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1.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210207, 2022. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1339879

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo refletir sobre o conceito de vulnerabilidade em saúde à luz dos pressupostos de educação e liberdade de Hannah Arendt. Método estudo teórico-reflexivo cujos resultados foram agrupados em duas categorias: Vulnerabilidade em saúde como condição humana e Educação e liberdade do sujeito em situação de vulnerabilidade. Resultados a vulnerabilidade deve ser reconhecida como traço da condição humana, pois suas dimensões envolvem o sujeito e suas condições de saúde, materiais, socioambientais, culturais e jurídicas. Ao considerar a vulnerabilidade na perspectiva política e conscientizadora, a educação emerge como ferramenta para sobrepujá-las, pois possibilita desenvolver as singularidades dos sujeitos, preparando-os para a responsabilidade com o mundo; propicia superar a alienação; concretiza o aprendizado político e a tomada de decisões. Tudo isso reunido é crucial para suplantar a condição de vulnerabilidade frente às desigualdades existentes no mundo e o respeito à liberdade dos sujeitos. Conclusão e implicações para a prática pensamentos arendtianos guardam relação com vulnerabilidade, pois a conscientização, por meio da educação, é indispensável ao aprimoramento do atual contexto social e político. A busca do ser humano pela liberdade e o encorajamento de suas ações oportunizam a evolução do sujeito no mundo.


Resumen Objetivo reflexionar sobre el concepto de vulnerabilidad en salud a la luz de los supuestos de educación y libertad de Hannah Arendt. Método estudio teórico-reflexivo cuyos resultados se agruparon en dos categorías: Vulnerabilidad en salud como condición humana y Educación y libertad del sujeto en situación de vulnerabilidad. Resultados la vulnerabilidad debe ser reconocida como un rasgo de la condición humana, ya que sus dimensiones involucran al sujeto y sus condiciones de salud, materiales, socioambientales, culturales y legales. Al considerar la vulnerabilidad desde una perspectiva política y de sensibilización, la educación surge como una herramienta para superarlas, ya que permite desarrollar las singularidades de los sujetos, preparándolos para la responsabilidad con el mundo; permite superar la alienación; materializa el aprendizaje político y la toma de decisiones. Todo esto en conjunto es fundamental para superar la condición de vulnerabilidad ante las desigualdades existentes en el mundo y el respeto a la libertad de los sujetos. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica los pensamientos arendtianos están relacionados con la vulnerabilidad, ya que la conciencia, a través de la educación, es fundamental para mejorar el contexto social y político actual. La búsqueda por la libertad de los seres humanos y el estímulo de sus acciones brindan oportunidades para la evolución del sujeto en el mundo.


Abstract Objective reflect on the concept of health vulnerability in light of Hannah Arendt's assumptions on education and freedom. Method a theoretical-reflexive study whose results were grouped into two categories: Vulnerability in health as a human condition and Education and freedom of the subject in a vulnerable situation. Results vulnerability must be recognized as a feature of the human condition, because its dimensions involve the subject and their health, material, socio-environmental, cultural and legal conditions. When considering vulnerability from a political and awareness-raising perspective, education emerges as a tool to overcome it, for it makes it possible to develop the singularities of the subjects, preparing them for their responsibility to the world; it enables them to overcome alienation; it materializes political learning and decision making. All of this together is crucial to overcome the condition of vulnerability to the inequalities existing in the world and the respect for the subjects' freedom. Conclusion and implications for practice arendtian thoughts are related to vulnerability, since awareness, through education, is indispensable to the improvement of the current social and political context. The human being's search for freedom and the encouragement of their actions enable the evolution of the subject in the world.


