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1.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268681, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679271

RESUMO

This study examined the mediating effect of moral obligation and moderating effect of social value orientation on the relationship between empathy and fairness behavior in Chinese teachers. Seven hundred and twenty-six Chinese teachers completed self-reported questionnaires regarding empathy, moral obligation, social value orientation, and fairness behavior. The results revealed that moral obligation mediated the link between empathy and teachers' fairness behavior. Teachers' social value orientation moderated the associations between empathy and moral obligation and moral obligation and fairness behavior. The associations between empathy and moral obligation and moral obligation and fairness behavior were more robust for those with high SVO scores (i.e., prosocial). This study identified the critical factors associated with teachers' fairness behavior, supplying empirical support for existing theories and providing practical implications for interventions designed to improve Chinese teachers' classroom environment.


Assuntos
Empatia , Valores Sociais , Humanos , Obrigações Morais , Autorrelato , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Soc Sci Med ; 305: 115071, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous cessation and reduction in smoking by pregnant women suggest that concern about others, or empathy, could be a malleable target for intervention. We examined various empathy-related processes in relations to reported and biochemically assessed smoking during pregnancy. METHODS: Participants were 154 pregnant women (M = 12.4 weeks gestation, SD = 4.6) who were smoking cigarettes immediately prior to pregnancy recognition (85 had quit and 69 were still smoking at enrollment). Empathy-related processes were measured with performance-based paradigms (affect sharing, empathic concern, and theory of mind) and a speech sample (expressed emotion). Smoking was assessed with timeline follow back interviews and urine cotinine assays. Using zero-inflated Poisson regression models, we tested direct and interactive effects of empathy-related processes with respect to biologically verified smoking cessation (zero portion); and mean cigarettes/day smoked after pregnancy recognition among persistent smokers (count portion). RESULTS: Affect sharing was inversely related to post-recognition cigarettes/day (B(SE) = -0.17(0.07), 95%C.I. -0.30,-0.04, p = .011) and moderated the relationship between pre-recognition smoking and post-recognition smoking consistent with a buffering effect (B(SE) = -.17(0.05); 95%C.I. - 0.28,-0.06; p = .002). Other empathy related processes showed neither direct nor interactive effects on smoking outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Further research is recommended to clarify the role of empathy in pregnancy smoking.


Assuntos
Empatia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Cotinina , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos
3.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 489, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Professional empathy has been associated with a range of positive patient- and clinician outcomes and is therefore considered important to develop for future physicians. Measuring changes in empathy scores among medical students by using the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (Student version) (JSE-S) has led to mixed results. So far, no investigation of Danish medical students' empathy development has been conducted. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the associations between empathy scores among Danish medical students and medical school, year of curriculum, age, sex, co-habitation, and parental status, specialty preferences and motivations for choosing medicine as a future profession. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire study. All medical students from four medical schools in Denmark in their first, third and sixth year (N = 4,178) were invited to participate in the study in October 2020. The associations between JSE-S sum score and the above explanatory factors were analysed by uni- and multivariable linear regression models. RESULTS: The JSE-S was completed by 672 medical students. The overall mean score was 112.7. There were no statistically significant differences in empathy between medical schools, first, third- and sixth- year medical students, age groups or parental status. Female students and students living with a spouse or partner scored higher on JSE-S than male students or students living alone, and the sex difference remained statistically significant in the multivariable regression. In both the univariable and multivariable setting, preference for future medical specialty was statistically significant, with a decrease in scores for students choosing surgery-specialties. Motivational factors were not statistically significantly associated with empathy, although there was a slight upwards trend for one of the motivational categories, named "personal experiences". CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results showed neither decrease nor increase but instead rather stable empathy scores across years of curriculum of medical students in Denmark, adding to the mixed picture of empathy development among medical students. Our findings are consistent with positive associations found in international studies between empathy scores and higher age, female sex, specialty preferences for psychiatry and general practice and altruistic motivations for choosing to enroll. Although specialty preferences are changing during medical education, they may be used meaningfully as predictors of individual student empathy levels.


