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1.
Br Dent J ; 236(8): 611-614, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38671112

RESUMO

Gagging during dental work is a common concern for both dentists and patients and can prevent patients from seeking or completing essential and routine dental work, often leading to further problems in the future. This paper aims to describe and review the literature on an accessible alternative to other management options to treat a patient with an exaggerated gag reflex. The author compares the effectiveness of current available treatments from published, peer-reviewed sources. The effectiveness of the MAGIC (main amelioration of gagging indoctrination by communication) technique has not yet been clinically reviewed but the experiential success by the author is near 100%. Patients were explained the technique and talked through it during treatment, leading to almost all patients who have not been able to undergo any dental treatment coping with and completing treatment. As this technique has not been assessed under clinical research conditions, we only have experiential evidence of many patients continuing and completing dental treatment following use of the MAGIC technique. This has been used with patients who both have and have not self-reported that they have a hypersensitive gag reflex. This paper reviews a novel technique for the amelioration of a hypersensitive gag reflex that can easily be incorporated in the general dental practice to the benefit of both patient and dental professional.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Engasgo , Humanos , Engasgo/prevenção & controle , Relações Dentista-Paciente , Assistência Odontológica/métodos
2.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 60, 2024 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sensitive gag reflexes prevent dental patients from receiving appropriate treatment. Aromatherapy helps patients relax during dental procedures. However, the effect of aromatherapy on the gag reflex caused by the stimulation of the oral cavity is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate whether aromatherapy reduces gag reflexes during oral stimulation. METHODS: In this randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind, crossover study, the gag reflexes of 24 healthy individuals (12 females and 12 males; mean age: 34.3 ± 9.5 years) were quantified. A standard saliva ejector was slowly guided down the participant's throat to determine the maximum tolerance of the gag reflex, and the insertion distance was measured to quantify the gag reflex. All individuals participated in an aromatherapy session with peppermint essential oil and a placebo session with distilled water. The gag reflex was quantified before (baseline) and after each session. Another measurement was performed using nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation as a positive control. RESULTS: Gag reflex values significantly increased after aromatherapy with both peppermint essential oil and placebo compared to baseline values (paired t-test, P < 0.001 and P = 0.014, respectively). The gag reflex value also increased significantly during nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation (paired t-test, P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the increase rate of gag reflex values between the positive control and aromatherapy interventions, but it was significantly lower after the placebo intervention (repeated measures analysis of variance, P = 0.003; post-hoc test, P = 0.83 and P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Aromatherapy with peppermint essential oil has the potential for reducing gag reflex during dental procedures. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in the University hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry under the code UMIN000050616 (approved 17/03/2023).


Assuntos
Aromaterapia , Óleos Voláteis , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Aromaterapia/métodos , Estudos Cross-Over , Mentha piperita , Óxido Nitroso , Método Simples-Cego , Engasgo/fisiologia , Engasgo/prevenção & controle , Oxigênio
4.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 103(31): 2420-2426, 2023 Aug 22.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37599216

