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1.
Psicol. conduct ; 30(2): 391-410, Sept. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-208435

RESUMO

Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron analizar la presencia de laciberviolencia en parejas jóvenes, explorar las asociaciones entre la ciberviolencia,la dependencia emocional, la empatía y las relaciones filio parentales, e identificarfactores predictores de la ciberviolencia. Para ello, se seleccionó una muestra deconveniencia compuesta por 469 estudiantes universitarios. Estos completaron la“Escala de violencia de pareja en las redes sociales en adolescentes” el“Instrumento de vínculo parental”, el de “Dependencia emocional en el noviazgode jóvenes y adolescentes” y la “Escala de empatía básica”. El 51,9% de la muestraafirmaba haber sufrido ciberviolencia y el 56,6% admitía haberla ejercido. Loschicos puntuaron más alto que las chicas en ciberviolencia y cibervictimización. Seencontró que a mayor nivel de estudios menos ciberviolencia y, a mayor númerode parejas, mayor posibilidad de sufrir ciberviolencia. La escasa evidencia empíricaacerca de los factores relacionados con la ciberviolencia apunta a la importancia deseguir investigando más profundamente sobre variables individuales y familiares. (AU)


The aims of this research were to analyze the presence of cyberviolence inyoung couples, to explore the associations between cyberviolence, emotionaldependence, empathy, and filioparental relationships, and to identify predictors ofcyberviolence. For this purpose, a convenience sample consisting of 469 universitystudents was selected. They completed the following measures: The AdolescentSocial Network Partner Violence Scale, the Parental Bonding Instrument, the DatingEmotional Dependence in Youth and Adolescents, and the Basic Empathy Scale.51.9% of the sample admitted to having suffered cyber-violence, and 56.6%admitted to having perpetrated it. Boys scored higher than girls on cyberviolenceand cybervictimization. It was found that the higher the level of education, thelower level of cyberviolence and the higher the number of partners, the greater thepossibility of suffering cyberviolence. The scarce empirical evidence about thefactors related to cyberviolence points to the need of further research on individualand family variables. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Rede Social , Cyberbullying , Dependência Psicológica , Empatia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudantes
2.
Exp Brain Res ; 240(10): 2725-2738, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066588

RESUMO

Empathy is the ability to perceive and understand others' emotional states generating a similar mental state in the self. Previous behavioural studies have shown that self-reflection can enhance the empathic process. The present event-related potentials' study aims to investigate whether self-reflection, elicited by an introspective self-narrative task, modulates the neuronal response to eye expressions and improves the accuracy of empathic process. The 29 participants included in the final sample were divided into two groups: an introspection group (IG) (n = 15), who received an introspective writing task, and a control group (CG) (n = 14), who completed a not-introspective writing task. For both groups, the electroencephalographic and behavioural responses to images depicting eye expressions taken from the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Theory of Mind test were recorded pre- (T0) and post- (T1) 7 days of writing. The main result showed that only the IG presented a different P300 amplitude in response to eye expressions at T1 compared to T0 on the left centre-frontal montage. No significant results on accuracy at T1 compared to T0 were found. These findings seem to suggest that the introspective writing task modulates attention and implicit evaluation of the socio-emotional stimuli. Results are discussed with reference to the hypothesis that such neuronal modulation is linked to an increase in the embodied simulation process underlying affective empathy.


Assuntos
Empatia , Potenciais Evocados , Atenção/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Humanos
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(9)2022 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36143935

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Empathy is an important attribute of a healthy doctor-patient relationship. Although multiple studies have assessed empathy in different countries, little is known about its levels among Saudi residents and its association with perceived stress. Objectives: To assess the levels of empathy and to identify if there is an association with stress in general and across the demographic and training characteristics of residents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was carried out from December 2020 to March 2021 among residents training at a tertiary academic center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Empathy and perceived stress were measured using the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results: A total of 229 residents participated. The mean JSE score was 105.25 ± 15.35. The mean JSE scores were significantly higher among residents training in pediatrics (mean difference (MD) = 17.35, p < 0.001), family medicine (MD = 12.24, p = 0.007), and medical specialties (MD = 11.11, p = 0.012) when compared with surgical specialties and anesthesia. In addition, residents who worked 1-4 on-calls per month had a higher mean JSE score (MD = 11.23, p = 0.028) compared with those who worked 7 or more on-calls. Lastly, no correlation between empathy and perceived stress was detected in the whole sample (r = -0.007, p = 0.913); however, there was a correlation among residents training in medical specialties (r = -0.245, p = 0.025). Conclusion: Residents in our study had empathy levels comparable with Asian but lower than Western residents. We recommend qualitative studies that explore potential factors that might affect empathy among residents and studying the association between empathy and perceived stress among medical residents. Postgraduate curricula should incorporate interventions that foster a more empathetic doctor-patient relationship.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Empatia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , Relações Médico-Paciente , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141579

