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1.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 14(5)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38785691

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a crucial global health issue. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria can survive after antibiotic treatments, lowering drug efficacy and increasing lethal risks. A microfluidic water-in-oil emulsion droplet system can entrap microorganisms and antibiotics within the tiny bioreactor, separate from the surroundings, enabling independent assays that can be performed in a high-throughput manner. This study presents the development of a label-free dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based microfluidic platform to sort droplets that co-encapsulate Escherichia coli (E. coli) and ampicillin (Amp) and droplets that co-encapsulate Amp-resistant (AmpR) E. coli with Amp only based on the conductivity-dependent DEP force (FDEP) without the assistance of optical analyses. The 9.4% low conductivity (LC) Luria-Bertani (LB) broth diluted with 170 mM mannitol can maintain E. coli and AmpR E. coli growth for 3 h and allow Amp to kill almost all E. coli, which can significantly increase the LCLB conductivity by about 100 µS/cm. Therefore, the AmpR E. coli/9.4%LCLB/Amp where no cells are killed and the E. coli/9.4%LCLB/Amp-containing droplets where most of the cells are killed can be sorted based on this conductivity difference at an applied electric field of 2 MHz and 100 Vpp that generates positive FDEP. Moreover, the sorting ratio significantly decreased to about 50% when the population of AmpR E. coli was equal to or higher than 50% in droplets. The conductivity-dependent DEP-based sorting platform exhibits promising potential to probe the ratio of AmpR E. coli in an unknown bacterial sample by using the sorting ratio as an index.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Eletroforese , Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Condutividade Elétrica , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
2.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 14(5)2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38785706

RESUMO

The development of gel electrophoresis-based biodetection assays for point-of-care analysis are highly demanding. In this work, we proposed a ratiometric gel electrophoresis-based biosensing platform by employing catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) process functions as both the signal output and the signal amplification module. Two types of nucleic acids, DNA and miRNA, are chosen for demonstration. The proposed strategy indeed provides a new paradigm for the design of a portable detection platform and may hold great potential for sensitive diagnoses.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , DNA , MicroRNAs , MicroRNAs/análise , Catálise , Eletroforese , Ácidos Nucleicos/análise
3.
Biomed Eng Online ; 23(1): 47, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrotransfection is based on application of high-voltage pulses that transiently increase membrane permeability, which enables delivery of DNA and RNA in vitro and in vivo. Its advantage in applications such as gene therapy and vaccination is that it does not use viral vectors. Skeletal muscles are among the most commonly used target tissues. While siRNA delivery into undifferentiated myoblasts is very efficient, electrotransfection of siRNA into differentiated myotubes presents a challenge. Our aim was to develop efficient protocol for electroporation-based siRNA delivery in cultured primary human myotubes and to identify crucial mechanisms and parameters that would enable faster optimization of electrotransfection in various cell lines. RESULTS: We established optimal electroporation parameters for efficient siRNA delivery in cultured myotubes and achieved efficient knock-down of HIF-1α while preserving cells viability. The results show that electropermeabilization is a crucial step for siRNA electrotransfection in myotubes. Decrease in viability was observed for higher electric energy of the pulses, conversely lower pulse energy enabled higher electrotransfection silencing yield. Experimental data together with the theoretical analysis demonstrate that siRNA electrotransfer is a complex process where electropermeabilization, electrophoresis, siRNA translocation, and viability are all functions of pulsing parameters. However, despite this complexity, we demonstrated that pulse parameters for efficient delivery of small molecule such as PI, can be used as a starting point for optimization of electroporation parameters for siRNA delivery into cells in vitro if viability is preserved. CONCLUSIONS: The optimized experimental protocol provides the basis for application of electrotransfer for silencing of various target genes in cultured human myotubes and more broadly for electrotransfection of various primary cell and cell lines. Together with the theoretical analysis our data offer new insights into mechanisms that underlie electroporation-based delivery of short RNA molecules, which can aid to faster optimisation of the pulse parameters in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Eletroporação , Inativação Gênica , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Humanos , Eletroporação/métodos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/citologia , Sobrevivência Celular , Eletroforese , Transfecção/métodos
4.
Nanotechnology ; 35(29)2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604130