Assuntos
Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Faculdades de Medicina
4.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(6): 1101-1105, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751317

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure the empathy levels of undergraduate medical students, and to explore whether the empathy level has any significant association with gender, academic year and academic achievement. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, from January to March 2020, and comprised medical students. Data was collected using the pre-validated student version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy. Data was analysed using SPSS 23. RESULTS: Of the 391 students, 251(64.19%) were females, and 140(35.8%) were males. The overall mean empathy score was 105.18±12.51. Second year medical students showed the highest empathy score 108.59±13.33. There was minor but significant decline in empathy as the students progressed through their academic studies (p<0.05). Empathy scores were significantly higher in female students (p<0.05), and students with higher grade point average scores (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The gradual reduction in empathy is alarming and demands due attention.


Assuntos
Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades
5.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270255, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727801

RESUMO

The history of artificial intelligence (AI) is filled with hype and inflated expectations. Notwithstanding, AI is finding its way into numerous aspects of humanity including the fast-growing helping profession of coaching. Coaching has been shown to be efficacious in a variety of human development facets. The application of AI in a narrow, specific area of coaching has also been shown to work. What remains uncertain, is how the two compare. In this paper we compare two equivalent longitudinal randomised control trial studies that measured the increase in clients' goal attainment as a result of having received coaching over a 10-month period. The first study involved human coaches and the replication study used an AI chatbot coach. In both studies, human coaches and the AI coach were significantly more effective in helping clients reach their goals compared to the two control groups. Surprisingly however, the AI coach was as effective as human coaches at the end of the trials. We interpret this result using AI and goal theory and present three significant implications: AI coaching could be scaled to democratize coaching; AI coaching could grow the demand for human coaching; and AI could replace human coaches who use simplistic, model-based coaching approaches. At present, AI's lack of empathy and emotional intelligence make human coaches irreplicable. However, understanding the efficacy of AI coaching relative to human coaching may promote the focused use of AI, to the significant benefit of society.


Assuntos
Tutoria , Inteligência Artificial , Empatia , Objetivos , Humanos , Motivação
6.
Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am ; 34(2): 191-204, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660233

RESUMO

Motivational interviewing (MI) has positive effects on heart failure patient outcomes related to self-care. MI can be effectively used by the interprofessional team in the hospital and clinic settings, and it can be effective even in brief patient interactions. The spirit of MI uses collaboration, evocation, and honoring the patient's autonomy. Open-ended questions, affirmations, reflective listening, and summarization are skills used to build empathy and elicit change talk with the MI framework. Clinicians can consider obtaining feedback to improve their practice of MI techniques for enhanced efficacy in helping heart failure patients improve self-care behaviors.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Entrevista Motivacional , Empatia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Autocuidado
7.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 464, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compassion, one of the items of empathy, is crucial in health care professions. So, the evaluation of the levels of compassion of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences Master Degrees' (M.D.) students of the public Colleges in Portugal according to the type of Master Degree and the participation in extracurricular activities (E.A.) was a task to be performed. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in 2020, applying an on-line questionnaire including the "Compassion" items of the Jefferson Medical Empathy Scale - Students' version and questions about the participation in E.A. RESULTS: A sample of 901 students was studied. Its distribution by participation in E.A. did not differ significantly between M.D. (p = 0,854), most of the students participating in E.A. Using quartile distribution of compassion, the distribution of compassion levels was different among the three I.M. (p < 0.001), between Colleges (p < 0.001), and between curricular years (p < 0.001), with not different between genders (p = 0.036). For 56.4%, 74,6% and 69,5% of the respondents there was "medium-low" and "low" compassion for I.M. in Medicine, Pharmaceutical Sciences and Dentistry. These levels were also more prevalent among students in the 1st and 5th years. Levels of compassion were not different with the participation (p = 0,865), type (p = 0,177) and frequency of E.A. (p = 0,109). CONCLUSIONS: For their importance in future health care professionals, compassion and their differences found among the M.Ds. of this area deserve future studies. Levels of compassion showed differences between the M.D. studied and academic years of frequency. There was no relationship between the participation, type, and frequency of E.A. and the students' levels of compassion. The distribution of the level of compassion did not vary significantly with participation in E.A. (p = 0.865), with the type of E.A. (p = 0.177), with the frequency of E.A. (p = 0.109) or with the answer to the question "The practice of E.A. can make a person more compassionate?" (p = 0.503).