RESUMO

Caring ability and professional values developed and shaped during nursing university studies are often recognised as fundamental components of education and professional nursing attitudes. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between caring ability and professional values among nursing students and their correlation with selected sociodemographic variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a convenience sample of 379 nursing students. During the research, the Polish versions of the Caring Ability Inventory and the Professional Values Scale were used. The overall result in the Professional Values Scale was 108.78 (SD = 16.17)-which is considered average, and in the Caring Ability Inventory 189.55 (SD = 18.77)-which is considered low. Age correlated negatively with the professional values of students in total and in the subscale "care"; in contrast, "gender", "place of residence" and "financial situation" did not show any correlation with the level of students' professional values and caring ability. The professional values and caring abilities of nursing students depended on the year and mode of study and the type of university. The results of the study revealed that the caring ability and professional values of nursing students undergo changes during their education.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Estudos Transversais , Empatia , Humanos , Polônia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141602

RESUMO

This study explored college students' individual mental health (i.e., anxious and depressive symptoms, intrapersonal identity, and ethnic identity), as well as interpersonal mental health, as assessed by their affective connection to and care for others (i.e., cognitive empathy), exploring the role of culture and identity during the twin COVID-19 and racial justice pandemics of 2020. Comparing a longitudinal cohort of 147 undergraduate students' experiences prior to the pandemic (Spring 2019) and after the onset of the pandemic (Spring 2021), the study examines students' mental health changes amidst the multi-layered challenges of this time. A repeated measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) revealed heightened anxiety and depression scores from pre-pandemic to during the pandemic and a reduction in cognitive empathy as expressed through perspective taking and empathic concern. The study begins to examine the implications of these findings in the COVID-19 era with a focus on young adult mental health, higher education, empathy, and community-mindedness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cognição , Depressão/epidemiologia , Empatia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141714

RESUMO

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted the mental health of nurses caring for institutionalized older people. Caring in this environment can be complex, with higher levels of burnout and compassion fatigue in staff. It is therefore important to find interventions to increase the well-being of staff. Mindfulness training is known to be effective in treating a variety of physical and mental health conditions. This study sought to conduct a direct evaluation of the effectiveness of a combined online training in two types of mindfulness-based therapies for the reduction of compassion fatigue and burnout in geriatric nurses caring for institutionalized elderly people with dementia. In a randomized controlled trial (n = 39 experimental group, n = 35 control group), we explored whether individuals with high levels of burnout and compassion fatigue would benefit more from an online mindfulness training program. The outcome variable was the ProQoL professional quality of life scale, which was collected at baseline, at six weeks, and at three months after completion of the intervention. Significant differences were found between both groups for the subscales Compassion Fatigue and Burnout (p < 0.05), with a significant improvement in the experimental group (significant effect size). These findings were maintained at three months after the end of the intervention for both compassion fatigue (F1,28 = 18.14, p = 0.003) and burnout (F1,28 = 7.25, p = 0.040). However, there were no differences between groups for the satisfaction subscale. The effect of time and the effects of comparing the two groups after controlling for time were statistically significant for all three subscales of the questionnaire (all p values < 0.001), with effect sizes ranging from small to large (R2 change 0.10-0.47). These data indicate that the experimental condition was more effective, explaining between 10 and 18% more of the variance. A short, online intervention based on mindfulness training appears to be effective for reducing compassion fatigue and burnout in geriatric nurses, with sustained effects over time.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , COVID-19 , Fadiga por Compaixão , Demência , Atenção Plena , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Cuidadores , Empatia , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16112, 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167876

