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1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301636, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burnout is a work-related syndrome that can affect physicians' performance. Empathy is one of the clinical competencies in whose formation many factors play a role. Empathy and burnout are important topics of research in medical sciences, and both are related to the communication between the patient and the physician. This study investigated the relationship between occupational burnout and empathy among medical residents. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 297 medical residents in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences from January to March 2021. The data collection tools were the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The reliability of the instruments was measured by calculating Cronbach's alpha. Data were analyzed by SPSS-18, using the Pearson correlation test and linear regression models. RESULTS: The average age of the study population was 33.06 ±4.7 years, with more than half being females (57.6%) and married (51.9%). The residents' mean scores of empathy and overall burnout were 102.87 out of 140 and 55.90 out of 132, respectively. The burnout scores showed an inverse correlation with the overall empathy scores (r = -0.123, P = 0.035), and the score of standing in the patient's shoes (r = -0.165, P = 0.004). Linear regression test was used to detect which dimension of empathy was a better predictor for the reduction of burnout scores. Results showed that the best predictor was standing in the patient's shoes (P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: The findings showed a negative association between empathy and burnout among medical residents, which suggests the need for adjustment of the existing burnout management at the institutional level. Therefore, residents should be supported by managers to reduce burnout and improve their empathic behavior.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Internato e Residência , Testes Psicológicos , Autorrelato , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Empatia , Estudos Transversais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e246026, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602675

RESUMO

Importance: Empathy is an aspect of the patient-physician relationship that may be particularly important in patients with chronic pain. Objective: To measure the association of physician empathy with pain, function, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with chronic low back pain. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included adult enrollees from the Pain Registry for Epidemiological, Clinical, and Interventional Studies and Innovation national pain research registry. Study dates were from April 1, 2016, to July 25, 2023, with up to 12 months of follow-up. Exposure: Physician empathy was assessed with the Consultation and Relational Empathy measure and dichotomized to yield very empathic physician and slightly empathic physician groups. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes were patient-reported pain, function, and HRQOL measured with a numerical rating scale for low back pain intensity, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire for back-related disability, and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System for HRQOL deficits pertaining to anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and pain interference. Data were collected at 5 quarterly encounters from registry enrollment through 12 months and analyzed with generalized estimating equations, including multivariable models to measure temporal trends and to adjust for baseline and longitudinal covariates. Results: Among the 1470 patients, the mean (SD) age was 53.1 (13.2) years, and 1093 (74.4%) were female. Patients completed 5943 encounters in which multivariable analyses demonstrated that greater physician empathy was inversely associated with pain intensity (ß = -0.014; 95% CI, -0.022 to -0.006; P < .001), back-related disability (ß = -0.062; 95% CI, -0.085 to -0.040; P < .001), and HRQOL deficits on each measure (eg, pain interference: ß = -0.080; 95% CI, -0.111 to -0.049; P < .001). Correspondingly, compared with the slightly empathic physician group, the very empathic physician group reported lower mean pain intensity (6.3; 95% CI, 6.1-6.5 vs 6.7; 95% CI, 6.5-6.9; P < .001), less mean back-related disability (14.9; 95% CI, 14.2-15.6 vs 16.8; 95% CI, 16.0-17.6; P < .001), and fewer HRQOL deficits on each measure (eg, fatigue: 57.3; 95% CI, 56.1-58.5 vs 60.4; 95% CI, 59.0-61.7; P < .001). All physician empathy group differences were clinically relevant, with Cohen d statistics ranging from 0.21 for pain intensity to 0.30 for back-related disability, fatigue, and pain interference. Physician empathy was associated with more favorable outcomes than non-pharmacological treatments, opioid therapy, and lumbar spine surgery. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of adult patients with chronic pain, physician empathy was associated with better outcomes over 12 months. Greater efforts to cultivate and improve physician empathy appear warranted.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Dor Lombar , Médicos , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Dor Crônica/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Empatia , Qualidade de Vida , Fadiga
3.
BMC Med Ethics ; 25(1): 45, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite decades of anti-racism and equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) interventions in academic medicine, medical racism continues to harm patients and healthcare providers. We sought to deeply explore experiences and beliefs about medical racism among academic clinicians to understand the drivers of persistent medical racism and to inform intervention design. METHODS: We interviewed academically-affiliated clinicians with any racial identity from the Departments of Family Medicine, Cardiac Sciences, Emergency Medicine, and Medicine to understand their experiences and perceptions of medical racism. We performed thematic content analysis of semi-structured interview data to understand the barriers and facilitators of ongoing medical racism. Based on participant narratives, we developed a logic framework that demonstrates the necessary steps in the process of addressing racism using if/then logic. This framework was then applied to all narratives and the barriers to addressing medical racism were aligned with each step in the logic framework. Proposed interventions, as suggested by participants or study team members and/or identified in the literature, were matched to these identified barriers to addressing racism. RESULTS: Participant narratives of their experiences of medical racism demonstrated multiple barriers to addressing racism, such as a perceived lack of empathy from white colleagues. Few potential facilitators to addressing racism were also identified, including shared language to understand racism. The logic framework suggested that addressing racism requires individuals to understand, recognize, name, and confront medical racism. CONCLUSIONS: Organizations can use this logic framework to understand their local context and select targeted anti-racism or EDI interventions. Theory-informed approaches to medical racism may be more effective than interventions that do not address local barriers or facilitators for persistent medical racism.


