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1.
J Biosci ; 492024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38516910

RESUMO

Snake venom L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs) are flavoenzymes with diverse physiological and pharmacological effects. These enzymes are found to showcase anticoagulant, antiplatelet, cytotoxicity and other biological effects in bite victims. However, the exact mechanism through which they exhibit several biological properties is not yet fully understood. The current study focussed on the purification of cobra venom LAAO and the functional characterization of purified LAAO. A novel L-amino acid oxidase NNLAAO70 with a molecular weight ~70 kDa was purified from the venom of an Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja). NNLAAO70 showed high substrate specificity for L-His, L-Leu, and L-Arg during its LAAO activity. It inhibited adenosine di-phosphate (ADP) and collagen-induced platelet aggregation process in a dosedependent manner. About 60% inhibition of collagen-induced and 40% inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation was observed with a 40 µg/ml dose of NNLAAO70. NNLAAO70 exhibited bactericidal activity on Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus megaterium, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. NNLAAO70 also showed cytotoxicity on A549 cells in vitro. It showed severe bactericidal activity on P. fluorescens and lysed 55% of cells. NNLAAO70 also exhibited drastic cytotoxicity on A549 cells. At 1 lg/ml dosage, it demonstrated a 60% reduction in A549 viability and induced apoptosis upon 24-h incubation. H2O2 released during oxidative deamination reactions played a major role in NNLAAO70-induced cytotoxicity. NNLAAO70 significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in A549 cells by six fold when compared to untreated cells. Oxidative stress-mediated cell injury is the primary cause of NNLAAO70-induced apoptosis in A549 cells and prolonged oxidative stress caused DNA fragmentation and activated cellular secondary necrosis.


Assuntos
Elapidae , Neoplasias , Animais , Humanos , Naja naja , L-Aminoácido Oxidase/genética , L-Aminoácido Oxidase/farmacologia , L-Aminoácido Oxidase/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Venenos Elapídicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Necrose , Colágeno/farmacologia , Pulmão
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473875

RESUMO

The interplay between predator and prey has catalyzed the evolution of venom systems, with predators honing their venoms in response to the evolving resistance of prey. A previous study showed that the African varanid species Varanus exanthematicus has heightened resistance to snake venoms compared to the Australian species V. giganteus, V. komodoensis, and V. mertensi, likely due to increased predation by sympatric venomous snakes on V. exanthematicus. To understand venom resistance among varanid lizards, we analyzed the receptor site targeted by venoms in 27 varanid lizards, including 25 Australian varanids. The results indicate an active evolutionary arms race between Australian varanid lizards and sympatric neurotoxic elapid snakes. Large species preying on venomous snakes exhibit inherited neurotoxin resistance, a trait potentially linked to their predatory habits. Consistent with the 'use it or lose it' aspect of venom resistance, this trait was secondarily reduced in two lineages that had convergently evolved gigantism (V. giganteus and the V. komodoensis/V. varius clade), suggestive of increased predatory success accompanying extreme size and also increased mechanical protection against envenomation due to larger scale osteoderms. Resistance was completely lost in the mangrove monitor V. indicus, consistent with venomous snakes not being common in their arboreal and aquatic niche. Conversely, dwarf varanids demonstrate a secondary loss at the base of the clade, with resistance subsequently re-evolving in the burrowing V. acanthurus/V. storri clade, suggesting an ongoing battle with neurotoxic predators. Intriguingly, within the V. acanthurus/V. storri clade, resistance was lost again in V. kingorum, which is morphologically and ecologically distinct from other members of this clade. Resistance was also re-evolved in V. glebopalma which is terrestrial in contrast to the arboreal/cliff dwelling niches occupied by the other members of its clade (V. glebopalma, V. mitchelli, V. scalaris, V. tristis). This 'Russian doll' pattern of venom resistance underscores the dynamic interaction between dwarf varanids and Australian neurotoxic elapid snakes. Our research, which included testing Acanthophis (death adder) venoms against varanid receptors as models for alpha-neurotoxic interactions, uncovered a fascinating instance of the Red Queen Hypothesis: some death adders have developed more potent toxins specifically targeting resistant varanids, a clear sign of the relentless predator-prey arms race. These results offer new insight into the complex dynamics of venom resistance and highlight the intricate ecological interactions that shape the natural world.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Lagartos/fisiologia , Austrália , Elapidae , Venenos de Serpentes , Federação Russa , Venenos Elapídicos
3.
Toxicon ; 240: 107637, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331109

RESUMO

Here we describe the acute myocardial effects of an elapid (red spitting cobra, Naja pallida) and a viper (western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox) venom using an ex vivo heart model. Our results reveal two different pathophysiological trajectories that influence heart function and morphology. While cobra venom causes a drop in contractile force, rattlesnake venom causes enhanced contractility and frequency that coincides with differences in myocellular morphology. This highlights the medical complexity of snake venom-induced cardiotoxicity.