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effect of compound chamomile and lidocaine hydrochloride gel on oropharyngeal complications after the use of laryngeal mask airway with positive pressure ventilation. Methods: A total of 64 patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia using laryngeal mask airway (LMA) with positive pressure ventilation in Beijing Tongren Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University From January to March 2023 were prospectively selected and divided into two groups by the random number table method: normal saline group (n=32), with 18 males and 14 females, aged 28-64 (48.4±10.6) years, and the compound chamomile and lidocaine hydrochloride gel group (chamomile gel group, n=32), with 18 males and 14 females, aged 24-64 (46.3±10.8) years. Patients in both groups received total intravenous anesthesia. Before LMA placement, the front, shoulder and back of LMA were lubricated with normal saline and compound chamomile and lidocaine hydrochloride gel in the normal saline group and the chamomile gel group, respectively. The main outcome measure was the incidence of postoperative oropharyngeal mucosal inflammation at different time points after the removal of the laryngeal mask. Secondary outcome measures included oropharyngeal mucositis score, sore throat score, hoarse voice score, cough score and throat dryness score at different time points after LMA removal, the number of LMA insertion times, time of successful insertion and leakage pressure, as well as stress reactions such as cough and agitation before and after LMA removal, and adverse reactions such as tongue numbness and protective pharyngeal reflex limitation during recovery. Results: The incidence of oropharyngeal mucositis in the chamomile gel group was 25.0% (8/32), 31.3% (10/32), 28.1% (9/32) and 3.1% (1/32) at 0.5, 3, 6 and 24 h after LMA removal, respectively, which were lower than those of normal saline group [53.1% (17/32), 59.4% (19/32), 59.4% (19/32) and 21.9% (7/32)] (all P<0.05). The oropharyngeal mucositis scores of patients in the chamomile gel group were 0 (0, 0.8), 0 (0, 1.0), 0 (0, 1.0) and 0 (0, 0) respectively at 0.5, 3, 6 and 24 h after LMA removal, which were lower than those in the saline group [1.0 (1.0, 1.8), 1.0 (0, 2.0), 1.0 (0, 2.0) and 0 (0, 0)] (all P<0.05). The cough score of the patients in the chamomile gel group was 0 (0, 0) and 0 (0, 0) at 3, 6 h after LMA removal, which were lower than those of the normal saline group [(0, 0) and 0 (0, 0)] (both P<0.05). The throat dryness score of the patients in the chamomile gel group was 0 (0, 1.0) at 3 h after LMA removal, which was lower than that of the normal saline group [1.0 (0.3, 1.0)] (P=0.019). The time of successful LMA insertion in the chamomile gel group was 25.0 (20.3, 29.8) s, which was shorter than that in the saline group [29.0 (25.0, 32.0) s] (P=0.016). There were no significant differences in the number of LMA insertion, leakage pressure, postoperative sore throat and hoarse voice scores between the two groups (all P>0.05). Likewise, there were no stress reactions such as cough and agitation before and after LMA removal, and no adverse reactions such as tongue numbness and limited protective pharyngeal reflex during recovery. Conclusion: Compound chamomile and hydrochloride lidocaine gel can reduce the incidence of postoperative oropharyngeal mucositis, relieve the symptoms of postoperative oropharyngeal mucositis, pharyngeal dryness and cough, and improve the postoperative comfort of patients using the laryngeal mask airway with positive pressure ventilation.


Assuntos
Máscaras Laríngeas , Mucosite , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Engasgo , Camomila , Tosse , Hipestesia , Solução Salina , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Dor
5.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 99(6): 574-581, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37400061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Compare the occurrence of choking and gagging in infants subjected to three complementary feeding (CF) methods. METHODS: Randomized clinical trial with mother-infant pairs, allocated according to the following methods of CF: a) Parent-Led Weaning (PLW) - group control, b) Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS), and c) mixed (initially BLISS and if the infant presents a lack of interest or dissatisfaction, PLW), with the last two methods guided by the infant. Mothers received nutritional intervention on CF and prevention of choking and gagging according to the method at 5.5 months of age and remained in follow-up until 12 months. Frequencies of choking and gagging were collected by questionnaire at nine and 12 months. The comparison between groups was performed using the analysis of variance test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: 130 infants were followed, and 34 (26.2%) children presented choking between six and 12 months of age, 13 (30.2%) in PLW, 10 (22.2%) BLISS, and 11 (26.2%) mixed method, no significative difference between methods (p > 0.05). The choking was caused mainly by the semi-solid/solid consistency. Moreover, 100 (80%) infants aged from six to 12 months presented gagging and their characteristics were not statistically different among groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Infants following a baby-led feeding method that includes advice on minimizing choking risk do not seem more likely to choke than infants following traditional feeding practice that includes advice on minimizing choking risk.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Aleitamento Materno , Métodos de Alimentação/efeitos adversos , Engasgo , Alimentos Infantis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Desmame , Recém-Nascido
6.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 130(6): 287-294, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37279497