Assuntos
Empatia , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Portugal
8.
Palliat Support Care ; 20(3): 321-327, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35713352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dignity therapy (DT) is a guided process conducted by a health professional for reviewing one's life to promote dignity through the illness process. Empathic communication has been shown to be important in clinical interactions but has yet to be examined in the DT interview session. The Empathic Communication Coding System (ECCS) is a validated, reliable coding system used in clinical interactions. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the feasibility of the ECCS in DT sessions and (2) to describe the process of empathic communication during DT sessions. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of 25 transcripts of DT sessions with older cancer patients. These DT sessions were collected as part of larger randomized controlled trial. We revised the ECCS and then coded the transcripts using the new ECCS-DT. Two coders achieved inter-rater reliability (κ = 0.84) on 20% of the transcripts and then independently coded the remaining transcripts. RESULTS: Participants were individuals with cancer between the ages of 55 and 75. We developed the ECCS-DT with four empathic response categories: acknowledgment, reflection, validation, and shared experience. We found that of the 235 idea units, 198 had at least one of the four empathic responses present. Of the total 25 DT sessions, 17 had at least one empathic response present in all idea units. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: This feasibility study is an essential first step in our larger program of research to understand how empathic communication may play a role in DT outcomes. We aim to replicate findings in a larger sample and also investigate the linkage empathic communication may have in the DT session to positive patient outcomes. These findings, in turn, may lead to further refinement of training for dignity therapists, development of research into empathy as a mediator of outcomes, and generation of new interventions.


Assuntos
Empatia , Respeito , Idoso , Comunicação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Med Clin North Am ; 106(4): 641-651, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725230

RESUMO

Giving bad news is a recurrent and predictable task in our lives as humans interacting with other humans. This article presents frameworks and best practices that can help us to deliver bad news in health care in a way that is experienced as caring and empathic, and supports the patient as they adjust to their new reality. Key skills include responding to patients' emotions empathically, structuring bad news conversations, leading with an exploration of the patient's understanding and expectations, delivering the bad news clearly and concisely, and individualizing the balance of empathy and support with providing information and developing a plan.


Assuntos
Relações Médico-Paciente , Revelação da Verdade , Empatia , Humanos
10.
Am J Nurs ; 122(7): 13, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35736580

Assuntos
Empatia , Humanos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742220

RESUMO

The present review aims to examine whether multi-component interventions for informal caregivers of people with dementia are effective on positive and negative aspects of caregiver well-being. Eleven databases were searched from inception to 8 March 2021. Only randomized controlled trials reporting the effectiveness of multi-component intervention on positive and negative aspects of caregiver well-being were eligible. Endnote X7 (Thomson ResearchSoft, Stanford, CA, USA) was used for study selection and version 5.1.0 of Cochrane Collaboration's tool (Cochrane, London, UK) was applied for quality assessment. Review Manager (Revman) Version 5.3 (Cochrane, London, UK) was used for the meta-analysis, and if statistical synthesis was inappropriate, only narrative analysis was performed. A total of 31 RCTs with 3939 participants were included. Meta-analyses showed small to moderate effects on subjective well-being, depression, and burden of caregivers, and a moderate to high effect on caregiver anxiety. Due to insufficient data and vast heterogeneity, meta-analysis was not performed for other outcomes, such as resilience, competence, and empathy. This review suggests that individualized multi-component interventions for caregivers may be one of the ways to promote their well-being. Further research is needed to explore the impact of rigorously designed and personalized multi-component interventions on informal caregivers, especially on more positive indicators, as well as its long-term effects and sustainability.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Demência , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Empatia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742509