Assuntos
Venenos de Crotalídeos , Naja , Animais , Crotalus , Cardiotoxicidade , Venenos Elapídicos/toxicidade , Elapidae , Venenos de Crotalídeos/toxicidade
4.
Toxicon ; 240: 107658, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38395261

RESUMO

Our study quantifies venom production in nine Mexican coral snake species (Micrurus), encompassing 76 specimens and 253 extractions. Noteworthy variations were observed, with M. diastema and M. laticollaris displaying diverse yields, ranging from 0.3 mg to 59 mg. For animals for which we have length data, there is a relationship between size and venom quantity. Twenty-eight percent of the observed variability in venom production can be explained by snake size, suggesting that other factors influence the amount of obtained venom. These findings are pivotal for predicting venom effects and guiding antivenom interventions. Our data offer insights into Micrurus venom yields, laying the groundwork for future research and aiding in medical response strategies. This study advances understanding coral snake venom production, facilitating informed medical responses to coral snake bites.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Cobras Corais , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Animais , México , Venenos Elapídicos , Antivenenos , Elapidae
5.
Toxins (Basel) ; 16(2)2024 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38393141

RESUMO

Naja nivea (N. nivea) is classed as a category one snake by the World Health Organization since its envenomation causes high levels of mortality and disability annually. Despite this, there has been little research into the venom composition of N. nivea, with only one full venom proteome published to date. Our current study separated N. nivea venom using size exclusion chromatography before utilizing a traditional bottom-up proteomics approach to unravel the composition of the venom proteome. As expected by its clinical presentation, N. nivea venom was found to consist mainly of neurotoxins, with three-finger toxins (3FTx), making up 76.01% of the total venom proteome. Additionally, cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), vespryns (VESPs), cobra venom factors (CVFs), 5'-nucleotidases (5'NUCs), nerve growth factors (NGFs), phospholipase A2s (PLA2), acetylcholinesterases (AChEs), Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (KUN), phosphodiesterases (PDEs), L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs), hydrolases (HYDs), snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), and snake venom serine protease (SVSP) toxins were also identified in decreasing order of abundance. Interestingly, contrary to previous reports, we find PLA2 toxins in N. nivea venom. This highlights the importance of repeatedly profiling the venom of the same species to account for intra-species variation. Additionally, we report the first evidence of covalent protein complexes in N. nivea venom, which likely contribute to the potency of this venom.


Assuntos
Naja , Proteômica , Toxinas Biológicas , Proteômica/métodos , Proteoma/análise , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Venenos Elapídicos/química , Toxinas Biológicas/análise , Venenos de Serpentes , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Antivenenos/farmacologia
6.
Toxins (Basel) ; 16(2)2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38393182

RESUMO

Snakebite accident treatment requires the administration of antivenoms that provide efficacy and effectiveness against several snake venoms of the same genus or family. The low number of immunogenic components in venom mixtures that allow the production of antivenoms consequently gives them partial neutralization and a suboptimal pharmacological response. This study evaluates the immunorecognition and neutralizing efficacy of the polyvalent anticoral antivenom from the Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) of Colombia against the heterologous endemic venoms of Micrurus medemi, and M. sangilensis, and M. helleri by assessing immunoreactivity through affinity chromatography, ELISA, Western blot, and neutralization capability. Immunorecognition towards the venoms of M. medemi and M. sangilensis showed values of 62% and 68% of the protein composition according to the immunoaffinity matrix, respectively. The analysis by Western blot depicted the highest recognition patterns for M. medemi, followed by M. sangilensis, and finally by M. helleri. These findings suggest that the venom compositions are closely related and exhibit similar recognition by the antivenom. According to enzyme immunoassays, M. helleri requires a higher amount of antivenom to achieve recognition than the others. Besides reinforcing the evaluation of INS antivenom capability, this work recommends the use of M. helleri in the production of Colombian antisera.