RESUMO

For this exploratory study, ALS patients and their partners/caregivers were interviewed to find out what problems they encounter when performing oral care. In addition, the tooth brushing procedure was recorded on video. Most mentioned by the six patients was that the performance of oral care is hampered by the loss of motor skills and by the gag reflex. They also mentioned various adjustments that would ease dental visits. Three of the four partners indicated that an instructional video would have additional value, and two partners said they sometimes felt insecure whether they were performing oral care properly. The five videos showed that there are major differences regarding tooth brushing duration, which surfaces are being brushed, and the brushing technique. This study shows that there are several ways in which oral care is performed in ALS patients. Furthermore, not all caregivers are aware of how oral care should be performed.


Assuntos
Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica , Humanos , Escovação Dentária , Emoções , Engasgo
8.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 76(5): 667-671, 2023 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36821854

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pediatric patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) commonly receive procedural sedation for comfort and to facilitate the procedure. EGD with procedural sedation carries the risk of several airway incidents and/or adverse events (AIAE). Topical pharyngeal anesthetics (TPAs) can blunt the airway reflexes and decrease the incidence of laryngospasm but has not been well studied with EGD under procedural sedation. We aimed to study the effect of adding a TPA to propofol-based sedation on the rate of AIAE. METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective, observational cohort study. We compare AIAE rates (coughing, gagging, apnea, airway obstruction, and laryngospasm) in children who received TPA as part of their propofol-based procedural sedation for EGD with those who did not receive TPA. RESULTS: In 2021, 73 patients received TPA as part of the procedural sedation for EGD and 123 did not. The overall rate of AIAE was high with 75 (38%) patients experiencing 1 or more AIAE. Patients who received benzocaine spray experienced more AIAE than the control group [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.34; P = 0.037]. Coughing, gagging, apnea with desaturation rates, and laryngospasm were similar in both groups (coughing aOR = 1.01; 95% CI: 0.91-1.13; P = 0.814; gagging aOR = 1.01; 95% CI: 0.91-1.13; P = 0.814; apnea aOR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.95-1.04; P = 0.688; laryngospasm OR = 1.01; 95% CI: 0.95-1.07; P = 0.71). The rate of airway obstruction requiring jaw thrust was higher in the benzocaine group but did not reach statistical significance (aOR = 1.11; 95% CI: 0.97-1.26; P = 0.133). CONCLUSION: The use of topical pharyngeal benzocaine in children undergoing EGD with propofol-based sedation is associated with a higher overall AIAE rate. Most of the AIAE were mild incidents and only 7 patients experienced true adverse events.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Anestesia , Laringismo , Propofol , Humanos , Criança , Propofol/efeitos adversos , Benzocaína , Laringismo/prevenção & controle , Laringismo/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Engasgo , Apneia/induzido quimicamente , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Anestesia/métodos , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Sedação Consciente , Hipnóticos e Sedativos
9.
J Oral Rehabil ; 50(5): 376-382, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36794577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gag reflex may occur in patients of all ages and often considered having a multifactorial aetiology. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and influencing factors of gag reflex in Turkish children aged 7-14 years in the dental setting. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 320 children aged between 7 and 14 years. First, an anamnesis form which include sosyodemographic status, monthly level of income, children past medical and dental experiences was filled by mothers. Children's fear levels were evaluated using the Dental Subscale of Children's Fear Survey Schedule(CFSS-DS) while mother's anxiety levels using the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale(MDAS). The revised dentist section of gagging problem assessment questionnaire (GPA-R-de) was used for both children and mothers. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS program. RESULTS: The prevalence of gag reflex among children was 34.1%, among mothers was 20.3%. The association between child and mother gagging was found statistically significant (χ2  = 53.121, p < 0.001). When the mother of the child gagged, the risk of child gagging increases 6.83 times (p < 0.001). Higher CFSS-DS scores of children increase risk of gagging (OR = 1.052, p = 0.023). Children who were previously treated mostly in public hospitals significantly more likely to gag compared with private dental clinics (OR = 10.990, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: It was concluded that negative past dental experiences, previous dental treatments with local anaesthesia, history of hospital admission, number and place of previous dental visits, dental fear level of children, and low education level and gagging of mother have an influence on the gagging of children.