Assuntos
Humanos , Filosofia , Educação , Vulnerabilidade em Saúde , Liberdade , Meio Social , Formação de Conceito
2.
Licere (Online) ; 24(02): 418-436, 20210630.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282959

RESUMO

A eficácia das práticas corporais, atividades físicas e esportivas regulares é cientificamente comprovada como vetor de saúde e devem ser fomentadas em todos os ambientes. O objetivo é investigar se, no Século XXI, o governo federal brasileiro formulou políticas públicas que as contemplem no âmbito da Educação Básica em prol da saúde. Metodologicamente é um estudo exploratório documental. Como resultados, a Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico, Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios Contínua e Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar são os inquéritos que subsidiam aspolíticas públicas. Conclui que, alinhado com a Política Nacional de Promoção de Saúde de 2006, 2014 e 2017, Lei do SUS, Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação e a Constituição/1988, o Programa Saúde na Escola é a principal política pública interfederativa que as contemplam.


The effectiveness of body practices, regular physical activity and sports is scientifically demonstrated as a health vector and should be adopted in all environments. The goal is to investigate if, in the 21st Century, the Brazilian federal government created public policies that include these practices and activities in the scope of Basic Education in favor of health. Methodologically it is an exploratory documentary study. As a result, Surveillance of Risk Factors and Protection for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey, National Health Survey, National Continuous Household Sample Survey and National School Health Survey are the surveys that support public policy and that, in line with The National Health Promotion Policy of 2006, 2014 and 2017, with the SUS Law, the Education Guidelines and Bases Law and the Federal Constitution / 1988, the Health at School Program is the main interfederative and intersectoral public policy.


Assuntos
Educação , Política Pública
3.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9392

RESUMO

Tatiana Ferraz. jornalista e aluna de doutorada na UNIFESP, conta sua experiência com sua tese de doutorado que realizou um ensaio clínico randomizado cego com estudantes de jornalismo sobre conhecimentos na área da saúde.


Assuntos
Jornalismo Médico , Ensaio Clínico Controlado Aleatório , Comunicação em Saúde , Educação
4.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(11): 690-692, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) impacted medical education and led to the significant modification or suspension of clinical clerkships and rotations. OBJECTIVES: To describe a revised surgery clerkship curriculum, in which we divided in-person clinical teaching into smaller groups of students and adopted online-based learning to foster student and patient safety while upholding program standards. METHODS: The third-year surgery core clerkship of a 4-year international English-language program at the Medical School for International Health at Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel, was adapted by dividing students into smaller capsules for in-person learning and incorporating online learning tools. Specifically, students were divided evenly throughout three surgical departments, each of which followed a different clinical schedule. RESULTS: National Board of Medical Examiners clerkship scores of third-year medical students who were returning to in-person clinical clerkships after transitioning from 8 weeks of online-based learning showed no significant difference from the previous 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: To manage with the restrictions caused by COVID-19 pandemic, we designed an alternative approach to a traditional surgical clerkship that minimized the risk of exposure and used online learning tools to navigate scheduling challenges. This curriculum enabled students to complete their clinical rotation objectives and outcomes while maintaining program standards. Furthermore, this approach provided a number of benefits, which medical schools should consider adopting the model into practice even in a post-pandemic setting.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estágio Clínico , Educação à Distância/métodos , Educação , Cirurgia Geral/educação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estágio Clínico/organização & administração , Estágio Clínico/tendências , Currículo/tendências , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Educação/métodos , Educação/organização & administração , Educação/tendências , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Israel/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes de Medicina , Ensino
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(37): e27258, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664876

