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1.
Malar J ; 23(1): 163, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax represents the most geographically widespread human malaria parasite affecting civilian and military populations in endemic areas. Targeting the pre-erythrocytic (PE) stage of the parasite life cycle is especially appealing for developing P. vivax vaccines as it would prevent disease and transmission. Here, naturally acquired immunity to a panel of P. vivax PE antigens was explored, which may facilitate vaccine development and lead to a better understanding of naturally acquired PE immunity. METHODS: Twelve P. vivax PE antigens orthologous to a panel of P. falciparum antigens previously identified as highly immunogenic in protected subjects after immunization with radiation attenuated sporozoites (RAS) were used for evaluation of humoral and cellular immunity by ELISA and IFN-γ ELISpot. Samples from P. vivax infected individuals (n = 76) from a low endemic malaria region in the Peruvian Amazon Basin were used. RESULTS: In those clinical samples, all PE antigens evaluated showed positive IgG antibody reactivity with a variable prevalence of 58-99% in recently P. vivax diagnosed patients. The magnitude of the IgG antibody response against PE antigens was lower compared with blood stage antigens MSP1 and DBP-II, although antibody levels persisted better for PE antigens (average decrease of 6% for PE antigens and 43% for MSP1, p < 0.05). Higher IgG antibodies was associated with one or more previous malaria episodes only for blood stage antigens (p < 0.001). High IgG responders across PE and blood stage antigens showed significantly lower parasitaemia compared to low IgG responders (median 1,921 vs 4,663 par/µl, p < 0.05). In a subgroup of volunteers (n = 17),positive IFN-γ T cell response by ELISPOT was observed in 35% vs 9-35% against blood stage MSP1 and PE antigens, respectively, but no correlation with IgG responses. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate clear humoral and T cell responses against P. vivax PE antigens in individuals naturally infected with P. vivax. These data identify novel attractive PE antigens suitable for use in the potential development and selection of new malaria vaccine candidates which can be used as a part of malaria prevention strategies in civilian and military populations living in P. vivax endemic areas.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários , Malária Vivax , Plasmodium vivax , Proteínas de Protozoários , Plasmodium vivax/imunologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária Vivax/imunologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Adulto , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Criança , Idoso , ELISPOT
2.
Open Vet J ; 14(4): 1019-1028, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38808294

RESUMO

Background: Canine distemper (CD) is a worldwide spread disease that has been described in 12 families of mammals, especially in the Carnivora order, being better studied in domestic canines where vaccination represents the best means of control. CD is controlled by vaccination, but many cases of the disease still occur in vaccinated animals. Aim: The aim of this work was to study antigen-specific epitopes that can subsidize the development of a new vaccine approach. Methods: Mapping of T cell reactive epitopes for CD virus (CDV) was carried out through enzyme-linked immunospot assays using 119 overlapped synthetic peptides from the viral hemagglutinin protein, grouped in 22 pools forming a matrix to test the immune response of 32 animals. Results: Evaluations using the criteria established to identify reactive pools, demonstrated that 26 animals presented at least one reactive pool, that one pool was not reactive to any animal, and six pools were the most frequent among the reactive peptides. The crisscrossing of the most reactive pools in the matrix revealed nine peptides considered potential candidate epitopes for T cell stimulation against the CDV and those were used to design an in-silico protein, containing also predicted epitopes for B cell stimulation, and further analyzed using immune epitope databases to ensure protein quality and stability. Conclusion: The final in silico optimized protein presents characteristics that qualify it to be used to develop a new prototype epitope-based anti-CDV vaccine.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Cinomose , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Vacinas Virais , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/imunologia , Animais , Cinomose/prevenção & controle , Cinomose/imunologia , Cães , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , ELISPOT/veterinária
3.
J Virol Methods ; 327: 114949, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: T cell immunity plays a pivotal role in mitigating the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, reliable functional T cell assays are required to evaluate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T cell immunity in specific patient populations. METHODS: We recruited a cohort of 23 healthcare workers who received their bivalent Omicron BA.1 / ancestral mRNA booster vaccination or were infected with the Omicron variant at a median of 144 days and 227 days before blood collection, respectively. In this cohort, we compared the performances of two widely utilized commercial SARS-CoV-2 interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs), i.e., QuantiFERON SARS-CoV-2 and T-SPOT.COVID, and an in-house designed Omicron enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot). RESULTS: The QuantiFERON SARS-CoV-2 and T-SPOT.COVID assays detected SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific T cells in 34.8 % and 21.7 % of participants, respectively. Moreover, our in-house designed ELISpot that included Omicron BA.4 and BA.5 full-spike peptides detected T cell responses in 47.8 % of participants and was strongly associated with the T-SPOT.COVID. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 T cell immunity using commercially accessible assays may yield disparate outcomes as results from different assays are not directly comparable. A specific Omicron ELISpot should be considered to assess Omicron-specific T cell immunity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , ELISPOT , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , SARS-CoV-2 , Linfócitos T , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , ELISPOT/métodos , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/métodos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos de Coortes , Interferon gama/imunologia
4.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301687, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718078