Assuntos
Racismo , Humanos , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Empatia , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Pessoal de Saúde
4.
Harefuah ; 163(4): 220-225, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616631

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The article focuses on the professional quality of life of medical residents, and specifically on compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction. Previous studies have indicated high levels of emotional stress among residents. Most of these studies were conducted within the positivistic paradigm. The qualitative study concentrates on pediatric residents during ER rotations in both routine and pandemic times. AIMS: The research goal is to explore how compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction are manifested among the residents. METHODS: Conducted in the phenomenological genre, the study included 14 pediatric residents in a large Israeli hospital. The research tool was a semi-structured interview. RESULTS: All residents reported substantial work overloads. About half of the participants indicated signs of compassion fatigue, manifested in negative emotions and diminished empathy and sensitivity, especially towards patients' families. Some exhibited a combination of compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction. About half of the residents clearly expressed feelings of compassion satisfaction or empathy for patients (without direct expressions of compassion satisfaction). CONCLUSIONS: The research gave pediatric residents a platform to express their voices, shedding light on the complexity of their work. While a substantial number of participants reported compassion fatigue, the findings are encouraging. Despite the reported work overload, most of them maintained their sense of commitment and compassion, which are crucial for their work. However, participants' senses of stress and burnout have negative consequences both individually and organizationally. The study suggests that residents might gain from systematic intervention and recommendations have been offered to hospital administrations.


Assuntos
Fadiga por Compaixão , Humanos , Criança , Qualidade de Vida , Empatia , Esgotamento Psicológico , Satisfação Pessoal
5.
Med Educ Online ; 29(1): 2335739, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566612

RESUMO

While physician empathy is a vital ingredient in both physician wellness and quality of patient care, consensus on its origins, and how to cultivate it, is still lacking. The present study examines this issue in a new and innovative way, through the lens of self-determination theory. Using survey methodology, we collected data from N = 177 (44%) students at a Canadian medical school. We then used a person-centered approach (cluster analysis) to identify medical student profiles of self-determination (based on trait autonomy and perceived competence in learning) and how the learning environment impacted empathy for those in each profile. When the learning environment was more autonomy-supportive, students experienced higher satisfaction and lower frustration of their basic psychological needs in medical school, as well as greater empathy towards patients. The translation into increased empathy, however, was only evident among the students with higher self-determination at baseline. Results from this study suggest that autonomy-supportive learning environments will generally support medical students' psychological needs for optimal motivation and well-being, but whether or not they lead to empathy towards patients will depend on individual differences in self-determination. Findings and their implications are discussed in terms of developing theory-driven approaches to cultivating empathy in medical education.