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: More than 80% of patients who visited Emergency Department (ED) was not urgent in Taiwan in 2019. It causes insufficient medical services and a latent fiscal threat to the Nation Health Insurance (NHI). This study adopted simulation-based educating modules to explore the effect in teaching competence among primary and middle school teachers for efficient AEDRU (adequate emergency department resource usage) education in the future. METHOD: The subjects were 414 elementary and junior high school teachers in Taiwan. 214 participants attended the simulation-based workshop as the simulation-based group, whereas 200 participants took an online self-learning module as the self-learning group. The workshop was created by an expert panel for decreasing the unnecessary usage amount of ED medial resources. The materials are lecture, board games, miniature ED modules, and simulation-based scenarios. A teaching competence questionnaire including ED knowledge, teaching attitude, teaching skills, and teaching self-efficacy was conducted among participants before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed via McNemar, paired t test and the generalized estimating equations (GEE). RESULTS: The study showed that teachers who participated in the simulation-based workshop had improved more in teaching competence than those who received the online self-learning module. In addition, there were significant differences between the pre-test and post-test among the two groups in teaching competence. CONCLUSION: The simulation-based workshop is effective and it should be spread out. When students know how to use ED medical resources properly, they could affect their families. It can help the ED service to be used properly and benefits the finance of the NHI. The health care cost will be managed while also improving health.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador/tendências , Educação/métodos , Educação/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Competência Profissional/normas , Competência Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Alocação de Recursos/métodos , Alocação de Recursos/normas , Professores Escolares , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan
7.
New Dir Stud Leadersh ; 2021(171): 101-111, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658176

RESUMO

Leadership education within postsecondary institutions has often failed to consider the ways in which Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) make sense of their leadership identity. This article explores the role that Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions have in fostering AAPI leaders through culturally relevant practices and services that recognize and embrace students' racial and ethnic backgrounds.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , Educação/tendências , Liderança , Nativos Estadunidenses , Humanos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Estudantes
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257962, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624041

RESUMO

The objective of the paper is to diagnose organisational culture of selected universities and analyse its impact on the innovation processes within them. The subject matter of the study was organisational culture and innovation at universities. The subjects were four selected universities in Poland, Austria, Germany, and Ukraine. The paper provided a definition of organisational culture and its typology. It further discussed the organisational culture of universities and the relationships between organisational culture and innovativeness. The literature review provided foundations for building a model for the formation of a type of organisational culture at universities that is innovation-friendly, which is the added value of the paper. It offers actions worth taking to shape innovation-friendly culture at universities. It is particularly important during difficult time of changing labour market, when universities greatly impact the attitudes of young people. The knowledge of how to shape innovation-friendly organisational culture at universities is necessary for academia to profile future employees in times of continuous changes. To investigate the relationship between organisational culture and the innovativeness of universities, we designed an original survey questionnaire [S1 File]. Organisational culture was diagnosed with the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument by K.S. Cameron and R.E. Quinn. The analyses were conducted in Dell Statistica v. 13.1 (StatSoft Polska). We normalised data from the Likert rating scale using Kaufman's and Rousseeuw's formula. We used Spearman's correlation coefficient and Kendall's W to calculate correlations. The research shows that the investigated Polish and Austrian universities are dominated by hierarchy and market cultures. On the other hand, the German and Ukrainian universities host all cultures, but clan and adhocracy dominate there. Moreover, the analyses demonstrated that although the adhocracy culture was the least visible in the investigated organisations, it contributes to university innovativeness the most. The conclusions were used to build a model for promoting innovation-friendly organisational culture at universities. The model contains answers to the research questions. In addition, it offers guidelines for shaping organisational culture to bolster innovation at universities. The research identified relationships between organisational culture and university innovativeness and components that create innovation opportunities at universities as its contribution to management theory. When applied in practice, the guidelines can help form the university's organisational culture bottom-up.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Inovação Organizacional , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Áustria/epidemiologia , Cultura , Educação/tendências , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing/tendências , Cultura Organizacional , Organizações , Polônia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702720

