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1.
Biomed Khim ; 70(2): 114-124, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711411

RESUMO

Existing knowledge on changes of the haptoglobin (Hp) molecule suggests that it may exist in multiple proteoforms, which obviously exhibit different functions. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) in combination with mass spectrometry and immunodetection, we have analyzed blood plasma samples from both healthy donors and patients with primary grade IV glioblastoma (GBM), and obtained a detailed composite 2DE distribution map of ß-chain proteoforms, as well as the full-length form of Hp (zonulin). Although the total level of plasma Hp exceeded normal values in cancer patients (especially patients with GBM), the presence of particuar proteoforms, detected by their position on the 2DE map, was very individual. Variability was found in both zonulin and the Hp ß-chain. The presence of an alkaline form of zonulin in plasma can be considered a conditional, but insufficient, GBM biomarker. In other words, we found that at the level of minor proteoforms of Hp, even in normal conditions, there was a high individual variability. On the one hand, this raises questions about the reasons for such variability, if it is present not only in Hp, but also in other proteins. On the other hand, this may explain the discrepancy between the number of experimentally detected proteoforms and the theoretically possible ones not only in Hp, but also in other proteins.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Haptoglobinas , Precursores de Proteínas , Haptoglobinas/análise , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Haptoglobinas/química , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Glioblastoma/sangue , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Idoso , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Adulto
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2787: 281-291, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656497

RESUMO

This chapter provides a description of the procedure for two-dimensional electrophoresis that can be performed for any given gel size and isoelectric focusing range. This will enable the operator to recognize critical steps and gain sufficient information to generate 2D images suitable for computer-assisted analysis of 2D-gel, as well as mass spectrometry analysis for protein identification and characterization.


Assuntos
Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Focalização Isoelétrica , Proteínas de Plantas , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Focalização Isoelétrica/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Plantas/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2791: 107-111, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532097

RESUMO

The protein extraction method based on the phenol solution and combined with protein precipitation with ammonium acetate in methanol and purification in the same solution, and additionally in acetone and ethanol, is recommended for proteomic studies of plant tissues. The obtained protein samples do not require additional nucleic acid digestion and removal of interfering contaminations. The presented protocol was used to analyze the proteome of common buckwheat flowers and leaves.


Assuntos
Fenol , Proteínas de Plantas , Proteômica/métodos , Plantas , Fenóis , Folhas de Planta , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2791: 113-119, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532098

RESUMO

Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) is a proteomic tool used for the separation of protein mixtures according to protein isoelectric point and molecular mass. Although gel-free quantitative and qualitative proteomic study techniques are now available, 2-DE remains a useful analytical tool. The presented protocol was performed to analyze the flower and leaf proteome of common buckwheat using 24 cm immobilized pH gradient strips (pH 4-7) and visualization of proteins on gels via colloidal Coomassie G-250 staining.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum , Proteoma , Proteoma/análise , Proteômica , Focalização Isoelétrica/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química , Flores , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Géis , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1443: 243-256, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409425

RESUMO

Proteomics has grown in importance in molecular sciences because it gives vital information on protein identification, expression levels, and alteration. Cancer is one of the world's major causes of death and is the major focus of much research. Cancer risk is determined by hereditary variables as well as the body's immunological condition. Probiotics have increasing medical importance due to their therapeutic influence on the human body in the prevention and treatment of numerous chronic illnesses, including cancer, with no adverse effects. Several anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive probiotics are studied using different proteomic approaches like two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. To gain relevant information about probiotic characteristics, data from the proteomic analysis are evaluated and processed using bioinformatics pipelines. Proteomic studies showed the significance of different proteomic approaches in characterization, comparing strains, and determination of oxidative stress of different probiotics. Moreover, proteomic approaches identified different proteins that are involved in glucose metabolism and the formation of cell walls or cell membranes, and the differences in the expression of critical enzymes in the HIF-1 signaling pathway, starch, and sucrose metabolism, and other critical metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Probióticos , Humanos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional
6.
Expert Rev Proteomics ; 21(1-3): 81-98, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38376826