Assuntos
Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico , Engasgo , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Indian Prosthodont Soc ; 22(2): 188-194, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36511030

RESUMO

Aims: The aim of this study is to see if microcurrent electrical stimulation on two acupoints, auricular and Hegus, can help patients prevent their gag reflex. Settings and Design: This was an in vivo cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients were randomly assigned to three groups: A, B, or C, of ten patients present in each group. Group A and Group B undergone electroacupuncture (microcurrent electrical stimulation) using electroacupuncture device on auricular point and Hegus point (Li 4), respectively, for 1 min and Group C formed the placebo group, point Shou San Li (Li 10). The gag severity index and the gag prevention index were used to measure the gag reflex, which was done in two steps. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA) version 24 software was used for statistical analysis. Paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance test, post hoc Bonferroni test was used to analyse and compare the data. Results: It was found that Point A and Point B were significantly effective in reducing the severity of gag reflex. Point C demonstrated insignificant results. In addition, Point B (Hegus [Li4]) is more effective than Point A (auricular) in controlling the gag reflex in patients within the set age group of 20-70 years of age. Conclusions: Microcurrent electrical stimulation is a useful adjuvant in the treatment of unfavorable gag reflexes during routine dental procedures. Point Hegus and point auricular acupuncture are both useful in decreasing the severity of gag reflex, with point Hegus being more effective than point auricular.


Assuntos
Acupuntura Auricular , Engasgo , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Engasgo/prevenção & controle , Engasgo/fisiologia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Estimulação Elétrica
11.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 22(3): 101733, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of laser acupuncture on controlling gag reflexes by stimulating pericardium 6 (PC6) and conception vessel 24 (CV24) acupuncture points in patients in need of taking dental impressions. METHODS: In this randomized controlled double-blinded clinical trial study, in 30 patients aged 20-60 years, alginate impressions were taken in the prosthetic and orthodontic clinic at the Dental School of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. The participants were randomly divided into 2 groups. The intervention and the control group each included 15 subjects. Both groups were in the exact status of age, gender, and indexes, including the Gagging Severity Index (GSI), Subjective Severity of Gag Reflex (SSGR), Vomiting Number (VN), as well as the Improvement Index, measured. Both groups underwent alginate impressions pre-and postintervention. PC6 and CV24 acupuncture points were irradiated for 4 seconds in contact mode with a laser prob pressure on the skin that was slightly bleached without causing pain for the patient. The laser energy was 0.8 J with an energy density of 2.854 J/cm2 at the surface of the probe (spot size, 0.28 cm2). The total radiation dose was 45.7 J/cm2, and the power density was 714.2 w/cm2. RESULTS: The findings showed that SSGR and VN significantly improved (P ≤ .05) in the intervention group compared to the control group, but GSI was higher in the intervention group. In the intragroups analysis for the comparison between before and after the intervention, it was found that although the average GSI was elevated after the intervention rather than before, the difference was insignificant (P = .083). Also, after the intervention, the average SSGR was significantly reduced (P< .001), and VN was insignificantly lessened (P = .334). Moreover, it was observed after the intervention rather than before that GSI was significantly increased (P< .001), whereas SSGR significantly declined (P< .001), and VN meaningfully decreased (P = .001). The observations demonstrated that the Improvement Index status was significantly better in the intervention group compared to the control group (P = .002). CONCLUSION: This study found that the application of laser acupuncture on PC6 and CV24 acupuncture points might be effective in reducing the gag reflex and can be used as a noninvasive technique while taking dental impressions.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Engasgo , Pontos de Acupuntura , Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Alginatos , Engasgo/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lasers
14.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 96(4): 603-611.e0, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Aerosol-generating procedures have become an important healthcare issue during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic because the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus can be transmitted through aerosols. We aimed to characterize aerosol and droplet generation in GI endoscopy, where there is little evidence. METHODS: This prospective observational study included 36 patients undergoing routine peroral gastroscopy (POG), 11 undergoing transnasal endoscopy (TNE), and 48 undergoing lower GI (LGI) endoscopy. Particle counters took measurements near the appropriate orifice (2 models were used with diameter ranges of .3-25 µm and 20-3000 µm). Quantitative analysis was performed by recording specific events and subtracting background particles. RESULTS: POG produced 1.96 times the level of background particles (P < .001) and TNE produced 2.00 times (P < .001), but a direct comparison showed POG produced 2.00 times more particles than TNE. LGI procedures produced significant particle counts (P < .001) with 2.4 times greater production per procedure than POG but only .63 times production per minute. Events that were significant relative to the room background particle count were POG, with throat spray (150.0 times, P < .001), esophageal extubation (37.5 times, P < .001), and coughing or gagging (25.8 times, P < .01); TNE, with nasal spray (40.1 times, P < .001), nasal extubation (32.0 times, P < .01), and coughing or gagging (20.0, P < .01); and LGI procedures, with rectal intubation (9.9 times, P < .05), rectal extubation (27.2 times, P < .01), application of abdominal pressure (9.6 times, P < .05), and rectal insufflation or retroflexion (7.7 times, P < .01). These all produced particle counts larger than or comparable with volitional cough. CONCLUSIONS: GI endoscopy performed through the mouth, nose, or rectum generates significant quantities of aerosols and droplets. Because the infectivity of procedures is not established, we therefore suggest adequate personal protective equipment is used for all GI endoscopy where there is a high population prevalence of COVID-19. Avoiding throat and nasal spray would significantly reduce particles generated from upper GI procedures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/métodos , Engasgo , Humanos , Sprays Nasais , Aerossóis e Gotículas Respiratórios
15.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(3): 103468, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429850