RESUMO

CONTEXT: There is a lack of research on individual perceptions of social experiences and social relationships among very preterm (VP) adults compared with term-born peers. OBJECTIVE: To investigate self-perceived social functioning in adults born VP (<32 weeks' gestation) and/or with very low birth weight (VLBW) (<1500g) compared with term-born adults (≥37 weeks' gestation) using an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Two international consortia: Research on European Children and Adults born Preterm and Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration. STUDY SELECTION: Cohorts with outcomes assessed by using the Adult Self-Report Adaptive Functioning scales (friends, spouse/partner, family, job, and education) in both groups. DATA EXTRACTION: IPD from 5 eligible cohorts were collected. Raw-sum scores for each scale were standardized as z scores by using mean and SD of controls for each cohort. Pooled effect size was measured by difference (Δ) in means between groups. RESULTS: One-stage analyses (1285 participants) revealed significantly lower scores for relationships with friends in VP/VLBW adults compared with controls (Δ -0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.61 to -0.13). Differences were similar after adjusting for sex, age, and socioeconomic status (Δ -0.39, 95% CI: -0.63 to -0.15) and after excluding participants with neurosensory impairment (Δ -0.34, 95% CI: -0.61 to -0.07). No significant differences were found in other domains. LIMITATIONS: Generalizability of research findings to VP survivors born in recent decades. CONCLUSIONS: VP/VLBW adults scored their relationship with friends lower but perceived their family and partner relationships, as well as work and educational experiences, as comparable to those of controls.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/psicologia , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Interação Social , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Coortes , Educação , Emprego , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Amigos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Cônjuges
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258152, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597338

RESUMO

The registered report was targeted at identifying latent profiles of competence development in reading and mathematics among N = 15,012 German students in upper secondary education sampled in a multi-stage stratified cluster design across German schools. These students were initially assessed in grade 9 and provided competence assessments on three measurement occasions across six years using tests especially developed for the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). Using Latent Growth Mixture Models, Using Latent Growth Mixture Models, we aimed at identifying multiple profiles of competence development. Specifically, we expected to find at least one generalized (i.e., reading and mathematical competence develop similarly) and two specialized profiles (i.e., one of the domains develops faster) of competence development and that these profiles are explained by the specialization of interest and of vocational education of students. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find multiple latent profiles of competence development. The model describing our data best was a single-group latent growth model confirming a competence development profile, which can be described as specializing in mathematical competences, indicating a higher increase in mathematical competences as compared to reading competences in upper secondary school. Since only one latent profile was identified, potential predictors (specialization of vocational education and interest) for different profiles of competence development were not examined.


Assuntos
Matemática/normas , Competência Mental/normas , Leitura , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Adolescente , Educação/normas , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(39): 1374-1376, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591828

RESUMO

Beginning in January 2021, the U.S. government prioritized ensuring continuity of learning for all students during the COVID-19 pandemic (1). To estimate the extent of COVID-19-associated school disruptions, CDC and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory used a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) (2) statistical approach to estimate the most likely actual learning modality based on patterns observed in past data, accounting for conflicting or missing information and systematic Internet searches (3) for COVID-19-related school closures. This information was used to assess how many U.S. schools were open, and in which learning modalities, during August 1-September 17, 2021. Learning modalities included 1) full in-person learning, 2) a hybrid of in-person and remote learning, and 3) full remote learning.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Educação/métodos , Educação/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Educação à Distância/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
SOBECC ; 26(3): 172-180, 30-09-2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1342968

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analisar as publicações dos últimos cinco anos com temas sobre educação em Centro de Materiais e Esterilização. Método: Revisão integrativa com busca nas bases de dados: Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Scopus Info Site, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature via EBSCOhost, Cochrane e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde. Resultados: Selecionados dez artigos, todos consideraram indispensáveis a atualização constante e a disponibilização de recursos mínimos para realização das atividades profissionais com melhorias na prática clínica. Quatro publicações identificaram as percepções quanto à educação, lacunas de conhecimento e oportunidades de desenvolvimento. Estratégias educacionais utilizadas: educação permanente com materiais didáticos, aplicação de treinamento teórico e prático, reestruturação dos processos com treinamento técnico, programas de mentoria educativa in loco e autorreflexão profissional sobre melhores práticas aplicadas nos processos de trabalho. Conclusão: As publicações reforçam a importância de intervenções educativas para capacitação profissional, domínio de novas tecnologias, prestação de serviço de qualidade e impacto favorável na eficácia do processamento de produtos para a saúde.


