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1.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 30(3): 23, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833046

RESUMO

The Defining Issues Test 2 (DIT-2) and Engineering Ethical Reasoning Instrument (EERI) are designed to measure ethical reasoning of general (DIT-2) and engineering-student (EERI) populations. These tools-and the DIT-2 especially-have gained wide usage for assessing the ethical reasoning of undergraduate students. This paper reports on a research study in which the ethical reasoning of first-year undergraduate engineering students at multiple universities was assessed with both of these tools. In addition to these two instruments, students were also asked to create personal concept maps of the phrase "ethical decision-making." It was hypothesized that students whose instrument scores reflected more postconventional levels of moral development and more sophisticated ethical reasoning skills would likewise have richer, more detailed concept maps of ethical decision-making, reflecting their deeper levels of understanding of this topic and the complex of related concepts. In fact, there was no significant correlation between the instrument scores and concept map scoring, suggesting that the way first-year students conceptualize ethical decision making does not predict the way they behave when performing scenario-based ethical reasoning (perhaps more situated). This disparity indicates a need to more precisely quantify engineering ethical reasoning and decision making, if we wish to inform assessment outcomes using the results of such quantitative analyses.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Avaliação Educacional , Engenharia , Estudantes , Humanos , Engenharia/ética , Engenharia/educação , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Universidades , Pensamento , Princípios Morais , Desenvolvimento Moral , Masculino , Feminino , Ética Profissional/educação , Resolução de Problemas/ética
3.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0300036, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843145

RESUMO

With the continuous development of large-scale engineering projects such as construction projects, relief support, and large-scale relocation in various countries, engineering logistics has attracted much attention. This paper addresses a multimodal material route planning problem (MMRPP), which considers the transportation of engineering material from suppliers to the work zones using multiple transport modes. Due to the overall relevance and technical complexity of engineering logistics, we introduce the key processes at work zones to generate a transport solution, which is more realistic for various real-life applications. We propose a multi-objective multimodal transport route planning model that minimizes the total transport cost and the total transport time. The model by using the ε - constraint method that transforms the objective function of minimizing total transportation cost into a constraint, resulting in obtaining pareto optimal solutions. This method makes up for the lack of existing research on the combination of both engineering logistics and multimodal transportation, after which the feasibility of the model and algorithm is verified by examples. The results show that the model solution with the introduction of the key processes at work zones produces more time-efficient and less time-consuming route planning results, and that the results obtained using the ε - constraint method are more reliable than the traditional methods for solving multi-objective planning problems and are more in line with the decision maker's needs.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Modelos Teóricos , Meios de Transporte , Meios de Transporte/métodos , Engenharia/métodos , Humanos , Local de Trabalho
4.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 20(6): e1012166, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843155

RESUMO

Despite advances and social progress, the exclusion of diverse groups in academia, especially science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, across the US and Europe persists, resulting in the underrepresentation of diverse people in higher education. There is extensive literature about theory, observation, and evidence-based practices that can help create a more equitable, inclusive, and diverse learning environment. In this article, we propose the implementation of a Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Justice (DEIJ) journal club as a strategic initiative to foster education and promote action towards making academia a more equitable institution. By creating a space for people to engage with DEIJ theories* and strategize ways to improve their learning environment, we hope to normalize the practice and importance of analyzing academia through an equity lens. Guided by restorative justice principles, we offer 10 recommendations for fostering community cohesion through education and mutual understanding. This approach underscores the importance of appropriate action and self-education in the journey toward a more diverse, equitable, inclusive, and just academic environment. *Authors' note: We understand that "DEIJ" is a multidisciplinary organizational framework that relies on numerous fields of study, including history, sociology, philosophy, and more. We use this term to refer to these different fields of study for brevity purposes.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Justiça Social , Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Engenharia/educação , Ciência/educação , Matemática/educação , Universidades , Diversidade, Equidade, Inclusão
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13364, 2024 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862597