RESUMO

In the monitoring of human Toxoplasma gondii infection, it is crucial to confirm the development of a specific Th1/Th17 immune response memory. The use of a simple, specific, and sensitive assay to follow the T-cell activation is thus required. Current protocols are not always specific as stimulation with peptides is Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-dependent, while stimulation with total-lysis antigens tends to stimulate seronegative donors resulting to false positives. Here, an improved ELISPOT protocol is reported, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of T.gondii-infected donors, incubated with the inactivated parasite. The results showed that, contrary to standard protocols, a pre-incubation step at high cell density in presence of the inactivated parasite allowed a specific Th1/Th17 response with the secretion of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12 and IL-17 cytokines. This protocol allows to evaluate precisely the immune response after a T.gondii infection.


Assuntos
ELISPOT , Células Th1 , Células Th17 , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Humanos , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , ELISPOT/métodos , Toxoplasmose/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo
5.
Cells ; 13(9)2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727277

RESUMO

Assessing immune responses to cytomegalovirus (CMV) after liver transplant in patients on immunosuppressive therapy remains challenging. In this study, employing ELISPOT assays, 52 liver-transplant recipients were evaluated for antiviral T-cell activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), measuring interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion upon stimulation with CMV-specific peptides (CMV peptide pool, CMV IE-1, and pp65 antigens). Parameters such as stimulation index, mean spot size, and mean spot count were measured. The study found that heightened immunosuppression, especially with prednisolone in triple therapy, significantly dampened CMV-specific immune responses. This was demonstrated by decreased IFN-γ production by CMV-specific T-cells (CMV peptide pool: p = 0.036; OR = 0.065 [95% CI: 0.005-0.840], pp65 antigen: p = 0.026; OR = 0.048 [95% CI: 0.003-0.699]). Increased immunosuppression correlated with reduced IFN-γ secretion per cell, reflected in smaller mean spot sizes for the CMV peptide pool (p = 0.019). Notably, shorter post-transplant intervals correlated with diminished antiviral T-cell IFN-γ release at two years (CMV peptide pool: p = 0.019; IE antigen: p = 0.010) and five years (CMV peptide pool: p = 0.0001; IE antigen: p = 0.002; pp65 antigen: p = 0.047), as did advancing age (pp65 antigen: p = 0.016, OR = 0.932, 95% CI: 0.881-0.987). Patients with undetectable CMV antigens had a notably higher risk of CMV reactivation within six months from blood collection, closely linked with triple immunosuppression and prednisolone use. These findings highlight the intricate interplay between immunosuppression, immune response dynamics, and CMV reactivation risk, emphasizing the necessity for tailored immunosuppressive strategies to mitigate CMV reactivation in liver-transplant recipients. It can be concluded that, particularly in the early months post-transplantation, the use of prednisolone as a third immunosuppressant should be critically reconsidered. Additionally, the use of prophylactic antiviral therapy effective against CMV in this context holds significant importance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Citomegalovirus , ELISPOT , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Interferon gama , Transplante de Fígado , Linfócitos T , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Masculino , Feminino , ELISPOT/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interferon gama/imunologia , Idoso , Adulto , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Imunossupressão
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2782: 209-226, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622405