Objective: To analyze the publications of the last five years about education at the Materials and Sterilization Center. Method: Integrative review with search in databases: Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Online Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, Scopus Info Site, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature via EBSCOhost, Cochrane, and Virtual Health Library. Results: Ten articles were selected, all of them considering it essential to constantly update and make available minimum resources to carry out professional activities with improvements in clinical practice. Four publications identified perceptions of education, knowledge gaps and development opportunities. The educational strategies used were: continuing education with teaching materials, application of theoretical and practical training, restructuring of processes with technical training, on-site educational mentoring programs and professional self-reflection on best practices. Conclusion: The publications reinforce the importance of educational interventions for professional training, with view to them mastering new technologies, providing quality services and having a favorable impact on the effectiveness of health products' processing.


Objetivo: Analizar las publicaciones de los últimos cinco años con temas de educación en el Centro de Materiales y Esterilización. Método: Revisión integradora con búsqueda en bases de datos: Literatura de Ciencias de la Salud de América Latina y el Caribe, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Scopus Info Site, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature via EBSCOhost, COCHRANE y Biblioteca Virtual en Salud. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 10 artículos, todos considerados imprescindibles a la constante actualización y disponibilidad de recursos mínimos para realizar actividades profesionales con mejoras en la práctica clínica. Cuatro publicaciones identificaron percepciones de educación, brechas de conocimiento y oportunidades de desarrollo. Estrategias educativas utilizadas: formación continua con material didáctico, aplicación de formación teórica y práctica, reestructuración de procesos con formación técnica, programas de tutoría educativa presencial y autorreflexión profesional sobre las mejores prácticas aplicadas en los procesos de trabajo. Conclusión: Las publicaciones refuerzan la importancia de las intervenciones educativas para la formación profesional, el dominio de las nuevas tecnologías, la prestación de servicios de calidad y el impacto favorable en la efectividad del procesamiento de los productos sanitarios.


Assuntos
Humanos , Esterilização , Educação , Ciências da Saúde , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Capacitação Profissional , Segurança do Paciente
14.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(3): 339-349, Sept. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339786

RESUMO

ABSTRACT In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA),cognitive screening is complicated by both cultural and educational factors, and the existing normative values may not be applicable. The Identification of Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) cognitive screen is a low-literacy measure with good diagnostic accuracy for dementia. Objective: The aim of this study is to report normative values for IDEA and other simple measures [i.e., categorical verbal fluency, the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) 10-word list] in representative community-dwelling older adults in SSA. Methods: Individuals aged ≥60 years resident in 12 representative villages in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania and individuals aged ≥65 years resident within three communities in Akinyele Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria underwent cognitive screening. The normative data were generated by the categories of age, sex, and education. Results: A total of 3,011 people in Tanzania (i.e., 57.3% females and 26.4% uneducated) and 1,117 in Nigeria (i.e., 60.3% females and 64.5% uneducated) were screened. Individuals with higher age, lower education, and female gender obtained lower scores. The 50th decile values for IDEA were 13 (60-64 years) vs. 8/9 (above 85 years), 10-11 uneducated vs. 13 primary educated, and 11/12 in females vs. 13 in males. The normative values for 10-word list delayed recall and categorical verbal fluency varied with education [i.e., delayed recall mean 2.8 [standard deviation (SD) 1.7] uneducated vs. 4.2 (SD 1.2) secondary educated; verbal fluency mean 9.2 (SD 4.8) uneducated vs. 12.2 (SD 4.3) secondary educated], substantially lower than published high-income country values. Conclusions: The cut-off values for commonly used cognitive screening items should be adjusted to suit local normative values, particularly where there are lower levels of education.