RESUMO

Numerous efforts have been undertaken to mitigate the Debye screening effect of FET biosensors for achieving higher sensitivity. There are few reports that show sub-femtomolar detection of biomolecules by FET mechanisms but they either suffer from significant background noise or lack robust control. In this aspect, deformed/crumpled graphene has been recently deployed by other researchers for various biomolecule detection like DNA, COVID-19 spike proteins and immunity markers like IL-6 at sub-femtomolar levels. However, the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach for graphene fabrication suffers from various surface contamination while the transfer process induces structural defects. In this paper, an alternative fabrication methodology has been proposed where glass substrate has been initially texturized by wet chemical etching through the sacrificial layer of synthesized silver nanoparticles, obtained by annealing of thin silver films leading to solid state dewetting. Graphene has been subsequently deposited by thermal reduction technique from graphene oxide solution. The resulting deformed graphene structure exhibits higher sensor response towards glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) detection with respect to flat graphene owing to the combined effect of reduced Debye screening and higher surface area for receptor immobilization. Additionally, another interesting aspect of the reported work lies in the biomolecule capture by dielectrophoretic (DEP) transport on the crests of the convex surfaces of graphene in a coplanar gated topology structure which has resulted in 10 aM and 28 aM detection limits of GFAP in buffer and undiluted plasma respectively, within 15 min of application of analyte. The detection limit in buffer is almost four decades lower than that documented for GFAP using biosensors which is is expected to pave way for advancing graphene FET based sensors towards ultrasensitive point-of-care diagnosis of GFAP, a biomarker for traumatic brain injury.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida , Grafite , Humanos , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Eletroforese/métodos , Vidro/química , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/análise , Grafite/química , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Transistores Eletrônicos
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(21): 31123-31134, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627346

RESUMO

Electrochemical desalination is an effective method for recovering salts from reverse osmosis (RO) brine. However, traditional technologies like bipolar membrane technology often face challenges related to membrane blockage. To overcome this issue, a preparative vertical-flow electrophoresis (PVFE) system was used for the first time to treat RO brine of petrochemical wastewater. In order to optimize the PVFE operation and maximize acids and bases production while minimizing energy consumption, the response surface method was employed. The independent variables selected were the electric field intensity (E) and flow rate (v), while the dependent variables were the acid-base concentration and energy consumption (EC) for acid-base production. Using the central composite design methodology, the operation parameters were optimized to be E = 154.311 V/m and v = 0.83 mL/min. Under these conditions, the base concentrations of the produced bases and acids reached 3183.06 and 2231.63 mg/L, respectively. The corresponding base EC and acid EC were calculated to be 12.57 and 11.62 kW·h/kg. In terms of the acid-base concentration and energy consumption during the PVFE process, the electric field intensity was found to have a greater influence than the flow rate. These findings provide a practical and targeted solution for recycling waste salt resources from RO brine.


Assuntos
Osmose , Águas Residuárias , Águas Residuárias/química , Eletroforese , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Sais
6.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 7(5): 2704-2709, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635922

RESUMO

The structural integrity, assembly yield, and biostability of DNA nanostructures are influenced by the metal ions used to construct them. Although high (>10 mM) concentrations of divalent ions are often preferred for assembling DNA nanostructures, the range of ion concentrations and the composition of the assembly products vary for different assembly conditions. Here, we examined the unique ability of Ba2+ to retard double crossover DNA motifs by forming a low mobility species, whose mobility on the gel is determined by the concentration ratio of DNA and Ba2+. The formation of this electrophoretically retarded species is promoted by divalent ions such as Mg2+, Ca2+, and Sr2+ when combined with Ba2+ but not on their own, while monovalent ions such as Na+, K+, and Li+ do not have any effect on this phenomenon. Our results highlight the complex interplay between the metal ions and DNA self-assembly and could inform the design of DNA nanostructures for applications that expose them to multiple ions at high concentrations.