Assuntos
Empatia , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Canadá , Motivação , Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia
6.
BMC Palliat Care ; 23(1): 84, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The interdisciplinary realm of medical humanities explores narratives and experiences that can enhance medical education for physicians through perspective-taking and reflective practice. However, there is a gap in comprehension regarding its appropriateness at the postgraduate level, especially when utilising art therapists as faculty. This study aims to assess the acceptability of an innovative art therapy-focused educational initiative among junior doctors during a palliative care rotation, with the goal of cultivating empathy and promoting well-being. METHODS: A qualitative research project was conducted at the Division of Supportive and Palliative Care (DSPC) in the National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS). The study involved the recruitment of junior doctors who had successfully completed a three-month palliative care rotation program, spanning from January 2020 to April 2021. In a single small-group session lasting 1.5 h, with 3 to 4 participants each time, the individuals participated in activities such as collage making, group reflection, and sharing of artistic creations. These sessions were facilitated by an accredited art therapist and a clinical psychologist, focusing on themes related to empathy and wellbeing. To assess the acceptability of the program, two individual interviews were conducted three months apart with each participant. An independent research assistant utilised a semi-structured question guide that considered affective attitude, burden, perceived effectiveness, coherence, and self-efficacy. Thematic analysis of the transcribed data was then employed to scrutinise the participants' experiences. RESULTS: A total of 20 individual interviews were completed with 11 participants. The three themes identified were lack of pre-existing knowledge of the humanities, promotors, and barriers to program acceptability. CONCLUSIONS: The participants have mixed perceptions of the program's acceptability. While all completed the program in its entirety, the acceptability of the program is impeded by wider systemic factors such as service and manpower needs. It is vital to address these structural limitations as failing to do so risks skewing current ambivalence towards outright rejection of future endeavours to integrate humanities programs into medical education.


Assuntos
Arteterapia , Medicina Paliativa , Humanos , Empatia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Emprego
8.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e078784, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580364

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study aimed to identify categories within therapeutic self-compassion letters written by healthcare workers. Resulting categories were assessed for their relevance to the construct of self-compassion. DESIGN: This was a qualitative descriptive study that used summative content analysis and inductive coding. SETTING: A US-based academic healthcare system. PARTICIPANTS: Healthcare workers who attended a self-compassion webinar were recruited. INTERVENTION: The online self-compassion tool asked participants to write a letter to themselves from the perspective of a friend providing support and encouragement. RESULTS: 116 letters were analysed. Five major categories emerged: Looking Forward, Reaffirming Self, Reaffirming Reminders, Hardships and Self-Disparagement. Respondents' letters were mostly positively framed and forward thinking, including their hopes of improving themselves and their lives in the future. Negative content generally described hardships and often served to provide self-validation or perspective on obstacles that had been overcome. CONCLUSION: The writing prompt elicited content from the writers that reflected the core elements of self-compassion (ie, self-kindness, common humanity, mindfulness). Continued research to further understand, refine and improve the impact of therapeutic letter writing to enhance well-being is warranted to reduce burnout and promote quality patient care.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Atenção Plena , Humanos , Autocompaixão , Empatia , Pessoal de Saúde , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle
9.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 18: e58, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed psychological hardiness and compassion satisfaction among the Türk Kizilay (Turkish Red Crescent) personnel and volunteers involved in the 2023 Kahramanmaras earthquake. Additionally, the relationship between compassion satisfaction and psychological hardiness was also investigated. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between March and July 2023. Participants completed an online survey, which included the Sociodemographic Information Form, Psychological Hardiness Scale, and Compassion Satisfaction Scale. The data was analyzed with SPSS version 25 (IBM Corp., Armonk, New York, USA), using a significance level of 95% and p < 0.05. RESULTS: The study involved 400 participants, comprising 84 (21%) personnel and 316 (79%) volunteers. Participants exhibited an average psychological hardiness level of 24.56 ± 7.25 and a compassion satisfaction level of 47.40 ± 17.28. A significant positive correlation was observed between compassion satisfaction and psychological hardiness (r = 0.571; p < 0.001). The results of logistics regression have revealed that the level of psychological hardiness is higher in males compared to females (OR = 1.930, CI = 1.115 - 3.340; P < 0.05) and is also higher in those with high compassion satisfaction compared to those with low compassion satisfaction (OR = 1.386, CI = 1.256 - 1.529; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate that individuals involved in disaster response should consider compassion satisfaction as an important tool for enhancing psychological hardiness.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Empatia , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Cruz Vermelha , Satisfação Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Satisfação no Emprego
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 269, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empathy is a critical component of nursing care, impacting both nurses' and patients' outcomes. However, perceived empathy from spouses during pregnancy and its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are unclear. This study aimed to examine pregnant women's perceived empathy from their spouses and assess the relation of perceived empathy on HRQoL. METHODS: This cross-sectional study, performed in the obstetric clinics or wards of four well-known hospitals in Anhui Province, China, included 349 pregnant women in the second or third trimester; participants were recruited by convenience sampling and enrolled from October to December 2021. A general information questionnaire, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), a purpose-designed empathy questionnaire and the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) were used to evaluate the pregnant women's general information, perceptions of empathy and HRQoL. Data were analysed using SPSS 22 at a threshold of P < 0.05. Descriptive analysis, Pearson correlation analysis, Student's t test, ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were used for analysis. RESULTS: The pregnant women's total empathy, physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores were 41.6 ± 9.0, 41.6 ± 7.6, and 47.7 ± 9.1, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed that the purpose-designed empathy questionnaire items were significantly positively correlated with perspective taking and empathic concern but were not correlated with the personal distress dimension and were only partially correlated with the fantasy dimension. Maternal physical condition during pregnancy, planned pregnancy, and occupational stress were predictors of the PCS score (ß = 0.281, P < 0.01; ß = 0.132, P = 0.02; ß = -0.128, P = 0.02). The behavioural empathy item of our purpose-designed empathy questionnaire and empathic concern were important predictors of the MCS score (ß = 0.127, P = 0.02; ß = 0.158, P < 0.01), as well as other demographic and obstetric information, explaining 22.0% of the variance in MCS scores totally (F = 12.228, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women perceived lower empathy from their spouses and reported lower HRQoL. Perceived empathy, particularly behavioural empathy, may significantly impact pregnant women's MCS scores but has no effect on their PCS scores. Strategies that foster perceived empathy from spouses among pregnant women are essential for facilitating healthy pregnancies and potentially improving maternal and child health.