RESUMO Na África Subsaariana (ASS), a triagem cognitiva é complicada por fatores culturais e educacionais, além dos valores normativos existentes poderem não ser aplicáveis. O rastreio cognitivo Identification of Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) é uma medida para níveis baixos de alfabetização com boa acurácia diagnóstica para demência. Objetivo: Relatar os valores normativos para a IDEA e outras medidas simples (fluência verbal categórica, a lista de 10 palavras do Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) em idosos residentes na comunidade, representativos da ASS. Métodos: Indivíduos com idade ≥60 residentes em 12 comunidades representativas em Kilimanjaro, Tanzânia e indivíduos com idade ≥65 anos residentes em três comunidades na área governamental de Akinyele, Estado de Oyo, Nigéria, foram submetidos à triagem cognitiva. Os dados normativos foram gerados por faixas etárias, sexo e escolaridade. Resultados: Um total de 3.011 pessoas na Tanzânia (57,3% mulheres, 26,4% sem educação) e 1.117 na Nigéria (60,3% mulheres, 64,5% sem educação) foram examinadas. Os indivíduos com idade mais alta, menor escolaridade e mulheres obtiveram escores mais baixos. Os valores do percentil 50 para a IDEA foram 13 (60-64 anos) vs. 8/9 (85+ anos), 10-11 para analfabetos vs. 13 com educação primária e 11/12 em mulheres vs. 13 em homens. Os valores normativos para a evocação tardia da lista de 10 palavras e a fluência verbal categórica variaram com a educação (evocação tardia 2,8 (SD 1,7) para os sem educação, vs. 4,2 (SD 1,2) para com educação secundária; fluência verbal 9,2 (DP 4,8) para os sem educação vs. 12,2 (SD 4.3) para os com ensino médio, substancialmente inferior aos valores publicados em países de alta renda. Conclusões: Os valores de corte para testes de triagem cognitiva comumente usados devem ser ajustados para se adequar aos valores normativos locais, particularmente em níveis baixos de educação.


Assuntos
Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Cognição , Educação , Tanzânia , África ao Sul do Saara , Nigéria
15.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256474, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547029

RESUMO

Gender equality is a major problem that places women at a disadvantage thereby stymieing economic growth and societal advancement. In the last two decades, extensive research has been conducted on gender related issues, studying both their antecedents and consequences. However, existing literature reviews fail to provide a comprehensive and clear picture of what has been studied so far, which could guide scholars in their future research. Our paper offers a scoping review of a large portion of the research that has been published over the last 22 years, on gender equality and related issues, with a specific focus on business and economics studies. Combining innovative methods drawn from both network analysis and text mining, we provide a synthesis of 15,465 scientific articles. We identify 27 main research topics, we measure their relevance from a semantic point of view and the relationships among them, highlighting the importance of each topic in the overall gender discourse. We find that prominent research topics mostly relate to women in the workforce-e.g., concerning compensation, role, education, decision-making and career progression. However, some of them are losing momentum, and some other research trends-for example related to female entrepreneurship, leadership and participation in the board of directors-are on the rise. Besides introducing a novel methodology to review broad literature streams, our paper offers a map of the main gender-research trends and presents the most popular and the emerging themes, as well as their intersections, outlining important avenues for future research.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Equidade de Gênero , Liderança , Educação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Semântica , Rede Social
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256612, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492057

RESUMO

This study aims to explore whether higher education and science popularization can achieve coordinated growth with temporal and spatial characteristics. Selecting the provincial regions of the Yangtze River Economic Belt in China as cases with data from the national statistics administrations (such as China Statistical Yearbook), this study uses entropy weight analysis, TOPSIS, GM(1,1) gray prediction methods and coupling coordination degree model to evaluate the coordinated growth status. The key findings are: (1) the annual budget per student, and the number of science and technology museums affect both systems more obviously; (2) the overall performances of science popularization fluctuate more obviously than those of higher education; (3) the coordinated growth performances of the two systems in most regions remain mild fluctuations and keep relatively stable coordinated status, however, temporal and spatial variation tendencies do exist among regions. Therefore, corresponding countermeasures should be implemented: generally, national authority needs to involve in coordination activities among regions; the regions with satisfactory coordinated growth performances need more creative approaches to maintain the coordinated growth interactions; the regions at the transitioning status need to prevent the grade decline and upgrade the performances; the regions with lagging performances need to stop the decline and reduce the gaps with others. The novelties include analyzing the coordinated growth interaction mechanism between the two, selecting indices to assess the abstract interaction mechanism precisely, proposing suggestions based on temporal and spatial comparisons of the coordinated growth performances, etc.