Assuntos
Bário , DNA , Teste de Materiais , Tamanho da Partícula , DNA/química , Bário/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Eletroforese , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/síntese química
7.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 63(3): 103919, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582651

RESUMO

Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) and hyperhemolysis syndrome (HHS) are both complications of red blood cell transfusions in patients with sickle cell disease.Clinically, both present with hemolysis and can be difficult to differentiate. Hemoglobin electrophoresis may aid in the diagnosis. Herein we describe a case in which a patient with hemoglobin SC disease presented with features of severe hemolysis several days after initiation of red blood cell exchange. Increase in reticulocyte count and complete absence of hemoglobin A on electrophoresis during this event supported the diagnosis of severe DHTR, indicating a rapid and selective destruction of the transfused red blood cells. Ability to interpret the hemoglobin electrophoresis can help clinicians distinguish between these two severe transfusion complications in patients living with sickle cell disease. It is important to identify the presence or absence of concomitant HHS, as patients with HHS tend to have a worse prognosis and there is a higher rate of recurrence of HHS with subsequent transfusions. Accurate diagnosis can lead to prompt management and decrease morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Hemólise , Humanos , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Masculino , Feminino , Reação Transfusional/sangue , Hemoglobinas/análise , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Adulto , Eletroforese/métodos
8.
Electrophoresis ; 45(9-10): 777-778, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623893
9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(17): 11634-11647, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628144

RESUMO

Supported membrane electrophoresis is a promising technique for collecting membrane proteins in native bilayer environments. However, the slow mobility of typical transmembrane proteins has impeded the technique's advancement. Here, we successfully applied cell membrane electrophoresis to rapidly enrich a 12-transmembrane helix protein, glucose transporter 1 with antibodies (GLUT1 complex), by tuning the buffer pH and ionic strength. The identified conditions allowed the separation of the GLUT1 complex and a lipid probe, Fast-DiO, within a native-like environment in a few minutes. A force model was developed to account for distinct electric and drag forces acting on the transmembrane and aqueous-exposed portion of a transmembrane protein as well as the electroosmotic force. This model not only elucidates the impact of size and charge properties of transmembrane proteins but also highlights the influence of pH and ionic strength on the driving forces and, consequently, electrophoretic mobility. Model predictions align well with experimentally measured electrophoretic mobilities of the GLUT1 complex and Fast-DiO at various pH and ionic strengths as well as with several lipid probes, lipid-anchored proteins, and reconstituted membrane proteins from previous studies. Force analyses revealed the substantial membrane drag of the GLUT1 complex, significantly slowing down electrophoretic mobility. Besides, the counterbalance of similar magnitudes of electroosmotic and electric forces results in a small net driving force and, consequently, reduced mobility under typical neutral pH conditions. Our results further highlight how the size and charge properties of transmembrane proteins influence the suitable range of operating conditions for effective movement, providing potential applications for concentrating and isolating membrane proteins within this platform.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular , Eletroforese , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Concentração Osmolar , Membrana Celular/química , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Soluções Tampão , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/química , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo
10.
Lab Chip ; 24(9): 2506-2517, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619815

RESUMO

Non-spherical flagellate algae play an increasingly significant role in handling problematic issues as versatile biological micro/nanorobots and resources of valuable bioproducts. However, the commensalism of flagellate algae with distinct structures and constituents causes considerable difficulties in their further biological utilization. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a novel method to realize high-efficiency selection of non-spherical flagellate algae in a non-invasive manner. Enthused by these, we proposed a novel method to accomplish the selection of flagellate algae based on the numerical and experimental investigation of dielectrophoretic characterizations of flagellate algae. Firstly, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method was utilized to study the electro-orientation and dielectrophoretic assembly process of spindle-shaped and ellipsoid-shaped cells in a uniform electric field. Secondly, we studied the equilibrium state of spherical, ellipsoid-shaped, and spindle-shaped cells under positive DEP forces actuated by right-angle bipolar electrodes. Thirdly, we investigated the dielectrophoretic assembly and escape processes of the non-spherical flagellate algae in continuous flow to explore their influences on the selection. Fourthly, freshwater flagellate algae (Euglena, H. pluvialis, and C. reinhardtii) and marine ones (Euglena, Dunaliella salina, and Platymonas) were separated to validate the feasibility and adaptability of this method. Finally, this approach was engineered in the selection of Euglena cells with high viability and motility. This method presents immense prospects in the selection of pure non-spherical flagellate algae with high motility for chronic wound healing, bio-micromotor construction, and decontamination with advantages of no sheath, strong reliability, and shape-insensitivity.