Assuntos
Empatia , Cônjuges , Gravidez , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Gestantes , Qualidade de Vida , China
12.
Anim Cogn ; 27(1): 29, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558203

RESUMO

In the first two experiments an empty tube open at one end was placed in different locations. Male hamsters, tested one at a time, tended to stay close to the tube or in it. During the first minute of the first 4 sessions of Experiment 3, the hamster was unrestrained. If it entered the tube, it was locked within the tube. If it did not enter the tube during the first min, it was placed in it, and the tube was locked. Fifteen min later, the tube was opened, and the hamster was unrestrained for a further 20 min. The tube remained open during Session 5. Hamsters spent more time near the tube than predicted by chance and continued to enter the tube although tube-occupancy duration did not differ from chance levels. In Experiment 4, male rats were tested in two groups: rats in one group had been previously trapped in a tube and rats in the other group allowed to freely explore the test space. For the first two min of each of four 20-min sessions, trapped-group subjects were permitted to move about the chamber unless they entered the tube. In that case, they were locked in for the remainder of the session. If, after two min, they did not enter the tube, they were locked in it for the remaining 18 min. Free rats were unrestricted in all sessions. In Session 5, when both groups were permitted to move freely in the chamber, trapped and free rats spent more time in and near the tube than predicted by chance. These data show tube restraint does not seem to distress either hamsters or rats.


Assuntos
Empatia , Roedores , Humanos , Ratos , Masculino , Animais
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7626, 2024 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561445

RESUMO

This study explored the application of generative pre-trained transformer (GPT) agents based on medical guidelines using large language model (LLM) technology for traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation-related questions. To assess the effectiveness of multiple agents (GPT-agents) created using GPT-4, a comparison was conducted using direct GPT-4 as the control group (GPT-4). The GPT-agents comprised multiple agents with distinct functions, including "Medical Guideline Classification", "Question Retrieval", "Matching Evaluation", "Intelligent Question Answering (QA)", and "Results Evaluation and Source Citation". Brain rehabilitation questions were selected from the doctor-patient Q&A database for assessment. The primary endpoint was a better answer. The secondary endpoints were accuracy, completeness, explainability, and empathy. Thirty questions were answered; overall GPT-agents took substantially longer and more words to respond than GPT-4 (time: 54.05 vs. 9.66 s, words: 371 vs. 57). However, GPT-agents provided superior answers in more cases compared to GPT-4 (66.7 vs. 33.3%). GPT-Agents surpassed GPT-4 in accuracy evaluation (3.8 ± 1.02 vs. 3.2 ± 0.96, p = 0.0234). No difference in incomplete answers was found (2 ± 0.87 vs. 1.7 ± 0.79, p = 0.213). However, in terms of explainability (2.79 ± 0.45 vs. 07 ± 0.52, p < 0.001) and empathy (2.63 ± 0.57 vs. 1.08 ± 0.51, p < 0.001) evaluation, the GPT-agents performed notably better. Based on medical guidelines, GPT-agents enhanced the accuracy and empathy of responses to TBI rehabilitation questions. This study provides guideline references and demonstrates improved clinical explainability. However, further validation through multicenter trials in a clinical setting is necessary. This study offers practical insights and establishes groundwork for the potential theoretical integration of LLM-agents medicine.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Humanos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Empatia
14.
Nurs Adm Q ; 48(2): 139-150, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564724