RESUMO

This study aims to take higher-education students as examples to understand and compare artistic and engineering mindsets in creative processes using EEG. Fifteen Master of Fine Arts (MFA) visual arts and fifteen Master of Engineering (MEng) design engineering students were recruited and asked to complete alternative uses tasks wearing an EEG headset. The results revealed that (1) the engineering-mindset students responded to creative ideas faster than artistic-mindset students. (2) Although in creative processes both artistic- and engineering-mindset students showed Theta, Alpha, and Beta wave activity, the active brain areas are slightly different. The active brain areas of artistic-mindset students in creative processes are mainly in the frontal and occipital lobes; while the whole brain (frontal, oriental, temporal, and occipital lobes) was active in creative processes of engineering-mindset students. (3) During the whole creative process, the brain active level of artistic-mindset students was higher than that of engineering-mindset students. The results of this study fills gaps in existing research where only active brain areas and band waves were compared between artistic- and engineering-mindset students in creative processes. For quick thinking in terms of fluency of generating creative ideas, engineering students have an advantage in comparison to those from the visual arts. Also, the study provided more evidence that mindset can affect the active levels of the brain areas. Finally, this study provides educators with more insights on how to stimulate students' creative ability.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Eletroencefalografia , Engenharia , Estudantes , Humanos , Engenharia/educação , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Adulto , Arte
6.
Technol Cult ; 65(2): 651-666, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38766965

RESUMO

This review essay examines five Spanish-language books published in Latin America on the emergence of engineering in the region. Focusing on a period from roughly 1850 to 1970, these works share themes of foreigners and foreign education, nation-state construction, and social conceptions of prestige. This research suggests that throughout Latin America foreign educators and models were prominent in early engineering programs and enterprises. However, many historians associate the growth of engineering, especially civil engineering, with increasing state consolidation and economic intervention. As social perceptions of the value of professional engineering changed, domestic engineers increasingly became important planners and mediators. Some engineers became state leaders. By contextualizing these works with other scholarship on the history of engineering, this review essay highlights new insights while suggesting the need for greater attention to gender, race, and labor; comparisons between developments in Latin America, Africa, and Asia; and more research on private-sector engineers.


Assuntos
Livros , Engenharia , América Latina , História do Século XX , Engenharia/história , Livros/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Idioma/história
7.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0299150, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758949

RESUMO

The capitalisation on and transfer of technological, engineering and scientific knowledge associated with empirical know-how is an important issue for the sustainability and development of manufacturing. Indeed, certain sectors of industry are facing the increasing ageing of the labour force, recruitment difficulties and high staff turnover, leading to a loss of knowledge and know-how. In a context of numerical and digital transition and the migration of processes to industry 4.0, one of major challenges manufacturers face today is their capacity to build intelligent platforms for acquiring, storing and transferring their know-how and knowledge. It is crucial to create new media and tools for staff training and development capable of capturing knowledge and reusing it to create a project history through expertise and data collection. This paper presents the methodology and guidelines for implementing electronic knowledge books (eK-Books), along with their uses. The eK-Book is a semantic web-based hypertext medium (channel) allowing stakeholders to capitalise on, structure and transfer knowledge by using concept maps, process maps, influence graphs, downloadable documents, web pages and hypermedia knowledge sheets. They are intended for engineers, expert or novice technicians, manufacturers, sector coordinators and plant managers, as well as trainers and learners. They are usable and manageable in all types of environments and with different levels of accessibility. This paper highlights (1) the transfer knowledge capacity of eK-Books and (2) their usability in two agri-food sectors namely (1) the cheese sector with protected designation of origin (PDO) and protected geographical indication (PGI), and (2) the butchery and cold meat sectors.


Assuntos
Livros , Conhecimento , Humanos , Engenharia/educação , Tecnologia , Internet
8.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 23(2): ar27, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38805587

RESUMO

Mentorship has been widely recognized as an effective means to promote student learning and engagement in undergraduate research experiences. However, little work exists for understanding different mentors' perceived approaches to mentorship, including mentorship of students from backgrounds and educational trajectories not well represented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Transfer students, in particular, face unique trajectories in their pursuit of research opportunities, yet few studies investigate how mentors describe their approaches to supporting these students. Using semistructured interviews, this study examines how mentors approach mentoring students from diverse backgrounds as research trainees, with an emphasis on transfer students. First, using phenomenography as an analytical approach, we identified four categories describing variations in how mentors reflected upon or accounted for the transfer student identity in their approaches. We find that research mentors vary in their understanding and exposure to the transfer student identity and may have preconceived notions of the transfer student experience. Second, we present vignettes to illustrate how mentors' approaches to the transfer student identity may relate or diverge from their general approaches to mentoring students from different backgrounds and identities. The emerging findings have implications for developing effective mentorship strategies and training mentors to support transfer students.