RESUMO

T cells are instrumental in protecting the host against invading pathogens and the development of cancer. To do so, they produce effector molecules such as granzymes, interleukins, interferons, and perforin. For the development and immunomonitoring of therapeutic applications such as cell-based therapies and vaccines, assessing T cell effector function is paramount. This can be achieved through various methods, such as 51Cr release assays, flow cytometry, and enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot (ELISpot) assays. For T cell ELISpots, plates are coated with antibodies directed against the effector molecule of interest (e.g., IFN-g). Subsequently, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or isolated T cells are cultured on the plate together with stimuli of choice, and the production of effector molecules is visualized via labeled detection antibodies. For clinical studies, ELISpot is currently the gold standard to determine antigen-specific T cell frequencies. In contrast to 51Cr release assays, ELISpot allows for the exact enumeration of responding T cells, and compared to flow cytometry, ELISpot is more cost-effective and high throughput. Here, we optimize and describe, in a step-by-step fashion, how to perform a controlled IFN-γ ELISpot experiment to determine the frequency of responding or antigen-specific T cells in healthy human volunteers. Of note, this protocol can also be employed to assess the frequency of antigen-specific T cells induced in, e.g., vaccination studies or present in cellular products.


Assuntos
Leucócitos Mononucleares , Linfócitos T , Humanos , ELISPOT/métodos , Antígenos , Granzimas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos
7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(6): e0012624, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38686954

RESUMO

With the emergence of highly transmissible variants of concern, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) still poses a global threat of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resurgence. Cellular responses to novel variants are more robustly maintained than humoral responses, and therefore, cellular responses are of interest in assessing immune protection against severe disease in the population. We aimed to assess cellular responses to SARS-CoV-2 at the population level. IFNγ (interferon γ) responses to wild-type SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed using an ELISpot assay in vaccine-naive individuals with different humoral responses: Ig (IgM and/or IgG) seronegative (n = 90) and seropositive (n = 181) with low (<300 U/mL) or high (≥300 U/mL) humoral responses to the spike receptor binding domain (anti-S-RBD). Among the seropositive participants, 71.3% (129/181) were IFNγ ELISpot positive, compared to 15.6% (14/90) among the seronegative participants. Common COVID-19 symptoms such as fever and ageusia were associated with IFNγ ELISpot positivity in seropositive participants, whereas no participant characteristics were associated with IFNγ ELISpot positivity in seronegative participants. Fever and/or dyspnea and anti-S-RBD levels were associated with higher IFNγ responses. Symptoms of more severe disease and higher anti-S-RBD responses were associated with higher IFNγ responses. A significant proportion (15.6%) of seronegative participants had a positive IFNγ ELISpot. Assessment of cellular responses may improve estimates of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in the general population. IMPORTANCE: Data on adaptive cellular immunity are of interest to define immune protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in a population, which is important for decision-making on booster-vaccination strategies. This study provides data on associations between participant characteristics and cellular immune responses in vaccine-naive individuals with different humoral responses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19 , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Interferon gama , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Interferon gama/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , ELISPOT
8.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1338937, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38449861

RESUMO

Introduction: The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), produced by Fusarium fungi, are frequently found in the cereal-rich diet of pigs and can modulate the immune system. Some enzymes or bacteria present in the digestive tract can de-epoxydize DON to deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) and biotransform ZEN into hydrolyzed ZEN (HZEN). The effects of these metabolites on immune cells, particularly with respect to the vaccine responses, are poorly documented. The aim of this study was to address the impact of DON and ZEN and their respective derivatives, on proliferation, and antibody production of porcine B cells in vitro. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), isolated from healthy pigs, were stimulated with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8-agonist Resiquimod (R848) or the TLR/1/2-agonist Pam3Cys-SKKKK in combination with DON [0.1-1.6 µM] or DOM-1 [1.6 µM and 16 µM] and ZEN [2.5-40 µM] or HZEN [40 µM]. Results: A strong decrease in B-cell proliferation was observed at DON concentrations equal to or exceeding 0.8 µM and at ZEN concentrations equal to or exceeding 20 µM. Treatment with 1.6 µM DON or 40 µM ZEN led to almost a complete loss of live CD79α+ B cells. Moreover, CD21 expression of proliferating IgG+ and IgM+ B-cell subsets was decreased at DON concentrations equal to and exceeding 0.4 µM and at ZEN concentrations equal to or exceeding 10 µM. ELISpot assays revealed a decrease of IgG-secreting B cells at concentrations of and exceeding 0.4 µM and at ZEN concentrations equal to and exceeding 10 µM. ELISA assays showed a decrease of IgM, IgG, and IgA secretion at concentrations equal to or exceeding 0.4 µM DON. ZEN reduced IgM secretion at 20-40 µM (both R848 and Pam3Cys-SKKKK), IgG secretion at 40 µM (both R848 and Pam3Cys-SKKKK) and IgA secretion at 20-40 µM. Discussion: Our in vitro experiments show that while DON and ZEN impair immunoglobulin production and B-cell proliferation, this effect is abrogated by HZEN and DOM-1.