Assuntos
Orçamentos/tendências , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Educação/economia , Ciência/economia , Orçamentos/normas , China , Economia , Ecossistema , Entropia , Humanos , Análise Espacial
17.
Medisan ; 25(4)2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1340219

RESUMO

La familia posee una función esencial en la formación de las futuras generaciones, pues en ella radican los cimientos para la educación en valores que contribuirán al desarrollo de la sociedad saludable y virtuosa que se necesita. Por ello, resulta impostergable mejorar las bases teóricas y metodológicas que orienten su actuación, así como también lograr herramientas eficaces para motivar y adiestrar en el despliegue de su papel rector educativo para cimentar generaciones de calidad, lo cual constituye un reto imprescindible. Al respecto, en este artículo se buscó revitalizar y enriquecer esos principios sin obviar el contexto actual que se vive, y además se brindan herramientas que posibilitan un mejor desempeño de la familia en la labor educativa de los valores.


The family possesses an essential function in the training of the future generations, because the foundations for values education reside in it so that they will contribute to the development of the healthy and virtuous society that it is needed. Reason why it is inevitable to improve the theoretical and methodological bases that guide their performance, as well as to achieve effective tools to motivate and train in the display of its educational rector role to build quality generations, which constitutes an indispensable challenge. In this respect, this work is aimed at revitalizing and enriching those principles without obviating the current context that we are living, and some tools are also offered that facilitate a better family performance in the educational work of values.


Assuntos
Valores Sociais , Família , Educação
19.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(4): 395-399, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288595