Assuntos
Antivenenos , Cobras Corais , Animais , Cobras Corais/metabolismo , Colômbia , Venenos Elapídicos/química , Venenos de Serpentes/química
7.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 186, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venom systems are ideal models to study genetic regulatory mechanisms that underpin evolutionary novelty. Snake venom glands are thought to share a common origin, but there are major distinctions between venom toxins from the medically significant snake families Elapidae and Viperidae, and toxin gene regulatory investigations in elapid snakes have been limited. Here, we used high-throughput RNA-sequencing to profile gene expression and microRNAs between active (milked) and resting (unmilked) venom glands in an elapid (Eastern Brown Snake, Pseudonaja textilis), in addition to comparative genomics, to identify cis- and trans-acting regulation of venom production in an elapid in comparison to viperids (Crotalus viridis and C. tigris). RESULTS: Although there is conservation in high-level mechanistic pathways regulating venom production (unfolded protein response, Notch signaling and cholesterol homeostasis), there are differences in the regulation of histone methylation enzymes, transcription factors, and microRNAs in venom glands from these two snake families. Histone methyltransferases and transcription factor (TF) specificity protein 1 (Sp1) were highly upregulated in the milked elapid venom gland in comparison to the viperids, whereas nuclear factor I (NFI) TFs were upregulated after viperid venom milking. Sp1 and NFI cis-regulatory elements were common to toxin gene promoter regions, but many unique elements were also present between elapid and viperid toxins. The presence of Sp1 binding sites across multiple elapid toxin gene promoter regions that have been experimentally determined to regulate expression, in addition to upregulation of Sp1 after venom milking, suggests this transcription factor is involved in elapid toxin expression. microRNA profiles were distinctive between milked and unmilked venom glands for both snake families, and microRNAs were predicted to target a diversity of toxin transcripts in the elapid P. textilis venom gland, but only snake venom metalloproteinase transcripts in the viperid C. viridis venom gland. These results suggest differences in toxin gene posttranscriptional regulation between the elapid P. textilis and viperid C. viridis. CONCLUSIONS: Our comparative transcriptomic and genomic analyses between toxin genes and isoforms in elapid and viperid snakes suggests independent toxin regulation between these two snake families, demonstrating multiple different regulatory mechanisms underpin a venomous phenotype.


Assuntos
Crotalus , MicroRNAs , Toxinas Biológicas , Viperidae , Humanos , Animais , Elapidae/genética , Venenos de Serpentes/química , Venenos de Serpentes/genética , Venenos de Serpentes/metabolismo , Venenos Elapídicos/química , Venenos Elapídicos/genética , Venenos Elapídicos/metabolismo , Viperidae/genética , Viperidae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3184, 2024 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326450

RESUMO

Local tissue damage following snakebite envenoming remains a poorly researched area. To develop better strategies to treat snakebites, it is critical to understand the mechanisms through which venom toxins induce envenomation effects including local tissue damage. Here, we demonstrate how the venoms of two medically important Indian snakes (Russell's viper and cobra) affect human skeletal muscle using a cultured human myoblast cell line. The data suggest that both venoms affect the viability of myoblasts. Russell's viper venom reduced the total number of cells, their migration, and the area of focal adhesions. It also suppressed myogenic differentiation and induced muscle atrophy. While cobra venom decreased the viability, it did not largely affect cell migration and focal adhesions. Cobra venom affected the formation of myotubes and induced atrophy. Cobra venom-induced atrophy could not be reversed by small molecule inhibitors such as varespladib (a phospholipase A2 inhibitor) and prinomastat (a metalloprotease inhibitor), and soluble activin type IIb receptor (a molecule used to promote regeneration of skeletal muscle), although the antivenom (raised against the Indian 'Big Four' snakes) has attenuated the effects. However, all these molecules rescued the myotubes from Russell's viper venom-induced atrophy. This study demonstrates key steps in the muscle regeneration process that are affected by both Indian Russell's viper and cobra venoms and offers insights into the potential causes of clinical features displayed in envenomed victims. Further research is required to investigate the molecular mechanisms of venom-induced myotoxicity under in vivo settings and develop better therapies for snakebite-induced muscle damage.