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has a unprecedented impact on the way individuals make sense of the interconnected nature of themselves in relation to the world. This study investigated the mediating role of transcendental awareness and compassion in the association of interconnectedness with a sense of civic duty and collective action participation during COVID-19 using a longitudinal design. A total of 336 young adult participants were recruited at baseline and were asked to complete measures of interconnectedness, transcendental awareness, compassion, civic duty, and collective action participation at three time points over a 6-month period. Path analysis was used to test the hypothesized mediation model. The results showed that compassion fully mediated the positive association between interconnectedness and collective action participation and partially mediated the positive association between interconnectedness and civic duty. Transcendental awareness also partially mediated the positive association between interconnectedness and civic duty but not collective action participation. This study highlighted the potential of interconnectedness in promoting civic duty and engagement in collective action through transcendental awareness and compassion during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Participação da Comunidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Empatia , Humanos , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to develop a social and emotional competence enhancement (SECE) program as an intervention for adolescents who bully, and to investigate its effects on school bullying behavior and mental health. METHODS: A pre-posttest, 1-month follow-up nonequivalent control group quasi-experimental design was used. In total, 71 school bullies were included in the analysis. RESULTS: The effects of this program were significant with regard to group-by-time interaction effects on social competence, emotional regulation, empathy, and school bullying behavior at the 1-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the SECE program was effective at reducing school bullying behavior in adolescents who bully. School and community-based mental health professionals can provide feasible interventions that can be used in the short term to reduce school bullying behavior in adolescents who bully.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Emoções , Empatia , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Instituições Acadêmicas
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742749

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to examine the role of Compassion towards others as a mediator between Social Job Resources (social support climate, coordination, and positive leadership), Healthy Employees (psychological well-being such as resilience, engagement, and optimism) and Healthy Organisational Outcomes (in-role performance, extra-role performance and commitment) from a gender perspective in healthcare professionals. Through the multiple analyses of variance, structural equation models, and multiple-group analyses in a sample of 1420 healthcare professionals from different public and private hospitals in Spain, this study proved the existence of gender differences, with women perceiving higher levels of Compassion. Moreover, this study shows that Compassion partially mediates the relationship between Social Job Resources and Healthy Employees. In addition, Compassion partially mediates the relationship between Social Job Resources and Healthy Organisational Outcomes. Finally, Healthy Employees mediate the positive relationship between Social Job Resources and Healthy Organisational Outcomes. This is an innovative contribution to the limited research examining Compassion towards others as a personal resource that can have a positive impact in the workplace. The results also propose a way to develop and conduct interventions in order to increase Compassion towards others in the healthcare context.


Assuntos
Empatia , Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
17.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269430, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671314