Assuntos
Eletrodos , Eletroforese , Eletroforese/instrumentação , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
11.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 7(5): 2966-2981, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38652577

RESUMO

This study presents a facile fabrication of 58S bioactive glass (BG)-polymer composite coatings on a 316L stainless steel (SS) substrate using the electrophoretic deposition technique. The suspension characteristics and deposition kinetics of BG, along with three different polymers, namely ethylcellulose (EC), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), have been utilized to fabricate the coatings. Among all coatings, 58S BG and EC polymers are selected as the final composite coating (EC6) owing to their homogeneity and good adhesion. EC6 coating exhibits a thickness of ∼18 µm and an average roughness of ∼2.5 µm. Herein, EC6 demonstrates better hydroxyapatite formation compared to PAA and PVP coatings in simulated body fluid-based mineralization studies for a period of 28 days. Corrosion studies of EC6 in phosphate-buffered saline further confirm the higher corrosion resistance properties after 14 days. In vitro cytocompatibility studies using human placental mesenchymal stem cells demonstrate an increase in cellular viability, attachment, and higher proliferation compared to the bare SS substrate. EC6 coatings promote osteogenic differentiation, which is confirmed via the upregulation of the OPN and OCN genes. Moreover, the EC6 sample exhibits improved antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus compared to the uncoated ones. The findings of this work emphasize the potential of electrophoretically fabricated BG-EC composite coatings on SS substrates for orthopedic applications.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Vidro , Teste de Materiais , Polímeros , Aço Inoxidável , Aço Inoxidável/química , Humanos , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Vidro/química , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/farmacologia , Corrosão , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletroforese , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Anal Methods ; 16(15): 2368-2377, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572530

RESUMO

Microfluidic technology has great advantages in the precise manipulation of micro-nano particles, and the hybrid microfluidic separation technology has attracted much attention due to the advantages of both active and passive separation technology at the same time. In this paper, the hydrophoresis sorting technique is combined with the dielectrophoresis technique, and a dielectrophoresis-assisted hydrophoresis microdevice is studied to separate blood cells. By using the dielectrophoresis force to change the suspension position of the cells in the channel, the scope of the hydrophoresis device for sorting particles is expanded. At the same time, the effects of microchannel width, fluid velocity, and electrode voltage on cell sorting were discussed, and the cell separation process was simulated. This work has laid a certain theoretical foundation for the rapid diagnosis of diseases in practical applications.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Microfluídica , Eletroforese/métodos , Separação Celular/métodos
13.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(5): 157, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592517

RESUMO

This research investigated the physicochemical, microbiological, and bacterial diversity of Jben cheese, a popular artisanal variety in Morocco. The bacterial diversity was explored using culture-independent methods, including temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Significant intra-sample differences were observed for most physicochemical parameters within each milk type, while inter-sample differences occurred between cow and goat cheeses for dry matter and ash. Jben cheese exhibited distinct characteristics, with low pH values of 3.96, 4.16, and 4.18 for cow, goat, and mixed cheeses, respectively. Goat cheeses had higher fat (49.23 g/100 g), ash (1.91 g/100 g), and dry matter (36.39 g/100 g) than cow cheeses. All cheeses displayed high microbial counts, with a notable prevalence of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, averaging 8.80 ± 0.92 log CFU/g. Jben cheese also displayed high contamination levels with total coliforms, faecal coliforms, yeast, and molds. Fatty acid profiling revealed fraudulent practices in Jben cheese marketing, with cow or mixed cheeses sold as goat cheese, as proven by low capric acid concentration. HTS analysis of Jben cheese identified ten genera and twenty-four species, highlighting Lactococcus lactis as predominant. TTGE and DGGE confirmed the presence of L. lactis but failed to provide the detailed profile achieved through HTS analysis. HTS has been demonstrated to be more reliable, whereas TTGE/DGGE methods, though informative, were more time-consuming and less reliable. Despite limitations, the combined use of TTGE, DGGE, and HTS provided a comprehensive view of indigenous bacterial communities in Jben cheese, identifying L. lactis as the main species.