Assuntos
Mordeduras de Serpentes , Humanos , Animais , Naja naja , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Venenos de Víboras/toxicidade , Elapidae , Venenos Elapídicos/farmacologia , Venenos Elapídicos/uso terapêutico , Mioblastos , Atrofia
9.
J Proteomics ; 295: 105086, 2024 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38266913

RESUMO

The Australian elapid snake radiation (Hydrophiinae) has evolved in the absence of competition from other advanced snakes. This has resulted in ecological specialisation in Australian elapids and the potential for venom proteomes divergent to other elapids. We characterised the venom of the Australian elapid Vermicella annulata (eastern bandy bandy). The venom was analysed using a two-dimensional fractionation process consisting of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography then sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by bottom-up proteomics. Resulting peptides were matched to a species-specific transcriptome and 87% of the venom was characterised. We identified 11 toxins in the venom from six families: snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP; 24.2%; two toxins) that are class P-III SVMPs containing a disintegrin-like domain, three-finger toxins (3FTx; 21.6%; five toxins), kunitz peptides (KUN; 19.5%; one toxin), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRiSP; 18%; one toxin), and phospholipase A2 (PLA2; 4%; two toxins). The venom had low toxin diversity with five protein families having one or two toxins, except for 3FTx with five different toxins. V. annulata expresses an unusual venom proteome, with high abundances of CRiSP, KUN and SVMP, which are not normally highly expressed in elapid venoms. This unusual venom composition could be an adaptation to its specialised diet. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Although the Australian elapid radiation represents the most extensive speciation event of elapids on any continent, with 100 terrestrial species, the venom composition of these snakes has rarely been investigated, with only five species currently characterised. Here we provide the venom proteome of a sixth species, Vermicella annulata. The venom of this species could be particularly informative from an evolutionary perspective, as it is an extreme dietary specialist, only preying on blind snakes (Typhlopidae). We show that V. annulata expresses a highly unusual venom for an elapid, due to the high abundance of the protein families SVMP, CRiSP, and KUN, which together make up 61% of the venom. When averaged across all species, a typical elapid venom is 82% PLA2 and 3FTx. This is the second recorded instance of an Australian elapid having evolved highly divergent venom expression.


Assuntos
Proteoma , Toxinas Biológicas , Animais , Proteoma/metabolismo , Austrália , Elapidae/metabolismo , Venenos Elapídicos/química , Peptídeos
10.
Toxins (Basel) ; 16(1)2024 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38276532

RESUMO

Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) envenoming is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in many Southeast Asian countries. If intubation and specific antivenom administration are delayed, the most significant life-threatening outcome may be the inhibition of neuromuscular transmission and subsequent respiratory failure. It is recommended that krait-envenomed victims without indications of neurotoxicity, e.g., skeletal muscle weakness or ptosis, immediately receive 10 vials of antivenom. However, the administration of excess antivenom may lead to hypersensitivity or serum sickness. Therefore, monitoring venom concentrations in patients could be used as an indicator for snake antivenom treatment. In this study, we aimed to develop a screen-printed gold electrode (SPGE) biosensor to detect B. candidus venom in experimentally envenomed rats. The gold electrodes were coated with monovalent Malayan krait IgG antivenom and used as venom detection biosensors. Electrochemical impedance spectrometry (EIS) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) measurements were performed to detect the electrical characterization between B. candidus venom and monovalent IgG antivenom in the biosensor. The EIS measurements showed increases in charge transfer resistance (Rct) following IgG immobilization and incubation with B. candidus venom solution (0.1-0.4 mg/mL); thus, the antibody was immobilized on the electrode surface and venom was successfully detected. The lowest current signal was detected by SWV measurement in rat plasma collected 30 min following B. candidus experimental envenoming, indicating the highest level of venom concentration in blood circulation (4.3 ± 0.7 µg/mL). The present study demonstrates the ability of the SPGE biosensor to detect B. candidus venom in plasma from experimentally envenomed rats. The technology obtained in this work may be developed as a detection tool for use along with the standard treatment of Malayan krait envenoming.