RESUMO

The glossopharyngeal nerve block (GNB) was evaluated for pain control together with the magnitude of obtunded gag reflex as a useful clinical sign of GNB. METHODS: 400 patients scheduled for oropharyngeal surgery were randomly allocated into 2 groups (200 patients in each group), Group1 patients received bilateral GNB with 0.125% bupivacaine, 0.5 xylocaine, and 4 mg dexamethasone, while Group 2 patients were enrolled as a control group. Throat pain was evaluated using the visual analog scale at 0.5, 8, and 24 h after surgery, and the degree of gag reflex response was evaluated at the same time points. RESULTS: Postoperative pain scores at rest and during swallowing were significantly lower in Group 1 versus Group 2. The analgesic efficacy of GNB was intensely interrelated with the magnitude of the obtunded gag reflex (P 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: GNB is beneficial for pain control in oropharyngeal surgery. An obtunded gag reflex could be a useful clinical sign for a successful GNB analgesic outcome.


Assuntos
Bupivacaína , Bloqueio Nervoso , Analgésicos , Anestésicos Locais , Método Duplo-Cego , Engasgo , Nervo Glossofaríngeo , Humanos , Manejo da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle
16.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 132(3): 815-823, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35050793

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, people with MS often do not have "typical" anatomical risk factors (i.e., nonobese and female predominance). Accordingly, nonanatomical factors such as impaired upper-airway muscle function may be particularly important for OSA pathogenesis in MS. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate genioglossus (largest upper-airway dilator muscle) reflex responses to brief pulses of upper-airway negative pressure in people with OSA and MS. Eleven people with MS and OSA and 10 OSA controls without MS matched for age, sex, and OSA severity were fitted with a nasal mask, pneumotachograph, choanal and epiglottic pressure sensors, and intramuscular electrodes into genioglossus. Approximately 60 brief (250 ms) negative pressure pulses (approximately -12 cmH2O mask pressure) were delivered every 2-6 breaths at random during quiet nasal breathing during wakefulness to determine genioglossus electromyogram (EMGgg) reflex responses (timing, amplitude, and morphology). Where available, recent clinical MRI brain scans were evaluated for the number, size, and location of brainstem lesions in the group with MS. When present, genioglossus reflex excitation responses were similar between MS participants and controls (e.g., peak excitation amplitude = 229 ± 85% vs. 282 ± 98% baseline, P = 0.17). However, ∼30% of people with MS had either an abnormal (predominantly inhibition) or no protective excitation reflex. Participants with MS without a reflex had multiple brainstem lesions including in the hypoglossal motor nucleus which may impair sensory processing and/or efferent output. Impaired pharyngeal reflex function may be an important contributor to OSA pathogenesis for a proportion of people with MS.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study investigated the function of an important reflex that helps protect the upper airway from closing during negative (suction) pressure in people with and without multiple sclerosis (MS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We found that ∼30% of people with MS had either no protective reflex or an abnormal reflex response. These findings indicate that impaired upper-airway reflex function may be an important contributor to OSA for a substantial proportion of people with MS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Engasgo , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos Faríngeos/fisiologia , Reflexo/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia
17.