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers among women in the United States. Current research regarding breast milk has been focused on the composition and its role in infant growth and development. There is little information about the proteins, immune cells, and epithelial cells present in breast milk which can be indicative of the emergence of BC cells and tumors. AREAS COVERED: We summarize all breast milk studies previously done in our group using proteomics. These studies include 1D-PAGE and 2D-PAGE analysis of breast milk samples, which include within woman and across woman comparisons to identify dysregulated proteins in breast milk and the roles of these proteins in both the development of BC and its diagnosis. Our projected outlook for the use of milk for cancer detection is also discussed. EXPERT OPINION: Analyzing the samples by multiple methods allows one to interrogate a set of samples with various biochemical methods that complement each other, thus providing a more comprehensive proteome. Complementing methods like 1D-PAGE, 2D-PAGE, in-solution digestion and proteomics analysis with PTM-omics, peptidomics, degradomics, or interactomics will provide a better understanding of the dysregulated proteins, but also the modifications or interactions between these proteins.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Leite Humano , Humanos , Feminino , Leite Humano/química , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteômica/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/análise
7.
Acta Parasitol ; 69(1): 533-540, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38227109

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic and parasitic disease that is usually fatal if left untreated. VL is endemic in different parts of Iran and is caused mainly by Leishmania infantum. This study aimed to recognition immunoreactive proteins in amastigote-like and promastigote stages of L. infantum (Iranian strain) by antibodies present in the sera of VL patients. METHODS: Total protein extract from amastigote-like and promastigote cells was separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). To detect the immunoreactive proteins, 2DE immunoblotting method was performed using different pools of VL patients' sera. RESULTS: Approximately 390 and 430 protein spots could be separated in 2DE profiles of L. infantum amastigote-like and promastigote stages, respectively. In immunoblotting method, approximately 295 and 135 immunoreactive proteins of amastigotes-like reacted with high antibody titer serum pool and low antibody titer serum pool, respectively. Approximately 120 and 85 immunoreactive proteins of promastigote extract were recognized using the high antibody titer sera pool and low antibody titer sera, respectively. CONCLUSION: The present study has recognized a number of antigenic diversity proteins based on the molecular weight and pH in amastigote-like and promastigote stages of L. infantum. These results provide us a new concept for further analysis development in the field of diagnosis biomarkers and vaccine targets.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral , Proteínas de Protozoários , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Humanos , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Irã (Geográfico) , Immunoblotting
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2023: 9573863, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37942029

RESUMO

Purpose: ITP is the most prevalent autoimmune blood disorder. The lack of predictive biomarkers for therapeutic response is a major challenge for physicians caring of chronic ITP patients. This study is aimed at identifying predictive biomarkers for drug therapy responses. Methods: 2D gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was performed to find differentially expressed proteins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis was performed to identify protein spots. The Cytoscape software was employed to visualize and analyze the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Then, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to confirm the results of the proteins detected in the blood. The DAVID online software was used to explore the Gene Ontology and pathways involved in the disease. Results: Three proteins, including APOA1, GC, and TF, were identified as hub-bottlenecks and confirmed by ELISA. Enrichment analysis results showed the importance of several biological processes and pathway, such as the PPAR signaling pathway, complement and coagulation cascades, platelet activation, vitamin digestion and absorption, fat digestion and absorption, cell adhesion molecule binding, and receptor binding. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance. Our results indicate that plasma proteins (APOA1, GC, and TF) can be suitable biomarkers for the prognosis of the response to drug therapy in ITP patients.


Assuntos
Medicina de Precisão , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática , Humanos , Proteômica/métodos , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(19)2023 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37834160

RESUMO

The identification of new genes/proteins involved in breast cancer (BC) occurrence is widely used to discover novel biomarkers and understand the molecular mechanisms of BC initiation and progression. The jumping translocation breakpoint (JTB) gene may act both as a tumor suppressor or oncogene in various types of tumors, including BC. Thus, the JTB protein could have the potential to be used as a biomarker in BC, but its neoplastic mechanisms still remain unknown or controversial. We previously analyzed the interacting partners of JTBhigh protein extracted from transfected MCF7 BC cell line using SDS-PAGE complemented with in-solution digestion, respectively. The previous results suggested the JTB contributed to the development of a more aggressive phenotype and behavior for the MCF7 BC cell line through synergistic upregulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), mitotic spindle, and fatty acid metabolism-related pathways. In this work, we aim to complement the previously reported JTB proteomics-based experiments by investigating differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) and tumorigenic pathways associated with JTB overexpression using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Statistically different gel spots were picked for protein digestion, followed by nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) analysis. We identified six DEPs related to the JTBhigh condition vs. control that emphasize a pro-tumorigenic (PT) role. Twenty-one proteins, which are known to be usually overexpressed in cancer cells, emphasize an anti-tumorigenic (AT) role when low expression occurs. According to our previous results, proteins that have a PT role are mainly involved in the activation of the EMT process. Interestingly, JTB overexpression has been correlated here with a plethora of significant upregulated and downregulated proteins that sustain JTB tumor suppressive functions. Our present and previous results sustain the necessity of the complementary use of different proteomics-based methods (SDS-PAGE, 2D-PAGE, and in-solution digestion) followed by tandem mass spectrometry to avoid their limitations, with each method leading to the delineation of specific clusters of DEPs that may be merged for a better understanding of molecular pathways and neoplastic mechanisms related to the JTB's role in BC initiation and progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Carcinogênese , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Cromatografia , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(19)2023 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37834385