Assuntos
Bungarus , Elapidae , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Antivenenos/farmacologia , Peçonhas , Imunoglobulina G , Mordeduras de Serpentes/diagnóstico , Venenos Elapídicos
11.
Toxicon ; 239: 107613, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218383

RESUMO

Three-finger toxins (3FTxs) have traditionally been obtained via venom fractionation of whole venoms from snakes. This method often yields functional toxins, but it can be difficult to obtain pure isoforms, as it is challenging to separate the many different toxins with similar physicochemical properties that generally exist in many venoms. This issue can be circumvented via the use of recombinant expression. However, achieving the correct disulfide bond formation in recombinant toxins is challenging and requires extensive optimization of expression and purification methods to enhance stability and functionality. In this study, we investigated the expression of α-cobratoxin, a well-characterized 3FTx from the monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia), in three different expression systems, namely Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells with the csCyDisCo plasmid, Escherichia coli SHuffle cells, and Komagataella phaffii (formerly known as Pichia pastoris). While none of the tested systems yielded α-cobratoxin identical to the variant isolated from whole venom, the His6-tagged α-cobratoxin expressed in K. phaffii exhibited a comparable secondary structure according to circular dichroism spectra and similar binding properties to the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. The findings presented here illustrate the advantages and limitations of the different expression systems and can help guide researchers who wish to express 3FTxs.


Assuntos
Proteínas Neurotóxicas de Elapídeos , Receptores Nicotínicos , Toxinas Biológicas , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Toxinas Três Dedos , Proteínas Neurotóxicas de Elapídeos/química , Proteínas Neurotóxicas de Elapídeos/metabolismo , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Peçonhas , Venenos Elapídicos/química
12.
Toxicon ; 239: 107617, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38219916

RESUMO

Bungarus fasciatus also referred to as the Banded krait is a snake which possesses venom and belongs to the Elapidae family. It is widely distributed across the Indian subcontinent and South East Asian countries and is responsible for numerous snakebites in the population. B. fasciatus possesses a neurotoxic venom and envenomation by the snake results in significant morbidity and occasional morbidity in the victim if not treated appropriately. In this study, the efficacy of Indian polyvalent antivenom (Premium Serums polyvalent antivenom) was evaluated against the venom of B. fasciatus from Guwahati, Assam (India) employing the Third-generation antivenomics technique followed by identification of venom proteins from three poorly immunodepleted peaks (P5, P6 and P7) using LC-MS/MS analysis. Seven proteins were identified from the three peaks and all these venom proteins belonged to the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) superfamily. The identified PLA2 proteins were corroborated by the in vitro enzymatic activities (PLA2 and Anticoagulant activity) exhibited by the three peaks and previous reports of pathological manifestation in the envenomated victims. Neutralization of enzymatic activities by Premium Serums polyvalent antivenom was also assessed in vitro for crude venom, P5, P6 and P7 which revealed moderate to poor inhibition. Inclusion of venom proteins/peptides, which are non-immunodepleted or poorly immunodepleted, into the immunization mixture of venom used for antivenom production may help in enhancing the efficacy of the polyvalent antivenom.


Assuntos
Antivenenos , Elapidae , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Animais , Antivenenos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Venenos Elapídicos , Índia , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Bungarus/metabolismo
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 323: 117671, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38163555

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Snake bites are a critical health issue in many parts of the world particularly in Asian countries lacking efficient health facilities in rural areas. Cobra is the most common snake type in Asia and is responsible for a large number of mortalities particularly in rural areas. Plants are usually considered the most effective and easy-to-approach treatment for snake bites in rural areas of various countries. Vitex negundo L. is an important medicinal plant traditionally used to treat snake bite envenomation in many countries of Asia. AIM OF THE STUDY: From literature survey of plants traditionally used in the treatment of snake bites in Asian countries including India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, roots of V. negundo were selected for the present study. Anti-snake venom potential of its roots was assessed through various in vitro assays targeting the phospholipase A2 enzyme. MATERIALS AND METHODS: V. negundo roots were sequentially extracted in different organic solvents to get fractions and in methanol to get total extract. The extracts were evaluated for phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitory potential through inhibition of venom-induced hemolysis, ADP-induced platelet aggregation, PLA2-induced fatty acid hydrolysis and anticoagulant effect of cobra venom. Antioxidant power was determined using DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging assays. GC-MS and HPLC analysis was performed for the total methanol extract. RESULTS: Strong PLA2 inhibitory effect was observed for all the extracts. The ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol fractions significantly inhibited toxic effects of cobra venom under in vitro conditions. Radical scavenging potential of these fractions was also significantly high as compared to non-polar fractions in both DPPH and superoxide scavenging assays. Phytochemical analysis indicated high phenolic and flavonoid contents in these fractions. GC-MS and HPLC analysis of total methanol extract confirmed the presence of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, phenol, o-Guaiacol, palmitic acid-methyl ester, methyl stearate, quercetin and kaempferol in the plant. CONCLUSION: The study concluded that the roots of V. negundo, particularly their polar extracts, have strong PLA2 inhibitory effect against cobra venom confirming their traditional use to manage snake bites. The roots of this plant can be further studied for isolation of plant-based antisera.