RESUMO

The pandemic exposed existing weaknesses in the health care system, and innovative leaders stepped up to address the compounding effects the novel anomaly created. Postpandemic disruption persists, and the behaviors and actions of these positive deviants demonstrate that new ways of leadership are available to those who are willing to embrace the dynamic leadership model and teaming methodology to shape health care delivery of the future. As we look to new ways of being and leading, we begin from a changed world-one that has been reset and cannot go back. Dynamic leaders are called upon to create cultures that reflect the needs of the future workplace and workforce. They pave new pathways and new ways of thinking, reimagine new realities, and create abundance. Their consistent practice of 5 essential behaviors-self-awareness, deep listening, curiosity, empathy, and decisiveness-strengthen their leadership and ability to meet the demands of health care today.


Assuntos
Liderança , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Empatia , Atenção à Saúde , Recursos Humanos
15.
Nurse Educ Today ; 137: 106166, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508020

RESUMO

Point-of-view simulations involve participants engaging in simulation to experience what it might be like to live with a health condition or disability. These types of simulations have been used frequently in nurse education as a valuable pedagogical tool, as research has shown that student engagement with point-of-view simulations increases student empathy. However, point-of-view simulations have also been problematised by disability community members and scholars researching in the disability space, as ableist and culturally unsafe. This manuscript explores recommendations for, and criticisms of, point-of-view simulations and offers considerations to address these concerns.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Simulação de Paciente , Empatia , Emoções
16.
Nurse Educ Today ; 137: 106154, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caring in nursing is a fundamental aspect, yet teaching and fostering caring behaviours in nursing students remain challenging. Clinical instructors play a crucial role in this process. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were a) to describe nursing students' caring behaviours and perceptions of instructor caring, b) to assess sex-related and year of course differences in students' caring behaviours and perceptions of nursing caring, and c) to investigate the association between nursing students' caring and their perception of instructors' caring. DESIGN: A multi-centre, cross-sectional observational study was conducted. SETTING: The study involved undergraduate nursing students from four teaching hospitals of a university in Northern Italy. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 316 nursing undergraduate students participated in the study (83.9 % female, 16.1 % male, 23.1 % 1st year, 48.1 % 2nd year, 28.8 % 3rd year). METHODS: Participants completed online self-reported surveys assessing caring behaviours, empathy, burnout, and perceptions of instructor caring. Caring behaviours, expressive and instrumental caring, were measured using the Caring Behaviour Inventory (CBI), and perceptions of instructor caring were assessed using the Nursing Students' Perceptions of Instructor Caring (NSPIC) questionnaire. RESULTS: Students' caring behaviours were positively associated with their perceptions of instructor caring, particularly in relation to a supportive learning climate and instructor flexibility. Female students displayed higher scores in expressive caring, while students in their second and third years demonstrated increased instrumental caring behaviours. Responding to Individual Needs was significantly lower in third-years students, compared to first- and second-year ones. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasizes the crucial role of clinical instructors in shaping nursing students' caring attributes. However, the influence of sex on caring behaviours remains unclear, necessitating further investigation. These findings underscore the significance of nurturing caring behaviours in nursing education and offer insights for selecting, training, and supporting clinical instructors, to foster more compassionate and competent nurses.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Docentes de Enfermagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Empatia , Percepção , Assistência ao Paciente
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541322