Assuntos
Engenharia , Matemática , Tutoria , Mentores , Ciência , Estudantes , Tecnologia , Humanos , Matemática/educação , Engenharia/educação , Tecnologia/educação , Ciência/educação , Feminino , Masculino , Pesquisa/educação
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2023): 20240149, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38808447

RESUMO

Developing robust professional networks can help shape the trajectories of early career scientists. Yet, historical inequities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields make access to these networks highly variable across academic programmes, and senior academics often have little time for mentoring. Here, we illustrate the success of a virtual Laboratory Meeting Programme (LaMP). In this programme, we matched students (mentees) with a more experienced scientist (mentors) from a research group. The mentees then attended the mentors' laboratory meetings during the academic year with two laboratory meetings specifically dedicated to the mentee's professional development. Survey results indicate that mentees expanded their knowledge of the hidden curriculum as well as their professional network, while only requiring a few extra hours of their mentor's time over eight months. In addition, host laboratories benefitted from mentees sharing new perspectives and knowledge in laboratory meetings. Diversity of the mentees was significantly higher than the mentors, suggesting that the programme increased the participation of traditionally under-represented groups. Finally, we found that providing a stipend was very important to many mentees. We conclude that virtual LaMPs can be an inclusive and cost-effective way to foster trainee development and increase diversity within STEM fields with little additional time commitment.


Assuntos
Engenharia , Mentores , Ciência , Tecnologia , Engenharia/educação , Humanos , Ciência/educação , Laboratórios , Matemática , Tutoria
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(24): 35519-35552, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730219

RESUMO

Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is a valuable material that can be recycled and reused in road engineering to reduce environmental impact, resource utilization, and economic costs. However, the application of RAP in road engineering presents both opportunities and challenges. This study visually analyzes the knowledge background, research status, and latest knowledge structure of literature related to RAP using scientific metric methods such as VOSviewer and Citespace. The Web of Science (WoS) core collection database identified 2963 research publications from 2000 to 2022. Collaborative networks between highly cited references, journals, authors, academic institutions, countries, and funding organizations are analyzed in this study, along with a co-occurrence analysis of keywords for the RAP research publications. Results showed that the USA has long been a leader in RAP research, China surpassed the USA in annual publication output in 2019, increasing from 2 publications in 2002 to 177 publications in 2022, and has made significant investments in technological aspects. Chang'an University ranked first in total publication output (131 publications, 4.4%). Current major research themes include road performance, recycling technology, regeneration mechanisms, and the life cycle assessment of RAP. In addition, based on cluster analysis of keywords, text content analysis, and SWOT analysis, this study also discusses RAP's challenges and future development directions in road engineering. These findings provide scholars with valuable information to gain insight into technological advances and challenges in the field of RAP.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Engenharia , Hidrocarbonetos , Materiais de Construção , Reciclagem
11.
Nature ; 629(8014): 994-995, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802585
12.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 30(3): 16, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717564

RESUMO

Australia II became the first foreign yacht to win the America's Cup in 1983. The boat had a revolutionary wing keel and a better underwater hull form. In official documents, Ben Lexcen is credited with the design. He is also listed as the sole inventor of the wing keel in a patent application submitted on February 5, 1982. However, as reported in New York Times, Sydney Morning Herald, and Professional Boatbuilder, the wing keel was in fact designed by engineer Peter van Oossanen at the Netherlands Ship Model Basin in Wageningen, assisted by Dr. Joop Slooff at the National Aerospace Laboratory in Amsterdam. Based on telexes, letters, drawings, and other documents preserved in his personal archive, this paper presents van Oossanen's account of how the revolutionary wing keel was designed. This is followed by an ethical analysis by Martin Peterson, in which he applies the American NSPE and Dutch KIVI codes of ethics to the information provided by van Oossanen. The NSPE and KIVI codes give conflicting advice about the case, and it is not obvious which document is most relevant. This impasse is resolved by applying a method of applied ethics in which similarity-based reasoning is extended to cases that are not fully similar. The key idea, presented in Peterson's book The Ethics of Technology (Peterson, The ethics of technology: A geometric analysis of five moral principles, Oxford University Press, 2017), is to use moral paradigm cases as reference points for constructing a "moral map".