Assuntos
Mordeduras de Serpentes , Vitex , Humanos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Metanol/uso terapêutico , Antivenenos/farmacologia , Venenos Elapídicos , Fosfolipases A2 , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Fosfolipases , Paquistão
14.
Toxicon ; 238: 107590, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38163462

RESUMO

Snake bite envenomation causes tissue damage resulting in acute and chronic inflammatory responses. Inflammasome activation is one of the factors involved in tissue damage in a mouse model of snake envenomation. The present study examines the potency of Indian Big Four snake venoms in the activation of inflammasome and its role in local and systemic tissue toxicity. Among Indian Big Four snake venoms, Naja naja venom activated NLRP3 inflammasome in mouse macrophages. Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome was also observed in mouse foot paw and thigh muscle upon administration of N. naja venom. Intraperitoneal administration of N. naja venom cause systemic lung damage showed activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Treatment with MCC950, a selective NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor effectively inhibited N. naja venom-induced activation of caspase-1 and liberation of IL-1ß in macrophages. In mice, MCC950 partially inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in N. naja venom administered foot paw and thigh muscle. In conclusion, the present data showed that inflammasome is one of the host responses involved in N. naja snake venom-induced toxicities. The inhibition of inflammasome activation will provide new insight into better management of snake bite-induced local tissue damage.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Camundongos , Animais , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Naja naja , Venenos Elapídicos/toxicidade , Venenos de Serpentes , Sulfonamidas
15.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 196(1): 160-181, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37103736

RESUMO

Snake venoms are a potential source of bioactive peptides, which have multiple therapeutic properties in treating diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and neurological disorders. Among bioactive peptides, cytotoxins (CTXs) and neurotoxins are low molecular weight proteins belonging to the three-finger-fold toxins (3FTxs) family composed of two ß sheets that are stabilized by four to five conserved disulfide bonds containing 58-72 amino acid residues. These are highly abundant in snake venom and are predicted to have insulinotropic activities. In this study, the CTXs were purified from Indian cobra snake venom using preparative HPLC and characterized using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) TOF-MS/MS. Further SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed the presence of low molecular weight cytotoxic proteins. The CTXs in fractions A and B exhibited dose-dependent insulinotropic activity from 0.001 to 10 µM using rat pancreatic beta-cell lines (RIN-5F) in the ELISA. Nateglinide and repaglinide are synthetic small-molecule drugs that control sugar levels in the blood in type 2 diabetes, which were used as a positive control in ELISA. Concluded that purified CTXs have insulinotropic activity, and there is a scope to use these proteins as small molecules to stimulate insulinotropic activities. At this stage, the focus is on the efficiency of the cytotoxins to induce insulin. Additional work is ongoing on animal models to see the extent of the beneficial effects and efficiency to cure diabetes using streptozotocin-induced models.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Venenos Elapídicos , Ratos , Animais , Venenos Elapídicos/química , Venenos Elapídicos/toxicidade , Naja naja , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Peptídeos
16.
Toxicon ; 237: 107537, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38043715

RESUMO

Shield-nose and Coral snakes (Aspidelaps spp.) are medium sized venomous snakes found throughout southern Africa. Little is known about the venom of these snakes and its clinical relevance, as human bites are uncommon. Neurological signs and symptoms usually develop following bites by this genus but evaluations of the severity are inconclusive. We report on the first confirmed human fatality by the Kunene Shield-nose Snake (Aspidelaps lubricus cowlesi) in a child. Envenomation by Aspidelaps and other snakes considered lesser-venomous - especially those possessing neurotoxic venom - should be treated with caution as they may result in life-threatening envenomation without established clinical management protocols.