RESUMO

To alleviate anti-cancer treatment burden in advanced breast cancer, patient-clinician communication strategies based on nocebo-effect mechanisms are promising. We assessed distinct/combined effects on psychological outcomes (e.g. anxiety; main outcome) and side-effect expectations of (1) nocebo information about the (non)pharmacological origin of side effects, and (2) clinician-expressed empathy through reassurance of continuing support. Furthermore, we explored whether information and empathy effects on side-effect expectations were mediated by decreased anxiety. In a two-by-two experimental video-vignette design, 160 cancer patients/survivors and healthy women watched one of four videos differing in level of nocebo information (±) and empathy (±). Regression and mediation analysis were used to determine effects of information/empathy and explore anxiety's mediating role. Anxiety was not influenced by empathy or information (Stai-state: p = 0.295; p = 0.390, VAS p = 0.399; p = 0.823). Information improved (specific) side-effect coping expectations (p < 0.01). Empathy improved side-effect intensity expectations (p < 0.01 = specific; p < 0.05 = non-specific/partial) and specific side-effect probability expectations (p < 0.01), and increased satisfaction, trust, and self-efficacy (p < 0.001). No mediating effects were found of anxiety on expectations. Mainly empathy, but also nocebo information improved psychological outcomes and-mainly specific-side-effect expectations. Exploring the power of these communication elements in clinical practice is essential to diminish the anti-cancer treatment burden in advanced breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Comunicação , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Efeito Nocebo
9.
J Affect Disord ; 318: 304-313, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low empathy is one component of affective impairments defining the antisocial youth phenotype callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Research suggests CU traits may be negatively associated with neural networks that are positively associated with cognitive and affective empathy - specifically the default mode (DMN), frontoparietal (FPN), and salience (SAL) networks. Determining which functional network connections are shared between CU traits and empathy could elucidate the extent to which CU traits shares neural substrates with cognitive versus affective empathy. The present study tested whether CU traits and both cognitive and affective empathy share network connections within and between the DMN, FPN, and SAL. METHODS: Participants (n = 112, aged 13-17, 43 % female) completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and self-reports for CU traits and empathy as part of a Nathan-Kline Institute study. RESULTS: Analyses revealed inverse associations with shared network connections between CU traits and both cognitive and affective empathy. Specifically, within-DMN connectivity negatively associated with CU traits, but positively associated with cognitive empathy; and between DMN-SAL connectivity positively associated with CU traits, but negatively associated with both cognitive and affective empathy. However, joint models revealed little variance explained by CU traits and empathy overlapped. LIMITATIONS: The sample was cross-sectional collection with limited participants (n = 112) from the community that may not generalize to incarcerated adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate CU traits inversely associated with similar connectivity patterns as cognitive and affective empathy though prediction among constructs did not significantly overlap. Further investigation of these connections can inform a mechanistic understanding of empathy impairments in CU traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Empatia , Cognição , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Cobre , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Fam Med ; 54(8): 621-628, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Empathy is considered a prerequisite for a successful physician-patient relationship. The Jefferson Scale of Patient Perceptions of Physician Empathy (JSPPPE) is a regularly-used, patient-rated measure of physician empathy. The aim of this study is to translate and analyze the reliability and validity of the JSPPPE Spanish (Spain) version (Sp-JSPPPE) in primary care in order to use it with medical trainees. METHODS: After translation and back translation of the JSPPPE, 369 patients from 21 primary care physicians in Pamplona (Navarre, Spain) completed the Sp-JSPPPE, a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Spanish (Spain) Consultation and Relational Empathy Measure (Sp-CARE), and a question about overall satisfaction. We studied internal reliability (Cronbach's α and ordinal α), homogeneity (corrected item-total correlations), construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis [CFA]) and concurrent validity (Spearman's correlation) of Sp-JSPPPE. RESULTS: Cronbach's α and ordinal α were 0.870 and 0.919, respectively, for the Sp-JSPPPE, and all corrected item-total correlations exceeded the accepted cutoff of 0.30, demonstrating high internal reliability and homogeneity. CFA corroborated the one-factor structure proposed in the original version. The total score for the Sp-JSPPPE was significantly correlated with sp-CARE (Spearman's ϱ 0.651, P<.001) and with overall patient satisfaction (Spearman's ϱ 0.504, P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results support the reliability and validity of the Sp-JSPPPE in primary care. Sp-JSPPPE could be useful in empathy assessment of medical trainees, both graduate and postgraduate, in the Spanish context.