RESUMO

Virtual perspective taking can reduce unconscious bias and increase empathy and prosocial behavior toward individuals who are marginalized based on group stereotypes such as age, race, or socioeconomic status. However, the question remains whether this approach might reduce implicit gender bias, and the degree to which virtual immersion contributes to behavioral modulation following perspective taking tasks is unknown. Accordingly, we investigate the role of virtual perspective taking for binary gender using an online platform (Study 1) and immersive virtual reality (Study 2). Female and male undergraduates performed a simulated interview while virtually represented by an avatar that was either congruent or incongruent with their own gender. All participants rated a male and a female candidate on competence, hireability, likeability, empathy, and interpersonal closeness and then chose one of these two equivalently qualified candidates to hire for a laboratory assistant position in the male dominated industry of information technology. Online perspective taking did not reveal a significant influence of avatar gender on candidate ratings or candidate choice, whereas virtual reality perspective taking resulted in significant changes to participant behavior following exposure to a gender-incongruent avatar (e.g., male embodied as female), such that men showed preference for the female candidate and women showed preference for the male candidate. Although between-group differences in candidate ratings were subtle, rating trends were consistent with substantial differences in candidate choice, and this effect was greater for men. Compared to an online approach, virtual reality perspective taking appears to exert greater influence on acute behavioral modulation for gender bias due to its ability to fully immerse participants in the experience of (temporarily) becoming someone else, with empathy as a potential mechanism underlying this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Sexismo , Realidade Virtual , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 69(3): 50-57, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain relates to the highly personal and subjective experience of feelings and emotions. Patients are often misunderstood because of language-related limitations and the conditions of their disease. PURPOSE: In this research, a professional study circle was held to help nurses reconstruct their understanding of patient pain to enhance their awareness / empathy for differences in pain perception between others and themselves and to improve their ability to provide professional, individualized care. METHODS: Nine nurses were invited from the urology department to join the developed professional study circle. We spent one year and a half reading "Listening to Pain: Finding Words, Compassion, and Relief" and held a sharing and discussion roundtable meeting every month. The study circle included: (1) assigned reading and the appointment of a leader on rotation to direct the sharing and discussion, (2) presentation of clinical cases related to the reading, (3) discussions of how to apply what they had learned in clinical practice, and (4) an interview of study circle members and a full analysis of their reflections and changes of view regarding pain perceptions. RESULTS: After a close reading and guided discussions, these nine nurses began to change their perceptions of pain and, in general, passed through three stages, including: (1) cast doubt on the authenticity of patient expressions of pain because of stereotyped biases; (2) develop a new empathy based on careful listening; (3) providing individualized care and experiencing professional growth. After successfully transiting through these stages, the nurses held a more profound understanding of their patients, practiced a more sensitive use of language, and reflected an enhanced professional ability to assess pain. CONCLUSIONS / IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This professional study circle successfully helped the nurses internalize a more empathetic understanding of pain and exhibit greater skill in designing individualized care for their patients.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Dor , Empatia , Humanos , Dor/psicologia
19.
J Nurs Educ ; 61(6): 289-295, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compassion competence is a nurse's ability to provide patient-centered care and communicate with patients in a sensitive and insightful manner. This descriptive cross-sectional survey study aimed to assess the compassion competence of a multinational group of nursing students. METHOD: A total of 1,158 undergraduate nursing students participated in this study, and stratified random sampling method was used to select participants from the 100 study level to the 400 or 500 level. Data were collected using the Compassion Competence Scale. RESULTS: Significant differences were found in students grouped by country of residence, marital status, and level of study. Age had a significant relationship with compassion competence, whereas gender did not. Students had high mean scores on sensitivity to patient needs across all countries. CONCLUSION: Effective communication skills and insights into patient problems are important aspects of compassion competence, and undergraduate nursing programs should emphasize both of these aspects. [J Nurs Educ. 2022;61(6):289-295.].


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Estudos Transversais , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Empatia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 436, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health professionals in training may be overwhelmed by the emotional dimensions of their work. Balint groups have been proposed as an intervention to support students to process emotional aspects their encounters with patients. The aim of this study was to explore medical students' emotional experiences of a Balint group during their psychiatry attachment. METHODS: Medical students completing a six week clinical attachment in psychiatry took part in weekly Balint group sessions. Five sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed and coded by members of the research team and an independent researcher co-coded all transcripts. Themes were discussed and refined over three rounds of coding. RESULTS: Four themes were identified: the Balint process as a container to enable vulnerability; becoming attuned to clinical and professional encounters; an evolving sense of identity within the medical hierarchy; and, the need for self-preservation to retain empathy for others. CONCLUSION: The Balint structure provides medical students with a secure and emotionally resonant experience. Medical students' engagement with the Balint process, even over a relatively short time period, teaches them how to reflect on difficult emotions associated with clinical encounters. Early exposure during a psychiatry placement may benefit students in terms of understanding relationship dynamics and the need for self-integration and lifelong reflection over the course of their medical career.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Estudantes de Medicina , Empatia , Humanos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Psiquiatria/educação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia
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