Folia Phoniatr Logop ; 74(5): 352-363, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate retrospectively the incidence of complications during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) in 5,680 examinations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 5,680 patients were evaluated at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Audiology and Phoniatrics of Pisa University Hospital between January 2014 and December 2018, involving both inpatients and outpatients. Most common comorbidities included neurological pathologies such as stroke (11.8%), neurodegenerative diseases (28.9%) and a history of previous head and neck surgery (24.6%). The evaluation was conducted by clinicians with experience in swallowing for a minimum of 10 years with the assistance of one or more speech-language pathologists. RESULTS: In all patients studied the endoscope insertion was tolerated, and it was possible to visualize the pharyngolaryngeal structures. Three subjects refused to undergo the procedure after being informed regarding the protocol and were therefore not included in this study. Most patients reported discomfort (70.1%) and gagging (20.8%). In a minority of patients complications were recorded, such as anterior epistaxis (0.1%), posterior epistaxis (0.02%), vasovagal crises (0.08%) and laryngospasm (0.04%). Especially laryngospasm was recorded in patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Multivariate binary logistic regression showed that discomfort (OR 9.944; CI 7.643-12.937), chronic gastrointestinal diseases (OR 2.003; CI 1.518-2.644), neurodegenerative diseases (OR 1.550; CI 1.302-1.846) and brain tumors (OR 1.577; CI 1.179-2.111) were risk factors associated with minor complications. CONCLUSIONS: FEES proved to be easy to perform, well tolerated by the patients and cost-effective. It can be performed at the patient's bedside, and it is characterized by a low rate of complications. As a matter of fact, normally only discomfort, gagging and/or vomiting are reported. Complications occurred only rarely, such as anterior or posterior epistaxis episodes or vasovagal crises, but these are still easily managed. Exceptionally, more severe complications are reported: adverse drug reactions to substances such as blue dye (methylene blue) and local anesthetics (not used in our protocol), and laryngospasm.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Laringismo , Anestésicos Locais , Deglutição , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Endoscópios/efeitos adversos , Epistaxe/complicações , Engasgo , Humanos , Laringismo/complicações , Azul de Metileno , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 45(1): 18-24, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The standard oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy procedure is performed with a single endoscopist (SE). Nurse-assisted (NA) oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopies have not yet been studied. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an NA endoscopy compared to an SE endoscopy. METHODS: A prospective, single-center, randomized trial, in which 500 adult patients were divided into two groups. In the first group, patients underwent an endoscopy with an SE. In the second group, the endoscopy was performed with an NA. The ease of the procedure (scores 1-4; 1 difficult, 2 satisfactory, 3 easy, 4 veryeasy), evaluation of patient satisfaction (scores 1-4; 1 uncomfortable, 2 satisfactory, 3 comfortable, 4 verycomfortable), total time of the procedure and vocal cord observation were determined as quality indicators. RESULTS: Mean patient satisfaction scores in groups 1 and 2 were 2.98±0.79 and 3.11±0.78, respectively (p=0.043), with uncomfortable ratings in 5.2% vs 4%, satisfactory in 16.8% vs 13.2%, comfortable in 53.2% vs 50.4%, and very comfortable in 24.8% vs 32.4% of patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Retching rates during the procedure were 54.4% and 45.2% (p=0.040) in groups 1 and 2, respectively. No differences were seen in vocal cord observation (54.4% vs 56.0%), total procedure time (2.35±1.56 vs 2.41±1.48min) and easy score (3.26±0.603 vs 3.25±0.64) in groups 1 and 2 for the procedures. Very easy, easy, satisfactory, and difficult ratings were given by 33.6% vs 34.8%, 60.4% vs 56.4%, 4.8% vs 7.6% and 1.2% vs 1.2% of groups 1 and 2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the conventional method, the assisted endoscopic technique provides more comfort and less gag reflex without increasing the processing time or difficulty of performing the procedure.