Assuntos
Tricotecenos , Zearalenona , Animais , Suínos , Formação de Anticorpos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Proliferação de Células , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , ELISPOT , Imunoglobulina A , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2768: 1-13, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502384

RESUMO

The ELISpot assay has a solid place in the immune monitoring field for over 40 years. It is an assay that can assess the function of single immune cells in a straightforward and easy-to-learn approach. Its use in basic research, translational, and clinical work has been documented in countless publications. Harmonization guidelines and invaluable tools for optimal assay performance and evaluation exist. However, the validation of an established ELISpot protocol has been left to diverse opinions about how to interpret and tackle typical validation parameters. This chapter addresses important considerations for ELISpot validation, including the interpretations of validation parameters for a meaningful description of assay performance.


Assuntos
Interferon gama , ELISPOT/métodos
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2768: 87-103, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502389

RESUMO

ELISpot and flow cytometry are two methods often utilized side-by-side for detecting secreted and intracellular cytokines, respectively. Each application has its own advantages and challenges. ELISpot is more sensitive compared to ELISA and appears to be more consistent in detecting IL-10 production than flow cytometry. ELISpot can be used for detecting the secretion of multiple cytokines but not from the same cells simultaneously, whereas flow cytometry allows for the concurrent detection of multiple intracellular cytokines by the same cells. Flow cytometry is a convenient technique allowing for the detection of many cytokines at the same time in a population of cells. The restimulation cocktails used for cytokine detection in flow cytometry are hard on cells and lead to decreased cell viability. Using a live dead dye allows for the exclusion of dead cells when analyzing data. We illustrated the differences between ELISpot and flow cytometry by stimulating cells with two toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, LPS or Pam3CSK4. Both activators increase production of various cytokines, including IL-10, IL-6, and TNF-alpha. The TLR2 antagonist, MMG-11, was used to inhibit this increased cytokine production. We observed some inhibition of IL-6 and IL-10 from Pam3CSK4 stimulation in the presence of MMG-11 by flow cytometry. TNF-α remains largely unchanged as its basal expression is high, but there is some reduction in the presence of MMG-11 for both methods. However, IL-10 was difficult to detect by ELISpot given the low seeding density. Overall, both ELISpot and flow cytometry are good methods for detecting secreted and intracellular cytokines, respectively, and should be used as complimentary assays.


Assuntos
Interleucina-10 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Humanos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6 , Citometria de Fluxo , Citocinas/metabolismo , ELISPOT
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2768: 105-115, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502390

RESUMO

ELISPOT and FluoroSpot assays, collectively called ImmunoSpot assays, permit to reliable detection of rare antigen-specific T cells in freshly isolated cell material, such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Establishing their frequency within all PBMC permits to assess the magnitude of antigen-specific T-cell immunity; the simultaneous measurement of their cytokine signatures reveals these T-cells' lineage and effector functions, that is, the quality of T-cell-mediated immunity. Because of their unparalleled sensitivity, ease of implementation, robustness, and frugality in PBMC utilization, T-cell ImmunoSpot assays are increasingly becoming part of the standard immune monitoring repertoire. For regulated workflows, stringent audit trails of the data generated are a requirement. While this has been fully accomplished for the analysis of T-cell ImmunoSpot assay results, such are missing for the wet laboratory implementation of the actual test performed. Here we introduce a solution for enhancing and verifying the error-free implementation of T-cell ImmunoSpot assays.