Assuntos
Cobras Corais , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/diagnóstico , Antivenenos , Namíbia , Elapidae , Venenos Elapídicos/toxicidade
17.
Biochimie ; 216: 120-125, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37844754

RESUMO

In Colombia, the Micrurus genus comprises 30 species, including M. mipartitus and M. dumerilii, which are of major clinical relevance due to their wide geographical distribution and the number of snakebites inflicted by them. These neurotoxic envenomations are characterized by neuromuscular paralysis attributed to venom components such as three-finger toxins (3FTx) and phospholipases (PLA2). Additionally, there is limited information available on the neutralizing coverage of commercially available antivenoms, underscoring the need to perform studies to assess the cross-neutralizing ability of these life-saving products. Therefore, we present an in-depth immunorecognition analysis by the anticoral-INS antivenom from Colombia on the M. mipartitus and M. dumerilii venoms. The antivenom cross-recognized the whole venoms and their components with different intensities. For instance, the antivenom showed better recognition on PLA2s than on 3FTxs in both venoms. Moreover, at doses tested, the antivenom totally neutralized the lethal effect of M. dumerilii venom; however, it did not neutralize this effect induced by M. mipartitus venom and its main toxic components from the southwestern region of the department of Antioquia. Furthermore, the anticoral-INS antivenom displayed better cross-immunorecognition of PLA2-predominant Micrurus venoms than of 3FTx-predominant Micrurus venoms. This highlights the need to include venoms from both types of venom patterns in the immunization mixture to produce antivenoms against coral snakes. Finally, our results suggest the need for further research to optimize the composition of immunizing mixtures for antivenom production and improve their efficacy against coral snake envenomation in Colombia and the Americas.


Assuntos
Antivenenos , Cobras Corais , Animais , Antivenenos/farmacologia , Venenos Elapídicos/toxicidade , Fosfolipases A2 , Elapidae
18.
Genes Genomics ; 46(1): 113-119, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37985546

RESUMO

The location of female-specific/linked loci identified in Siamese cobra (Naja kaouthia) previously has been determined through in silico chromosome mapping of the Indian cobra genome (N. naja) as a reference genome. In the present study, we used in silico chromosome mapping to identify sex-specific and linked loci in Siamese cobra. Many sex-specific and sex-linked loci were successfully mapped on the Z sex chromosome, with 227 of the 475 specific loci frequently mapped in a region covering 57 Mb and positioned at 38,992,675-95,561,177 bp of the Indian cobra genome (N. naja). This suggested the existence of a putative sex-determining region (SDR), with one specific locus (PA100000600) homologous to the TOPBP1 gene. The involvement of TOPBP1 gene may lead to abnormal synaptonemal complexes and meiotic chromosomal defects, resulting in male infertility. These findings offer valuable insights into the genetic basis and functional aspects of sex-specific traits in the Siamese cobra, which will contribute to our understanding of snake genetics and evolutionary biology.


Assuntos
Elapidae , Naja naja , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Elapidae/genética , Naja naja/genética , Venenos Elapídicos/genética , Antivenenos/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética
19.
Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom ; 1872(2): 140992, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38158032

RESUMO

Snake venoms consist of highly biologically active proteins and peptides that are responsible for the lethal physiological effects of snakebite envenomation. In order to guide the development of targeted antivenom strategies, comprehensive understanding of venom compositions and in-depth characterisation of various proteoforms, often not captured by traditional bottom-up proteomic workflows, is necessary. Here, we employ an integrated 'omics' and intact mass spectrometry (MS)-based approach to profile the heterogeneity within the venom of the forest cobra (Naja melanoleuca), adopting different analytical strategies to accommodate for the dynamic molecular mass range of venom proteins present. The venom proteome of N. melanoleuca was catalogued using a venom gland transcriptome-guided bottom-up proteomics approach, revealing a venom consisting of six toxin superfamilies. The subtle diversity present in the venom components was further explored using reversed phase-ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) coupled to intact MS. This approach showed a significant increase in the number of venom proteoforms within various toxin families that were not captured in previous studies. Furthermore, we probed at the higher-order structures of the larger venom proteins using a combination of native MS and mass photometry and revealed significant structural heterogeneity along with extensive post-translational modifications in the form of glycosylation in these larger toxins. Here, we show the diverse structural heterogeneity of snake venom proteins in the venom of N. melanoleuca using an integrated workflow that incorporates analytical strategies that profile snake venom at the proteoform level, complementing traditional venom characterisation approaches.


Assuntos
Venenos Elapídicos , Toxinas Biológicas , Animais , Venenos Elapídicos/análise , Venenos Elapídicos/química , Venenos Elapídicos/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Naja naja/metabolismo , Venenos de Serpentes/química , Venenos de Serpentes/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas
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