Assuntos
Empatia , Médicos , Humanos , Percepção , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha
11.
Fam Med ; 54(8): 640-643, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The issue of declining empathy and increasing burnout among residents is of concern for most programs. Numerous studies have shown these changes in both medical students and residents. However, the sequence of empathy decline and increasing burnout is unresolved and most studies have been cross sectional. This paper reports an individually-paired longitudinal analysis intended to clarify the sequence of these changes. METHODS: Beginning in 2017, 35 family medicine residents across all 3 years of training at a rural program completed an established empathy survey and a previously-validated single burnout question at the start of each year and at the midpoint. First, the empathy score for each resident was aligned with the next following burnout measure, and then the reverse sequence was followed, with burnout aligned with the following empathy score. RESULTS: With 125 responses to 133 survey opportunities, we saw a 94% response rate. Empathy scores across residency years decreased slightly and then improved almost to baseline. However, the analysis of variance test for quadratic trend was not significant. The burnout measure increased significantly over the residency years (J-T Statistic=4.89, P<.001). The correlation of the empathy score changing first showed a nonsignificant correlation (Rs=-.150, P=.133). The Spearman's ρ of the burnout measure changing first was significant (Rs=-.300, P=.006). CONCLUSIONS: In this group of residents, changes in burnout occurred before changes in empathy. If further research supports this finding, residency programs could focus more on efforts to address burnout to mitigate decreases in empathy.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Internato e Residência , Estudos Transversais , Empatia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
BMJ ; 378: o2288, 2022 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36137609

Assuntos
Empatia , Humanos
13.
Evol Psychol ; 20(3): 14747049221125105, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36154308

RESUMO

This study focuses on determinants underlying young persons" self-reported intentions to steal a small amount of money. From an evolutionary standpoint, theft is a frequency-dependent strategy that may have been favored because it gave individuals a reproductively-relevant advantage in the competition for scarce resources. Although human groups do not tolerate the act of stealing, theft is still very common. Our study is rooted in Robert Frank's theory of the moral commitment problem. Moral emotions such as anticipated guilt are devices designed by evolutionary forces to motivate cooperative behavior in situations entailing a commitment problem. However, the anticipation of guilt feelings can be circumvented by self-serving justifications, therefore increasing the likelihood to steal. A large region-wide sample of adolescents (N = 3694) is used to analyze whether anticipated moral guilt and self-serving justifications mediate the effects of empathy, fear sensitivity, and perceived peer disapproval in their relationship to intentions to steal. Several propositions are tested in a latent variable model within the framework of SEM. Visual scenarios depicting an opportunity to take a small amount of money from a stranger are used to elicit participants" self-reported intentions to steal. Results suggest that empathic concern and empathic perspective-taking, perceived peer disapproval, and fear sensitivity affect the likelihood of theft by influencing anticipated guilt and self-serving justifications that, in turn, respectively reduce and promote the likelihood of theft.


Assuntos
Intenção , Roubo , Adolescente , Emoções , Empatia , Culpa , Humanos , Princípios Morais
14.
Trials ; 23(1): 734, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that nurses have been more affected by the COVID-19 pandemic than any other group of hospital workers in terms of anxiety, depression, and burnout. Several clinical studies had previously demonstrated the effectiveness of mindfulness and compassion interventions in reducing burnout and emotional distress amongst healthcare professionals. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A parallel-group randomized controlled trial will assess the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a mindfulness and compassion-focused programme on frontline nurses who had been working during the COVID-19 pandemic. Seventy-two participants will be recruited from Verona University Hospital Trust (Veneto Region, north-east Italy) and will be divided equally into an intervention group and a control group. Primary outcome will be assessed using the Emotional Exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey (MBI-GS). Secondary outcomes will be measured by the Cynicism and Professional Efficacy subscales of the MBI-GS, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Impact of Stressful Events (IES-R), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), and the Forms of Self-Criticising/attacking and Self-Reassuring Scale (FSCRS). DISCUSSION: The study aims to fill a gap in the literature and present a scientifically validated intervention for those healthcare professionals most exposed to the stressful conditions of working during the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov; Identifier: NCT05308537.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , COVID-19 , Atenção Plena , Angústia Psicológica , Esgotamento Profissional/diagnóstico , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Empatia , Hospitais , Humanos , Atenção Plena/métodos , Pandemias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
PLoS Biol ; 20(9): e3001774, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067156

RESUMO

The fear of environmental doom (eco-anxiety) is a new and growing source of mental distress that could particularly affect the next generation of conservation biologists. With care and empathy, educators can help to prevent worsening the mental health of students.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Empatia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Biologia , Humanos , Estudantes
16.
Vet Rec ; 191(5): 192-193, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083077

RESUMO

Following a case in the UK where an imported rescue dog passed Brucella canis to other dogs and its foster carer, Josh Loeb and Arabella Gray investigate whether strengthened border restrictions are needed to protect the UK from this zoonotic disease and others like it.