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer among women. The microenvironment of a cancer tumor is surrounded by various cells, including the microbiota. An imbalance between microbes and their host may contribute to the development and spread of breast cancer. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the influence of Enterococcus faecalis on a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) to mimic the luminal A subtype of breast cancer, using an untargeted proteomics approach to analyze the proteomic profiles of breast cancer cells after their treatment with E. faecalis in order to understand the microbiome and its role in the development of cancer. The breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was cultured and then treated with a 10% bacterial supernatant at two time points (24 h and 48 h) at 37 °C in a humidified incubator with 5% CO2. Proteins were then extracted and separated using two-dimensional difference (2D-DIGE) gel electrophoresis, and the statistically significant proteins (p-value < 0.05, fold change > 1.5) were identified via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The protein fingerprints showed a differential protein expression pattern in the cells treated with E. faecalis for 24 and 48 h compared with the control. We found 58 statistically significant proteins changes in the MCF-7 breast cancer cells affected by E. faecalis. Kilin and transgelin were upregulated after 24 h of treatment and could be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers for breast cancer. In addition, another protein involved in the inhibition of cell proliferation was coiled-coil domain-containing protein 154. The protein markers identified in this study may serve as possible biomarkers for breast cancer progression. This promotes their future uses as important therapeutic goals in the treatment and diagnosis of cancer and increases our understanding of the breast microbiome and its role in the development of cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Enterococcus faecalis , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Proteômica/métodos , Secretoma , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Microambiente Tumoral
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2693: 175-191, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37540435

RESUMO

Epichaperomes are disease-associated pathologic scaffolds, composed of tightly bound chaperones, co-chaperones, and other factors. They mediate anomalous protein-protein interactions inside cells, which aberrantly affects the function of protein networks, and in turn, cellular phenotypes. Epichaperome study necessitates the implementation of methods that retain these protein complexes in their native cellular states for analysis. Here we describe a protocol for detection and composition analysis of epichaperomes in cell homogenates through native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.


Assuntos
Chaperonas Moleculares , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida Nativa , Linhagem Celular , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida
12.
Ber Wiss ; 46(2-3): 233-258, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37431677

RESUMO

For the last ten years, within molecular life sciences, the reproducibility crisis discourse has been embodied as a crisis of trust in scientific images. Beyond the contentious perception of "questionable research practices" associated with a digital turn in the production of images, this paper highlights the transformations of gel electrophoresis as a family of experimental techniques. Our aim is to analyze the evolving epistemic status of generated images and its connection with a crisis of trust in images within that field. From the 1980s to the 2000s, we identify two key innovations (precast gels and gel docs) leading to a "two-tiered" gel electrophoresis with different standardization procedures, different epistemic statuses of the produced images and different ways of generating (dis)trust in images. The first tier, exemplified by differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE), is characterized by specialized devices processing images as quantitative data. The second tier, exemplified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), is described as a routine technique making use of image as qualitative "virtual witnessing." The difference between these two tiers is particularly apparent in the ways images are processed, even though both tiers involve image digitization. Our account thus highlights different views on reproducibility within the two tiers. Comparability of images is insisted upon in the first tier while traceability is expected in the second tier. It is striking that these differences occur not only within the same scientific field, but even within the same family of experimental techniques. In the second tier, digitization entails distrust, whereas it implies a collective sentiment of trust in the first tier.