RESUMO

The consequences of climate change are already visible, and yet, its effect on psychosocial factors, including the expression of empathy, affect, and social disconnection, is widely unknown. Outdoor conditions are expected to influence indoor conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of indoor air temperature during work hours on empathy, positive and negative affect, and social disconnection. Participants (N = 31) were exposed, in a cross-over design, to two thermal conditions in a simulated office environment. Questions on empathy and social disconnection were administered before and after the exposure to each condition, while affect was measured throughout the day. Subjective thermal sensation and objective measures of mean skin temperature were considered. The results indicated a significant difference in empathy (F(1, 24) = 5.37, p = 0.03, with an η2 = 0.126) between conditions. Participants reported increases in empathy after exposure to the warm condition compared to the cool condition, in which reductions in empathy were reported. Although the same pattern was observed for positive affect, the difference was smaller and the results were not significant. Thermal sensation had a significant effect on changes in empathy too (F(1, 54) = 7.015, p = 0.01, with an R2 = 0.115), while mean skin temperature had no effect on empathy (F(1, 6) = 0.53, p = 0.89, with an R2 = 0.81). No effects were observed for positive and negative affect and social disconnection. Longitudinal studies are needed to support these findings.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Empatia , Humanos , Temperatura , Temperatura Baixa , Sensação Térmica , Temperatura Cutânea
18.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 19(1)2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481007

RESUMO

The question of whether physical pain and vicarious pain have some shared neural substrates is unresolved. Recent research has argued that physical and vicarious pain are represented by dissociable multivariate brain patterns by creating biomarkers for physical pain (Neurologic Pain Signature, NPS) and vicarious pain (Vicarious Pain Signature, VPS), respectively. In the current research, the NPS and two versions of the VPS were applied to three fMRI datasets (one new, two published) relating to vicarious pain which focused on between-subject differences in vicarious pain (Datasets 1 and 3) and within-subject manipulations of perspective taking (Dataset 2). Results show that (i) NPS can distinguish brain responses to images of pain vs no-pain and to a greater extent in vicarious pain responders who report experiencing pain when observing pain and (ii) neither version of the VPS mapped on to individual differences in vicarious pain and the two versions differed in their success in predicting vicarious pain overall. This study suggests that the NPS (created to detect physical pain) is, under some circumstances, sensitive to vicarious pain and there is significant variability in VPS measures (created to detect vicarious pain) to act as generalizable biomarkers of vicarious pain.


Assuntos
Empatia , Percepção da Dor , Humanos , Percepção da Dor/fisiologia , Dor , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Biomarcadores
19.
New Dir Stud Leadersh ; 2024(181): 53-60, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457667

RESUMO

Emergent-based practices of leadership development (such as intentional emergence (IE), case-in-point, or group relations) rely a great deal on stopping the action in order to publicly notice group behaviors and patterns and connect what is happening authentically to conscious actions and ideas (such as course content, readings, theories, etc.). However, when a facilitator or participant practices stopping the action and calling out these behaviors, there is a danger that they will go beyond productive tension into a level that causes casualties. This article explores the foundational need for compassion and purpose when using the common tools of heat and noticing in intentionally emergent spaces.


Assuntos
Empatia , Liderança , Humanos
20.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1304345, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528864

RESUMO

Background: Burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and high turnover rates among child mental health clinicians are a challenge, not only for the individual therapist and the organization but also for the successful implementation of evidence-based practices. However, little is known about which and how job-and implementation-related factors are associated with burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and turnover intention as well as compassion satisfaction among child therapists. In the present study, we aimed to explore these factors and related mechanisms by integrating the "professional quality of life" and the "job demands-resources" models of occupational health. Methods: We measured the perceived professional quality of life and turnover intention among a national sample of 256 therapists working in Norwegian Child and Adolescence Mental Health Clinics (n = 44) that implemented Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy (TF-CBT). Seventeen Job-and implementation-related resources and demands were also measured using the General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work and the Implementation Component Questionnaire. Path analysis was used to test whether burnout and compassion satisfaction mediate the relationship between job demands and resources on one hand, and secondary traumatic stress and turnover intention on the other hand. Results and discussion: Results revealed that two job resources, i.e., positive challenges at work and mastery of work, were significant predictors of all professional outcomes. The proposed model was only partly supported. That is, while burnout did mediate the relationship between some job demands (i.e., work-family interference and role conflict) and job resources (i.e., human resource primacy, positive challenges, and mastery of work) with secondary traumatic stress and turnover intention, compassion satisfaction did not mediate the relationship between job resources and turnover intention. Moreover, in addition to their indirect effects via burnout, role conflict and organizational climate (human resource primacy) also directly affected turnover intention. These findings propose that interventions that reduce burnout should be prioritized to improve the professional quality of life and turnover intention among child therapists. Theoretically, it seems that compassion satisfaction and work engagement act differently.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Fadiga por Compaixão , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Empatia , Intenção , Satisfação no Emprego , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto
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