Assuntos
Queijo , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Temperatura , Eletroforese , Cabras , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
15.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3564, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670952

RESUMO

Biomolecular condensates play an important role in cellular organization. Coacervates are commonly used models that mimic the physicochemical properties of biomolecular condensates. The surface of condensates plays a key role in governing molecular exchange between condensates, accumulation of species at the interface, and the stability of condensates against coalescence. However, most important surface properties, including the surface charge and zeta potential, remain poorly characterized and understood. The zeta potential of coacervates is often measured using laser doppler electrophoresis, which assumes a size-independent electrophoretic mobility. Here, we show that this assumption is incorrect for liquid-like condensates and present an alternative method to study the electrophoretic mobility of coacervates and in vitro condensate models by microelectrophoresis and single-particle tracking. Coacervates have a size-dependent electrophoretic mobility, originating from their fluid nature, from which a well-defined zeta potential is calculated. Interestingly, microelectrophoresis measurements reveal that polylysine chains are enriched at the surface of polylysine/polyaspartic acid complex coacervates, which causes the negatively charged protein ɑ-synuclein to adsorb and accumulate at the interface. Addition of ATP inverts the surface charge, displaces ɑ-synuclein from the surface and may help to suppress its interface-catalyzed aggregation. Together, these findings show how condensate surface charge can be measured and altered, making this microelectrophoresis platform combined with automated single-particle tracking a promising characterization technique for both biomolecular condensates and coacervate protocells.


Assuntos
Eletroforese , Propriedades de Superfície , Eletroforese/métodos , Condensados Biomoleculares/química , Condensados Biomoleculares/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/química , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Polilisina/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Humanos , Eletricidade Estática
16.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 14(4)2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38667167

RESUMO

Exosomes, with diameters ranging from 30 to 150 nm, are saucer-shaped extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by various type of human cells. They are present in virtually all bodily fluids. Owing to their abundant nucleic acid and protein content, exosomes have emerged as promising biomarkers for noninvasive molecular diagnostics. However, the need for exosome separation purification presents tremendous technical challenges due to their minuscule size. In recent years, microfluidic technology has garnered substantial interest as a promising alternative capable of excellent separation performance, reduced reagent consumption, and lower overall device and operation costs. In this context, we hereby propose a novel microfluidic strategy based on thermally oxidized deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) arrays with tapered shapes to enhance separation performance. We have achieved more than 90% purity in both polystyrene nanoparticle and exosome experiments. The use of thermal oxidation also significantly reduces fabrication complexity by avoiding the use of high-precision lithography. Furthermore, in a simulation model, we attempt to integrate the use of dielectrophoresis (DEP) to overcome the size-based nature of DLD and distinguish particles that are close in size but differ in biochemical compositions (e.g., lipoproteins, exomeres, retroviruses). We believe the proposed strategy heralds a versatile and innovative platform poised to enhance exosome analysis across a spectrum of biochemical applications.


Assuntos
Eletroforese , Exossomos , Humanos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Microfluídica , Nanopartículas/química , Oxirredução
17.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 14(3)2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38534226

RESUMO

Analyte migration order is a major aspect in all migration-based analytical separations methods. Presented here is the manipulation of the migration order of microparticles in an insulator-based electrokinetic separation. Three distinct particle mixtures were studied: a binary mixture of particles with similar electrical charge and different sizes, and two tertiary mixtures of particles of distinct sizes. Each one of the particle mixtures was separated twice, the first separation was performed under low voltage (linear electrokinetic regime) and the second separation was performed under high voltage (nonlinear electrokinetic regime). Linear electrophoresis, which discriminates particles by charge, is the dominant electrokinetic effect in the linear regime; while nonlinear electrophoresis, which discriminates particles by size and shape, is the dominant electrokinetic effect in the nonlinear regime. The separation results obtained with the three particle mixtures illustrated that particle elution order can be changed by switching from the linear electrokinetic regime to the nonlinear electrokinetic regime. Also, in all cases, better separation performances in terms of separation resolution (Rs) were obtained by employing the nonlinear electrokinetic regime allowing nonlinear electrophoresis to be the discriminatory electrokinetic mechanism. These findings could be applied to analyze complex samples containing bioparticles of interest within the micron size range. This is the first report where particle elution order is altered in an iEK system.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Poliestirenos , Tamanho da Partícula , Eletroforese/métodos
18.
J Chromatogr A ; 1717: 464685, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310700