Assuntos
Proteômica , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Padrões de Referência
13.
Electrophoresis ; 44(17-18): 1446-1460, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37294166

RESUMO

A new protocol for conducting two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis was developed by combining the recently developed agarose native gel electrophoresis with either vertical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) or flat SDS agarose gel electrophoresis. Our innovative technique utilizes His/MES buffer (pH 6.1) during the first-dimensional (1D) agarose native gel electrophoresis, which allows for the simultaneous and clear visualization of basic and acidic proteins in their native states or complex structures. Our agarose gel electrophoresis is a true native electrophoresis, unlike blue native-PAGE, which relies on the intrinsic charged states of the proteins and their complexes without the need for dye binding. In the 2D, the gel strip from the 1D agarose gel electrophoresis is soaked in SDS and placed on top of the vertical SDS-PAGE gels or the edge of the flat SDS-MetaPhor high-resolution agarose gels. This allows for customized operation using a single electrophoresis device at a low cost. This technique has been successfully applied to analyze various proteins, including five model proteins (BSA, factor Xa, ovotransferrin, IgG, and lysozyme), monoclonal antibodies with slightly different isoelectric points, polyclonal antibodies, and antigen-antibody complexes, as well as complex proteins such as IgM pentamer and ß-galactosidase tetramer. Our protocol can be completed within a day, taking approximately 5-6 h, and can be expanded further into Western blot analysis, mass spectrometry analysis, and other analytical methods.


Assuntos
Proteínas , Sefarose/química , Proteínas/análise , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar/métodos , Géis
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37239870

RESUMO

The number and identity of proteins and proteoforms presented in a single human cell (a cellular proteome) are fundamental biological questions. The answers can be found with sophisticated and sensitive proteomics methods, including advanced mass spectrometry (MS) coupled with separation by gel electrophoresis and chromatography. So far, bioinformatics and experimental approaches have been applied to quantitate the complexity of the human proteome. This review analyzed the quantitative information obtained from several large-scale panoramic experiments in which high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics in combination with liquid chromatography or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) were used to evaluate the cellular proteome. It is important that even though all these experiments were performed in different labs using different equipment and calculation algorithms, the main conclusion about the distribution of proteome components (proteins or proteoforms) was basically the same for all human tissues or cells. It follows Zipf's law and has a formula N = A/x, where N is the number of proteoforms, A is a coefficient, and x is the limit of proteoform detection in terms of abundance.


Assuntos
Proteoma , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Humanos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos
15.
Electrophoresis ; 44(13-14): 1097-1113, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36971330

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancers and one of the most common causes for cancer-related mortality. Discovery of protein biomarkers associated with cancer is considered important for early diagnosis and prediction of the cancer risk. Protein biomarkers could be investigated by large-scale protein investigation or proteomics, using mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques. Our group applies MS-based proteomics to study the protein pattern in human breast milk from women with BC and controls and investigates the alterations and dysregulations of breast milk proteins in comparison pairs of BC versus control. These dysregulated proteins might be considered potential future biomarkers of BC. Identification of potential biomarkers in breast milk may benefit young women without BC, but who could collect the milk for future assessment of BC risk. Previously we identified several dysregulated proteins in different sets of human breast milk samples from BC patients and controls using gel-based protein separation coupled with MS. Here, we performed 2D-PAGE coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-tandem MS (nanoLC-MS/MS) in a small-scale study on a set of six human breast milk pairs (three BC samples vs. three controls) and we identified several dysregulated proteins that have potential roles in cancer progression and might be considered potential BC biomarkers in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Leite Humano/química , Proteômica/métodos , Proteoma/análise , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida
16.
Cells ; 12(5)2023 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36899884

RESUMO

Proteomics is an indispensable analytical technique to study the dynamic functioning of biological systems via different proteins and their proteoforms. In recent years, bottom-up shotgun has become more popular than gel-based top-down proteomics. The current study examined the qualitative and quantitative performance of these two fundamentally different methodologies by the parallel measurement of six technical and three biological replicates of the human prostate carcinoma cell line DU145 using its two most common standard techniques, label-free shotgun and two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). The analytical strengths and limitations were explored, finally focusing on the unbiased detection of proteoforms, exemplified by discovering a prostate cancer-related cleavage product of pyruvate kinase M2. Label-free shotgun proteomics quickly yields an annotated proteome but with reduced robustness, as determined by three times higher technical variation compared to 2D-DIGE. At a glance, only 2D-DIGE top-down analysis provided valuable, direct stoichiometric qualitative and quantitative information from proteins to their proteoforms, even with unexpected post-translational modifications, such as proteolytic cleavage and phosphorylation. However, the 2D-DIGE technology required almost 20 times as much time per protein/proteoform characterization with more manual work. Ultimately, this work should expose both techniques' orthogonality with their different contents of data output to elucidate biological questions.