Assuntos
Leucócitos Mononucleares , Linfócitos T , Citocinas , ELISPOT/métodos , Imunidade Celular
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2768: 117-133, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502391

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 continues to threaten global public health, making COVID-19 immunity studies of utmost importance. Waning of antibody responses postinfection and/or vaccination and the emergence of immune escape variants have been ongoing challenges in mitigating SARS-CoV-2 morbidity and mortality. While a tremendous amount of work has been done to characterize humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 virus and vaccines, cellular immunity, mediated by T cells, is critical for efficient viral control and protection and demonstrates high durability and cross-reactivity to coronavirus variants. Thus, ELISPOT, a standard assay for antigen-specific cellular immune response assessment, allows us to evaluate SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell response by quantifying the frequency of SARS-CoV-2-specific cytokine-secreting cells in vitro. We have outlined a detailed procedure to study T-cell recall responses to SARS-CoV-2 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following infection and/or vaccination using an optimized IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. Our methodologies can be adapted to assess other cytokines and are a useful tool for studying other viral pathogen and/or peptide-specific T-cell responses.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , ELISPOT , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Peptídeos , Citocinas , Imunidade Celular , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinação
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2768: 51-58, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502387

RESUMO

ELISpot (enzyme-linked immunospot) is a powerful immunological tool for the detection of cytokine-secreting cells at a single-cell resolution. It is widely used for the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, e.g., tuberculosis and sarcoidosis, and it is also widely used in cancer immunotherapy research. Its ability to distinguish between active and latent forms of tuberculosis makes it an extremely powerful tool for epidemiological studies and contact tracing. In addition to that, it is a very useful tool for the research and development of cancer immunotherapies. ELISpot can be employed to assess the immune responses against various tumor-associated antigens, which could provide valuable insights for the development of effective therapies against cancers. Furthermore, it plays a crucial role to the evaluation of immune responses against specific antigens that not only could aid in vaccine development but also assist in treatment monitoring and development of therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. This chapter briefly describes some of the applications of ELISpot in tuberculosis and cancer research.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Neoplasias , Tuberculose , Humanos , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/terapia , ELISPOT , Antígenos de Bactérias , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2768: 153-166, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502393

RESUMO

Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 with coronavirus vaccines that elicit protective immune responses is critical to the prevention of severe disease and mortality associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Understanding the adaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or vaccination will continue to aid in the development of next-generation vaccines. Studies have shown the important role of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies for both disease resolution and prevention of COVID-19 serious sequelae following vaccination. However, antibody responses are short-lived, highlighting the importance of studying antigen-specific B-cell responses to better understand durable immunity and immunologic memory. Since the spike protein is the main target of antibody-producing B cells, we developed a SARS-CoV-2 memory B cell ELISPOT assay to measure the frequencies of spike-specific B cells after COVID-19 infection and/or vaccination. Here, we describe in detail the methodology for using this ELISPOT assay to quantify SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific memory B cells produced by infection and/or vaccination in human PBMC samples. Application of this assay may help better understand and predict SARS-CoV-2 recall immune responses and to develop potential B cell correlates of protection at the methodological level.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , Células B de Memória , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , ELISPOT , Leucócitos Mononucleares , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinação
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2768: 59-85, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502388

RESUMO

Antigen-specific B-cell ELISPOT and multicolor FluoroSpot assays, in which the membrane-bound antigen itself serves as the capture reagent for the antibodies that B cells secrete, inherently result in a broad range of spot sizes and intensities. The diversity of secretory footprint morphologies reflects the polyclonal nature of the antigen-specific B cell repertoire, with individual antibody-secreting B cells in the test sample differing in their affinity for the antigen, fine epitope specificity, and activation/secretion kinetics. To account for these heterogeneous spot morphologies, and to eliminate the need for setting up subjective counting parameters well-by-well, CTL introduces here its cutting-edge deep learning-based IntelliCount™ algorithm within the ImmunoSpot® Studio Software Suite, which integrates CTL's proprietary deep neural network. Here, we report detailed analyses of spots with a broad range of morphologies that were challenging to analyze using standard parameter-based counting approaches. IntelliCount™, especially in conjunction with high dynamic range (HDR) imaging, permits the extraction of accurate, high-content information of such spots, as required for assessing the affinity distribution of an antigen-specific memory B-cell repertoire ex vivo. IntelliCount™ also extends the range in which the number of antibody-secreting B cells plated and spots detected follow a linear function; that is, in which the frequencies of antigen-specific B cells can be accurately established. Introducing high-content analysis of secretory footprints in B-cell ELISPOT/FluoroSpot assays, therefore, fundamentally enhances the depth in which an antigen-specific B-cell repertoire can be studied using freshly isolated or cryopreserved primary cell material, such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Leucócitos Mononucleares , ELISPOT/métodos , Algoritmos , Linfócitos B , Antígenos
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2768: 297-304, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502400

