRH pulse generator" and are implicated in the regulation of pulsatile GnRH release. The estradiol (E2)-estrogen receptor (ER) interactions over GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus cause nitric oxide (NO) discharge, in addition to presynaptic GABA and glutamate discharge from respective neurons. The released GABA and glutamate facilitate the activity of GnRH neurons via GABAA-R and AMPA/kainate-R. The KISS1 stimulates MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling and cause the release of Ca2+ from intracellular store, which contribute to neuroendocrine function, increase apoptosis and decrease cell proliferation and metastasis. The ageing in women deteriorates KISS1/KISS1R interaction in the hypothalamus which causes lower levels of GnRH. Because examining the human brain is so challenging, decades of clinical research have failed to find the causes of KNDy/GnRH dysfunction. The KISS1/KISS1R interactions in the brain have a neuroprotective effect against Alzheimer's disease (AD). These findings modulate the pathophysiological role of the KNDy/GnRH neural network in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) associated with ageing and, its protective role in cancer and AD. This review concludes with protecting effect of the steroid-derived acute regulatory enzyme (StAR) against neurotoxicity in the hippocampus, and hypothalamus, and these measures are fundamental for delaying ageing with PCOS. StAR could serve as novel diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for the most prevalent hormone-sensitive breast cancers (BCs).


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Dinorfinas/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico , Glutamatos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Neurocinina B/metabolismo , Receptores de Kisspeptina-1 , Roedores
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