Assuntos
Proteoma , Proteômica , Masculino , Humanos , Proteômica/métodos , Proteoma/análise , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Fosforilação
17.
Database (Oxford) ; 20232023 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36929177

RESUMO

Proteins' molecular weight (MW) and isoelectric point (pI) are crucial for their subcellular localization and subsequent function. These are also useful in 2D gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and X-ray protein crystallography. Moreover, visualizations like a virtual 2D proteome map of pI vs. MW are worthwhile to discuss the proteome diversity among different species. Although the genome sequence data of the fungi kingdom improved enormously, the proteomic details have been poorly elaborated. Therefore, we have calculated the MW and pI of the fungi proteins and reported them in, FungiProteomeDB, an online database (DB) https://vision4research.com/fungidb/. We analyzed the proteome of 685 fungal species that contain 7 127 141 protein sequences. The DB provides an easy-to-use and efficient interface for various search options, summary statistics and virtual 2D proteome map visualizations. The MW and pI of a protein can be obtained by searching the name of a protein, a keyword or a list of accession numbers. It also allows querying protein sequences. The DB will be helpful in hypothesis formulation and in various biotechnological applications. Database URL https://vision4research.com/fungidb/.


Assuntos
Proteoma , Proteômica , Ponto Isoelétrico , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/química , Proteômica/métodos , Peso Molecular , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2615: 241-266, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36807797

RESUMO

Two-dimensional neutral/neutral agarose gel electrophoresis (2D-AGE) has been employed for nearly two decades in the analysis of replication and maintenance processes of animal mitochondrial DNA, but the method's potential has not been fully exploited. Here, we describe the various steps involved in this technique, from DNA isolation, to two-dimensional neutral/neutral agarose gel electrophoresis (2D-AGE), Southern hybridization and interpretation. We also provide examples of the applicability of 2D-AGE to investigate the different features of mtDNA maintenance and regulation.


Assuntos
Replicação do DNA , DNA Mitocondrial , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Mitocôndrias/genética , Southern Blotting , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar/métodos
19.
Electrophoresis ; 44(3-4): 472-480, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416355

RESUMO

The goal of integrative top-down proteomics (i.e., two-dimensional gel electrophoresis [2DE] coupled with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry [LC/MS/MS]) is a routine analytical approach that fully addresses the breadth and depth of proteomes. To accomplish this, there should be no addition, removal, or modification to any constituent proteoforms. To address two-decade old claims of protein losses during front-end proteome resolution using 2DE, here we tested an alternate rehydration method for immobilized pH gradient strips prior to isoelectric focusing (IEF; i.e., faceup compared to facedown) and quantitatively assessed losses during the front-end of 2DE (rehydration and IEF). Using a well-established high-resolution, quantitative 2DE protocol, there were no detectable proteoform losses using the alternate faceup rehydration method. Although there is a <0.25% total loss of proteoforms during standard facedown rehydration, it is insignificant in terms of having any effect on overall proteome resolution (i.e., total spot count and total spot signal). This report is another milestone in integrative top-down proteomics, disproving long-held dogma in the field and confirming that quantitative front-end 2DE/LC/MS/MS is currently the only method to broadly and deeply analyze proteomes by resolving their constituent proteoforms.


Assuntos
Proteoma , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Proteoma/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Focalização Isoelétrica/métodos
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2596: 3-15, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378427

RESUMO

Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) continues to be one of the most versatile and widely used techniques to study the proteome of a biological system, particularly in the separation of intact proteins. A modified version of 2D-PAGE, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), which uses differential labeling of protein samples with up to three fluorescent tags, offers greater sensitivity and reproducibility over conventional 2D-PAGE gels for differential quantitative analysis of protein expression between experimental groups. Both these methods have distinct advantages in the separation and identification of thousands of individual protein species including protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. This chapter discusses the principles of 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE including limitations to the methods. 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE continue to be popular methods in bioprocessing-related research, particularly on recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells, which are also discussed in this chapter.


Assuntos
Proteoma , Animais , Cricetinae , Eletroforese em Gel Diferencial Bidimensional/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos
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