Assuntos
Engenharia , Engenharia/ética , Humanos , Códigos de Ética/história , Análise Ética , Países Baixos , Desenho de Equipamento/ética , Navios , Austrália , Invenções/ética , Invenções/história
13.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 23(2): ar23, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728228

RESUMO

In response to unwaveringly high attrition from STEM pathways, STEM Intervention Programs (SIPs) support STEM students in effort to increase retention. Using mixed methods (survey and focus groups), we studied students at one university who were either supported or unsupported by SIPs to understand how students may differ in experiences believed to contribute to STEM persistence. We evaluated: sense of belonging, scientific self-efficacy, scientific community values, scientific identity, and STEM involvement. The enrollment status of students two and a half years postsurvey was also tracked. SIP students reported significantly higher science identity and sense of belonging and were more involved in STEM-related activities than counterparts unsupported by SIPs. Differences in these measures were correlated with race/ethnicity, college generation status, and age. Notably, SIP students had higher odds of persisting in STEM than students not supported by SIPs. Focus group data provide additional meaning to the measured survey constructs and revealed nuanced qualitative differences between SIP and non-SIP student experiences. Overall, being involved in a SIP at our institution trends positively with theoretical models that explain STEM student persistence. SIPs have the potential to provide and/or facilitate meaningful and critical support, and students without those intentional supports may be left behind.


Assuntos
Ciência , Estudantes , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Ciência/educação , Adulto Jovem , Grupos Focais , Adulto , Universidades , Tecnologia/educação , Engenharia/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Autoeficácia , Matemática/educação
14.
Environ Res ; 254: 119164, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38762005

RESUMO

The necessity for global engineering and technological solutions to address rural environmental challenges is paramount, particularly in improving rural waste treatment and infrastructure. This study presents a comprehensive quantitative analysis of 3901 SCI/SSCI and 3818 Chinese CSCD papers, spanning from 1989 to 2021, using tools like Derwent Data Analyzer and VOSviewer. Our key findings reveal a significant evolution in research focus, including a 716.67% increase in global publications from 1995 to 2008 and a 154.76% surge from 2015 to 2021, highlighting a growing research interest with technological hotspots in rural revitalization engineering and agricultural waste recycling. China and the USA are pivotal, contributing 784 and 714 publications respectively. Prominent institutions such as the Chinese Academy of Sciences play a crucial role, particularly in fecal waste treatment technology. These insights advocate for enhanced policy development and practical implementations to foster inclusive and sustainable rural environments globally.


Assuntos
População Rural , Engenharia , Reciclagem , China , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Tecnologia , Agricultura/métodos
15.
Dev Psychol ; 60(6): 1109-1130, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695824

RESUMO

Gender stereotypes about science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) are salient for children and adolescents and contribute to achievement-related disparities and inequalities in STEM participation. However, few studies have used a longitudinal design to examine changes in gender stereotypes across a range of STEM fields. In a large, preregistered study, we examined the developmental trajectories of two gender stereotypes (involving interest and ability) in four STEM fields across three time points within a calendar year, starting in Grades 2-8. The diverse sample included 803 students ages 7-15 years old at the start of the study (50% girls; 8.5% Asian, 6.0% Black, 25.5% Hispanic/Latinx, 43.7% White, and 16.3% other). Multilevel growth modeling was used to examine developmental trajectories in students' stereotypes for four STEM fields (math, science, computer science, and engineering) while considering both gender and grade level. We found that different STEM disciplines displayed different developmental patterns: Math ability and science interest stereotypes more strongly favored girls over the year among elementary school participants, whereas computer science stereotypes less strongly favored boys over time, and engineering stereotypes (which largely favored boys) were stable across time. The results highlight that the development of stereotypes is not the same for all STEM fields as well as the need to understand the complexity and specificity of developmental change across fields and types of stereotypes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Engenharia , Matemática , Ciência , Estereotipagem , Tecnologia , Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Masculino , Adolescente , Estudos Longitudinais , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Technol Cult ; 65(2): 623-650, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38766964