Assuntos
Brucella canis , Brucelose , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Biosseguridade , Brucelose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Empatia
17.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 408-415, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073420

RESUMO

The Wondrous Goggles project is a multisensorial storytelling design strategy to explore the experiential world of people who are blind or have low vision, with the aim of raising awareness about inclusive places for work and play. The need for this exploratory storytelling design strategy is predominantly educational, as a tool to inform designers, policy makers, and technology developers of how people with blindness or low vision experience public spaces. The Wondrous Googles are specifically designed to facilitate an understanding of the navigational and spatial perception of people with low vision. During use, the Wondrous Goggles enable the user to gain a sense of limited vision and provide a vehicle for the wearer to embark upon a process of feeling, sensing, and reflecting while listening to the narration of someone who has navigated the space with low vision. Unlike other technologies that create virtual reality, or an augmented reality based on vision alone, the Wondrous Goggles create a multisensorial storytelling experience through the lived experience of a person with low vision, to gain an understanding of people's lived experiences in navigating public spaces, in order to create cultures of inclusion.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Baixa Visão , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Cegueira , Empatia , Humanos , Narração
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 717, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For quality-oriented evaluation of prenatal and obstetric care, it is important to systematically consider the perspective of the women receiving care in order to comprehensively assess and optimize quality in a woman-centered manner. Empathy and Shared Decision Making (SDM) are essential components of woman-centered midwifery care. The aim of the study was to analyze measurement invariance of the items of the Consultation and Relational Empathy (CARE) and Shared Decision Making-Questionnaire (SDM-Q-9) scales depending on the prenatal versus obstetric care setting. METHODS: One hundred fifty women retrospectively assessed aspects of woman-centered midwifery care in both prenatal and obstetric care setting. The birth of the child was a maximum of 12 months ago. A structural equation modelling approach was adopted to separate true effects from response shift (RS) effects depending on care setting. The latter were analyzed in terms of recalibration (changing women's internal measurement standards), Reprioritization (changing associations of items and construct) as well as Reconceptualization (redefining the target construct). RESULTS: A response shift model was identified for both assessments (pregnancy/birth: CFI = .96/.96; SRMR = .046/.051). At birth, both scales indicated lower quality of care compared with prenatal care (SDM-Q-9-M/CARE-8-M:|d| = 0.190/0.392). Although no reconceptualization is required for the items of both scales, RS effects are evident for individual items. Due to recalibration and reprioritization effects, the true differences in the items are partly underestimated (SDM-Q-9-M/CARE-8-M: 3/2 items) or overestimated (4/2 items). CONCLUSION: The structure of the constructs SDM and Empathy, indicating woman-centered midwifery care, are moderated by the care settings. To validly assess midwives' empathy and shared decision making from women's perspective, setting-dependent response shift effects have to be considered. The proven item-specific response effects contribute to a better understanding of construct characteristics in woman-centered care by midwives during pregnancy and childbirth.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Tocologia , Criança , Tomada de Decisões , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Participação do Paciente , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitaminas
20.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 243, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: General Practitioners' (GPs) professional empathy has been hypothesized to have substantial impact on their healthcare delivery and medication prescribing patterns. This study compares profiles of personal, professional, and antibiotic prescribing characteristics of GPs with high and low empathy. METHODS: We apply an extreme group approach to a unique combined set of survey and drug register data. The survey included questions about demographic, professional, and antibiotic prescribing characteristics, as well as the Jefferson Scale of Empathy for Health Professionals (JSE-HP) to assess self-reported physician empathy. It was sent to a stratified sample of 1,196 GPs comprising 30% of the Danish GP population of whom 464 (38.8%) GPs responded. GPs in the top and bottom decile of empathy levels were identified. All intra- and inter-profile descriptive statistics and differences were bootstrapped to estimate the variability and related confidence intervals.  RESULTS: 61% of GPs in the top decile of the empathy score were female. GPs in this decile reported the following person-centered factors as more important for their job satisfaction than the bottom decile: The Patient-physician relationship, interaction with colleagues, and intellectual stimulation. High-empathy scoring GPs prescribed significantly less penicillin than the low-empathy GPs. This was true for most penicillin subcategories. There were no significant differences in age, practice setting (urban vs. rural), practice type (partnership vs. single-handed), overall job satisfaction, or GP's value of prestige and economic profit for their job satisfaction. The intra profile variation index and confidence intervals show less prescribing uncertainty among GPs with high empathy. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that high empathy GPs may have different personal, professional, and antibiotic prescribing characteristics than low empathy GPs and have less variable empathy levels as a group. Furthermore, person-centered high empathy GPs on average seem to prescribe less penicillins than low empathy GPs.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Penicilinas , Autorrelato
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