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: With the advent of the network information age, the teaching of martial arts and traditional national sports has broken the limitations of the previous "teaching by precept and deeds" and combined with computer information technology to construct a teaching resource system for martial arts and traditional national sports, realizing the sharing of teaching resources. Objective: The article determines the concept of teaching resource integration by formulating a resource integration plan for the teaching resource system of martial arts and traditional national sports majors. At the same time provides a theoretical basis for the resource integration of the teaching resource system. Methods: The article takes the general university martial arts and national traditional sports discipline model as the research object, uses the method of literature data, investigation, logical analysis and other methods to research some general university martial arts and traditional national sports discipline curriculum models, and analyzes the existing ones. Results: The article formulated the resource integration plan of the professional teaching platform and provided theoretical guidance for the resource integration of the professional teaching resource platform. Secondly, it analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of resource integration of the teaching resource platform combining martial arts and sports. It proposes corresponding improvement suggestions to improve the quality and efficiency of the teaching resource platform. Conclusions: The teaching resource platform combining martial arts and physical education forms a relatively complete teaching resource system; reasonable teaching resource module design; realizes the network sharing of professional teaching resources in colleges and universities; the martial arts rank system highlights the key points and demonstrates the characteristics of the times. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: Com o advento da era das redes de informação, o ensino das artes marciais e dos esportes nacionais tradicionais rompeu as limitações do antigo "ensino por preceito e fatos" e foi combinado com a tecnologia da computação para construir um sistema de recursos didáticos para as artes marciais. artes e esportes tradicionais nacionais, fazendo a troca de recursos didáticos. Objetivo: o artigo determina o conceito de integração de recursos didáticos formulando um plano de integração de recursos para o sistema de recursos didáticos das carreiras das artes marciais e dos esportes tradicionais nacionais. Ao mesmo tempo, fornece uma base teórica para a integração de recursos do sistema de recursos de ensino. Métodos: O artigo toma o modelo geral das artes marciais universitárias e o modelo da disciplina nacional de esportes tradicionais como objeto de pesquisa, usa o método de dados da literatura, pesquisa, análise lógica e outros métodos para investigar alguns modelos de currículo geral de artes marciais universitárias e disciplinas desportivas nacionais tradicionais. e analisar os existentes. Resultados: o artigo formulou o plano de integração de recursos da plataforma de ensino profissional e forneceu orientações teóricas para a integração de recursos da plataforma de recursos de ensino profissional. Em segundo lugar, ele discute as vantagens e desvantagens de integrar recursos da plataforma de recursos de ensino que combina artes marciais e esportes. Propõe as correspondentes sugestões de melhoria para melhorar a qualidade e eficiência da plataforma de recursos didáticos. Conclusões: A plataforma de recursos didáticos que combina artes marciais e educação física forma um sistema de recursos didáticos relativamente completo; projeto de módulo de recursos de ensino razoável; Inclui o intercâmbio de redes de recursos de ensino profissional em faculdades e universidades; o sistema de classificação das artes marciais destaca os pontos-chave e demonstra as características da época. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos: investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: Con el advenimiento de la era de la información en red, la enseñanza de artes marciales y deportes nacionales tradicionales ha roto las limitaciones de la anterior "enseñanza por precepto y hechos" y se ha combinado con la tecnología informática para construir un sistema de recursos didácticos para artes marciales y deportes nacionales tradicionales, realizando el intercambio de recursos didácticos. Objetivo: El artículo determina el concepto de integración de recursos didácticos mediante la formulación de un plan de integración de recursos para el sistema de recursos didácticos de las carreras de artes marciales y deportes nacionales tradicionales. Al mismo tiempo, proporciona una base teórica para la integración de recursos del sistema de recursos didácticos. Métodos: El artículo toma el modelo general de artes marciales universitarias y el modelo de disciplina deportiva tradicional nacional como objeto de investigación, utiliza el método de datos de literatura, investigación, análisis lógico y otros métodos para investigar algunos modelos de currículo de artes marciales universitarias generales y disciplinas deportivas nacionales tradicionales. y analiza los existentes. Resultados: El artículo formuló el plan de integración de recursos de la plataforma docente profesional y brindó orientación teórica para la integración de recursos de la plataforma de recursos docentes profesionales. En segundo lugar, analiza las ventajas y desventajas de la integración de recursos de la plataforma de recursos didácticos que combina artes marciales y deportes. Propone las correspondientes sugerencias de mejora para mejorar la calidad y la eficiencia de la plataforma de recursos didácticos. Conclusiones: La plataforma de recursos didácticos que combina artes marciales y educación física forma un sistema de recursos didácticos relativamente completo; diseño de módulo de recursos didácticos razonables; comprende el intercambio de redes de recursos docentes profesionales en colegios y universidades; el sistema de clasificación de las artes marciales destaca los puntos clave y demuestra las características de la época. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Artes Marciais/educação , Universidades , Redes Neurais de Computação , Currículo , Educação/métodos
20.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254503, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corporal punishment (CP) is still a common practice in schools globally. Although illegal, studies in South Africa report its continued use, but only a few have explored factors associated with school CP. Moreover, extant studies have not shown the interrelationships between explanatory factors. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with learners' experiences, and to examine pathways to the learners' experiences of CP at school. METHOD: 3743 grade 8 learners (2118 girls and 1625 boys) from 24 selected public schools in Tshwane, South Africa, enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating a multi-component school-based intervention to prevent intimate partner violence, and completed self-administered questionnaires. We carried out descriptive analysis, simple linear and structural equation modelling to examine factors and pathways to the learners' experience of CP at school. RESULTS: About 52% of learners had experienced CP at school in the last 6 months. It was higher among boys compared to girls. Experience of CP at school amongst learners was associated with learner behavior, home environment, and school environment. Learners from households with low-socio economic status (SES) had an increased risk of CP experience at school. Amongst boys, low family SES status was associated with a negative home environment and had a direct negative impact on a learner's mental health, directly associated with misbehavior. CONCLUSION: CP in public schools in South Africa continues despite legislation prohibiting its use. While addressing learner behaviour is critical, evidence-based interventions addressing home and school environment are needed to change the culture among teachers of using corporal punishment to discipline adolescents and inculcate one that promotes positive discipline.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Punição/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Educação/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Homens/psicologia , Setor Público , Instituições Acadêmicas , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Mulheres/psicologia
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