RESUMO

Switching from ELISpot to FluoroSpot enables the analysis of spot-forming units representing cells producing different cytokines as well as the frequencies of spots derived from cells co-secreting multiple cytokines. Due to the fluorescent read-out signal, sophisticated reader instruments can also measure the relative spot volume, making it possible to differentiate between spots generated by cells secreting different levels of one or more cytokines. Here we describe how triple FluoroSpot assays can be used to define polyfunctional T cells secreting multiple cytokines and how different T-cell populations can differ in the levels of cytokines they secrete.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Linfócitos T , Linfócitos T/química , Citocinas/análise , ELISPOT , Antígenos , Corantes
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2768: 211-239, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502396

RESUMO

The affinity distribution of the antigen-specific memory B cell (Bmem) repertoire in the body is a critical variable that defines an individual's ability to rapidly generate high-affinity protective antibody specificities. Detailed measurement of antibody affinity so far has largely been confined to studies of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and are laborious since each individual mAb needs to be evaluated in isolation. Here, we introduce two variants of the B cell ImmunoSpot® assay that are suitable for simultaneously assessing the affinity distribution of hundreds of individual B cells within a test sample at single-cell resolution using relatively little labor and with high-throughput capacity. First, we experimentally validated that both ImmunoSpot® assay variants are suitable for establishing functional affinity hierarchies using B cell hybridoma lines as model antibody-secreting cells (ASC), each producing mAb with known affinity for a defined antigen. We then leveraged both ImmunoSpot® variants for characterizing the affinity distribution of SARS-CoV-2 Spike-specific ASC in PBMC following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Such ImmunoSpot® assays promise to offer tremendous value for future B cell immune monitoring efforts, owing to their ease of implementation, applicability to essentially any antigenic system, economy of PBMC utilization, high-throughput capacity, and suitability for regulated testing.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , ELISPOT , Antígenos , Células Produtoras de Anticorpos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2768: 273-296, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502399

RESUMO

Enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) is one of the most important methods to measure the number of specific cells by detecting protein secretion at a single-cell level. However, traditional ELISPOT based on enzyme-substrate color development can only detect one target. Therefore, scientists developed multiple-target ELISPOT based on enzyme-substrate coloring. Besides, FluoroSPOT that can detect 2-4 fluorescent signals are developed. Nevertheless, the maximum detection targets of multiple-target ELISPOT and FluoroSPOT are around 4, and the signal amplification system can be further optimized. Fluorescence-based oligo-linked immunospot (FOLISPOT), which utilized DNA-barcoded antibodies to provide a highly multiplexed method with signal amplification, was developed to detect multiple targets simultaneously. In this method, multiple targets can be detected in one round and multiple rounds of detection can be conducted, and thus a large number of targets can be detected. Besides, signal amplification is achieved by DNA complementary pairing and modular orthogonal DNA concatemers, and thus cells secreting limited amounts of proteins can be detected. According to the studies, FOLISPOT can detect more spots than ELISPOT and can detect targets that are undetectable by ELISPOT. Furthermore, FOLISPOT can be utilized to detect more than 6 targets, by allowing sequential detection of multiple targets in one round and sequential detection in multiple rounds.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Linfócitos T , ELISPOT/métodos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Linfócitos B , Corantes/metabolismo
19.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1305586, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322252