Assuntos
Duodenoscopia/métodos , Esofagoscopia/métodos , Gastroscopia/métodos , Satisfação do Paciente , Duodenoscopia/efeitos adversos , Esofagoscopia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Engasgo/fisiologia , Gastroscopia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Br J Nutr ; 128(6): 1190-1199, 2022 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657644

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study compared feeding difficulties in children aged 2-5 years fed a cows' milk elimination diet due to food allergy with a control group on an unrestricted diet. All data were obtained online. Specific questionnaires evaluated three types of feeding difficulties: avoidant eating, picky eating and feeding problems. The median scores of feeding difficulties in the elimination diet (n 146) and control (n 109) groups were, respectively: picky eating (31 v. 27; P = 0·148), avoidant eating (3 v. 3; P = 0·508) and feeding problems (38 v. 34, P = 0·032). Picky eating was more frequent in the elimination diet (35·4 %) than in the controls (23·3 %; P = 0·042), but no difference was observed for avoidant eating (23·9 % v. 20·4 %, P = 0·508) and feeding problems (32·1 % v. 28·4 %, P = 0·541). Picky eating was associated with lower values of weight-for-age z-scores in both groups. Multivariate analyses identified associations of the three feeding difficulties with previous food refusal and/or inappetence in the elimination diet group. Current constipation and anticipatory gagging were associated with feeding difficulties in both groups. In conclusion, children on an elimination diet presented higher frequency of picky eating and higher scores of feeding problems. Picky eating was associated with lower values of weight-for-age z-scores. Food refusal and/or inappetence as clinical manifestations of food allergy were associated with feeding difficulties at the moment of the survey. Current constipation and anticipatory gagging were associated with picky eating, avoidant eating and feeding problems.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Leite , Dieta de Eliminação , Estudos Transversais , Engasgo , Constipação Intestinal , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 46(6): 6-10, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of Intellectual color game, Audio-Visual and Stress Ball distraction methods on gagging and anxiety management in children. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred eight children, between 5 and 12 years of age, with gag reflex score ranging from G1 to G3 requiring upper and lower alginate impressions for diagnostic purpose were included in the study. The baseline gagging score (G0) and baseline anxiety (A0) was recorded for included children. Then upper and lower impressions were attempted with unflavored alginate by employing one of the selected distraction methods (Intellectual Color Game, Audio-Visual, Stress-Ball) by randomization protocol. The anxiety and gag reflex scores were recorded after impression procedure and analyzed statistically. The p value set was p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: Children in stress ball group showed higher significant change in the pre and post gagging scores when compared to audio visual and intellectual color game groups. While assessing anxiety scores, all the three groups showed significant change between the pre and post anxiety scores. CONCLUSION: Intellectual Color Game, Audio-Visual and Stress-Ball distraction methods can be recommended as implicit tools for gagging and anxiety management in children.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Engasgo , Humanos , Criança , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Alginatos
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