RESUMO

Focusing on Argentina's sugarcane province of Tucumán from 1870 to 1910, this article examines the processes of engineering professionalization in Argentina and its application to pressing environmental problems. Engineers were central to the processes through which elites in Latin America sought to attract foreign investment in agriculture, integrate their countries into the global economy, and provide expertise that enabled states to advance a techno-scientific imaginary based on liberal economic progress. Progressive bureaucrats and engineers, such as civil engineer Carlos Wauters, believed that they could use hydraulic infrastructure to transform Tucumán from an agricultural monoculture to a polyculture; others believed that infrastructure should be used to support a sugar monoculture. In exploring this issue, this article bridges the fields of engineering history, agricultural history, and environmental history. It also incorporates Latin America into global scholarship on the emergence and evolution of professional engineering.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Engenharia , Argentina , História do Século XIX , Agricultura/história , História do Século XX , Engenharia/história , Humanos , Saccharum
18.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4298, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769363

RESUMO

Earthquakes injure millions and simultaneously disrupt the infrastructure to protect them. This perspective argues that the current post-disaster investigation paradigm is insufficient to protect communities' health effectively. We propose the Earthquake Survival Chain as a framework to change the current engineering focus on infrastructure to health. This framework highlights four converging research opportunities to advance understanding of earthquake injuries, search and rescue, patient mobilizations, and medical treatment. We offer an interdisciplinary research agenda in engineering and health sciences, including artificial intelligence and virtual reality, to protect health and life from earthquakes.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Humanos , Engenharia , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Desastres , Inteligência Artificial
19.
Cell ; 187(8): 1828-1833, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608651

RESUMO

Scientists and engineers often spend days choosing a problem and years solving it. This imbalance limits impact. Here, we offer a framework for problem choice: prompts for ideation, guidelines for evaluating impact and likelihood of success, the importance of fixing one parameter at a time, and opportunities afforded by failure.


Assuntos
Engenharia , Árvores de Decisões
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 35(3): 749-758, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38646763

RESUMO

With the economic development, a large number of engineering accumulation bodies with Lou soil as the main soil type were produced in Guanzhong area, Northwest China. We examined the characteristics of runoff and sediment yield of Lou soil accumulation bodies with earth (gravel content 0%) and earth-rock (gravel content 30%) under different rainfall intensities (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 mm·min-1) and different slope lengths (3, 5, 6.5, 12 m) by the simulating rainfall method. The results showed that runoff rate was relatively stable when rainfall intensity was 1.0-1.5 mm·min-1, while runoff rate fluctuated obviously when rainfall intensity was 2.0-2.5 mm·min-1. The average runoff rate varied significantly across different rainfall intensities on the same slopes, and the difference of average runoff rate of the two slopes was significantly increased with rainfall intensity. Under the same rainfall intensity, the difference in runoff rate between the slope lengths of the earth-rock slope was more obvious than that of the earth slope. When the slope length was 3-6.5 m, flow velocity increased rapidly at first and then increased slowly or tended to be stable. When the slope length was 12 m, flow velocity increased significantly. In general, with the increases of rainfall intensity, inhibition effect of gravel on the average flow velocity was enhanced. When rainfall intensity was 2.5 mm·min-1, the maximum reduction in the average flow velocity of earth-rock slope was 61.5% lower than that of earth slope. When rainfall intensity was less than 2.0 mm·min-1, sediment yield rate showed a trend of gradual decline or stable change, while that under the other rainfall intensities showed a trend of rapid decline and then fluctuated sharply. The greater the rainfall intensity, the more obvious the fluctuation. There was a significant positive correlation between the average sediment yield rate and runoff parameters, with the runoff rate showing the best fitting effect. Among the factors, slope length had the highest contribution to runoff velocity and rainfall erosion, which was 51.8% and 35.5%, respectively. This study can provide scientific basis for soil and water erosion control of engineering accumulation in Lou soil areas.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Chuva , Solo , Movimentos da Água , China , Solo/química , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gravitação , Engenharia
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