RESUMO

Introduction: One of the unexpected outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic was the relatively low levels of morbidity and mortality in Africa compared to the rest of the world. Nigeria, Africa's most populous nation, accounted for less than 0.01% of the global COVID-19 fatalities. The factors responsible for Nigeria's relatively low loss of life due to COVID-19 are unknown. Also, the correlates of protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and the impact of pre-existing immunity on the outcome of the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa are yet to be elucidated. Here, we evaluated the natural and vaccine-induced immune responses from vaccinated, non-vaccinated and convalescent individuals in Southern Nigeria throughout the three waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. We also examined the pre-existing immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 from samples collected prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We used spike RBD and N- IgG antibody ELISA to measure binding antibody responses, SARS-CoV-2 pseudotype assay protocol expressing the spike protein of different variants (D614G, Delta, Beta, Omicron BA1) to measure neutralizing antibody responses and nucleoprotein (N) and spike (S1, S2) direct ex vivo interferon gamma (IFNγ) T cell ELISpot to measure T cell responses. Result: Our study demonstrated a similar magnitude of both binding (N-IgG (74% and 62%), S-RBD IgG (70% and 53%) and neutralizing (D614G (49% and 29%), Delta (56% and 47%), Beta (48% and 24%), Omicron BA1 (41% and 21%)) antibody responses from symptomatic and asymptomatic survivors in Nigeria. A similar magnitude was also seen among vaccinated participants. Interestingly, we revealed the presence of preexisting binding antibodies (N-IgG (60%) and S-RBD IgG (44%)) but no neutralizing antibodies from samples collected prior to the pandemic. Discussion: These findings revealed that both vaccinated, non-vaccinated and convalescent individuals in Southern Nigeria make similar magnitude of both binding and cross-reactive neutralizing antibody responses. It supported the presence of preexisting binding antibody responses among some Nigerians prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Lastly, hybrid immunity and heterologous vaccine boosting induced the strongest binding and broadly neutralizing antibody responses compared to vaccine or infection-acquired immunity alone.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , População da África Ocidental , Humanos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , COVID-19/imunologia , ELISPOT , Imunoglobulina G , Nigéria , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 129: 111542, 2024 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342063

RESUMO

Research dedicated to diagnostic reagents and vaccine development for tuberculosis (TB) is challenging due to the paucity of immunodominant antigens that can predict disease risk and exhibit protective potential. Therefore, it is crucial to identify T-cell epitope-based Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) antigens characterized by specific and prominent recognition by the immune system. In this study, we constructed a T-cell epitope-rich tripeptide-splicing fragment (nucleotide positions 131-194, 334-377, and 579-643) of Rv2201 (also known as the 72 kDa AsnB)from the MTB genome, ultimately yielding the recombinant protein Rv2201-519 in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Subsequently, we gauged the recombinant protein's ability to detect tuberculosis infection through ELISpot and assessed its immunostimulatory effect on mouse models using flow cytometry and ELISA. Our results indicated that Rv2201-519 possessed promising sensitivity; however, the sensitivity was lower than that of a commercial diagnostic kit containing ESAT-6, CFP-10, and Rv3615c (80.56 % vs. 94.44 %). The Rv2201-519 group exhibited a propensity for a CD4+ Th1 cell immune response in inoculated BALB/c mice that manifested as higher levels of antigen-specific IgG production (IgG2a/IgG1 > 1). In comparison to Ag85B, Rv2201-519 induced a more robust Th1-type cellular immune response as evidenced by a notable rise in the ratio of IFN-γ/IL-4 and IL-12 cytokine production and increased CD4+ T cell activation with a higher percentage of CD4+IFN-γ+ T cells. Rv2201-519 also induced a higher level of IL-6 compared with Ag85B, a higher percentage of CD8+ T cells specific for Rv2201-519, and a lower percentage of CD8+IL-4+ T cells. Collectively, the current evidence suggests that Rv2201-519 could potentially serve as an immunodominant protein for tuberculosis infection screening, laying the groundwork for further evaluation in recombinant Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and subunit vaccines against MTB challenges in future studies.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Animais , Camundongos , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Antígenos de Bactérias , Interleucina-4 , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , ELISPOT , Proteínas Recombinantes , Desenvolvimento de Vacinas , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética
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