RESUMO

This study contributes to the renewed interest in the study of nonlinear electrophoresis of colloidal particles. In this work the influence of cell shape on electrophoretic migration under the nonlinear regimes of moderate and strong field regimes was assessed. Four types of bacterial and yeast cells (one spherical, three non-spherical) were studied and their electrophoretic mobilities for the moderate and strong electric field magnitude regimes were estimated experimentally. The parameter of sphericity was employed to assess the effect cell shape on the nonlinear electrophoresis migration velocity and corresponding mobility under the two electric field magnitude regimes studied. As particle migration under nonlinear electrophoresis depends on particle size and shape, the results in terms of mobilities of nonlinear electrophoresis were presented as function of cell hydrodynamic diameter and sphericity. The results indicated that the magnitude of the mobilities of nonlinear electrophoresis for cells increase with increasing cell size and increase with increasing deviations from spherical shape, which is indicated by lower sphericity values. The results presented here are the very first assessment of the two types of mobilities of nonlinear electrophoresis of cells as a function of size and shape.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Hidrodinâmica , Forma Celular , Eletroforese/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula
19.
Toxicon ; 241: 107663, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423218

RESUMO

Deinagkistrodon acutus is a medically important pitviper inhabiting mainly South China and Taiwan. The hemorrhagic effects of its envenoming are compatible to its venom, which is abundant in metalloproteases (svMPs) and C-type lectin-like proteins. In this study, we investigated geographic variations in the venom of D. acutus collected from Taiwan and four Mainland Chinese provinces: Fujian, Jiangxi, Anhui, and Hunan. The variations were assessed through high-performance liquid chromatography, non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis, gel electrophoresis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a monospecific antivenom (DaMAV) generated against the Taiwanese D. acutus venom, and discussed based on venom-protein sequences in databases and literature related to D. acutus venom. Additionally, the cross-reactivity of DaMAV against Crotalus horridus and Calloselasma rhodostoma venoms was investigated. We noted differential abundances of D. acutus venom metalloproteases, C-type lectin-like proteins, and phospholipase A2, along with point mutations and selective expression of serine protease isoforms. The ELISA results revealed that the venom from Taiwan was more reactive toward Taiwanese DaMAV than the four Mainland Chinese venoms, consistent with chromatographic profile differences, whereas C. horridus venom presented moderate cross-reactivity with DaMAV. The observed immunoreactivities of these venom with DaMAV can be attributed to the high prevalence of their PIII-svMPs, which are the dominant antigens, and the conservation of PIII-svMP epitopes.


Assuntos
Antivenenos , Crotalinae , Crotalus , Serpentes Peçonhentas , Peçonhas , Animais , Taiwan , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Eletroforese , Metaloproteases/análise , Biologia Computacional , Lectinas Tipo C
20.
J Chem Phys ; 160(8)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38411234

RESUMO

Electro-osmotic flow (EOF) is a phenomenon where fluid motion occurs in porous materials or micro/nano-channels when an external electric field is applied. In the particular example of single-molecule electrophoresis using single nanopores, the role of EOF on the translocation velocity of the analyte molecule through the nanopore is not fully understood. The complexity arises from a combination of effects from hydrodynamics in restricted environments, electrostatics emanating from charge decorations and geometry of the pores. We address this fundamental issue using the Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Navier-Stokes (PNP-NS) equations for cylindrical solid-state nanopores and three representative protein nanopores (α-hemolysin, MspA, and CsgG). We present the velocity profiles inside the nanopores as a function of charge decoration and geometry of the pore and applied electric field. We report several unexpected results: (a) The apparent charges of the protein nanopores are different from their net charge and the surface charge of the whole protein geometry, and the net charge of inner surface is consistent with the apparent charge. (b) The fluid velocity depends non-monotonically on voltage. The three protein nanopores exhibit unique EOF and velocity-voltage relations, which cannot be simply deduced from their net charge. Furthermore, effective point mutations can significantly change both the direction and the magnitude of EOF. The present computational analysis offers an opportunity to further understand the origins of the speed of transport of charged macromolecules in restricted space and to design desirable nanopores for tuning the speed of macromolecules through nanopores.


Assuntos
Nanoporos , Proteínas Hemolisinas , Movimento (Física) , Eletricidade Estática , Eletroforese
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