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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126017, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628243

RESUMO

The search of sustainable and environmentally friendly alternatives to obtain compounds for different industrial sectors has grown exponentially. Following the principles of biorefinery and circular bioeconomy, processes in which the use of natural resources such as macroalgae biomass is prioritized are required. This review focuses on a description of the relevance, application and engineering platforms of hydrothermal systems and the operational conditions depending on the target as an innovative technology and bio-based solution for macroalgae fractionation in order to recover profitable products for industries and investors. In this sense, hydrothermal treatments represent a promising alternative for obtaining different high value-added compounds from this biomass; since, the different variations in terms of operating conditions, gives great versatility to this technology compared to other types of processing, allowing it to be adapted depending on the objective, whether it is working under sub/super critical conditions, thus expanding its field of application.


Assuntos
Alga Marinha , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Fracionamento Químico , Engenharia , Tecnologia
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770664

RESUMO

A major challenge in modern society is the need to increase awareness and excitement with regard to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) and related careers directly or among peers and parents in order to attract future generations of scientists and engineers. The numbers of students aiming for an engineering degree are low compared to the options available and the workforce needed. This may, in part, be due to a traditional lack of instruction in this area in secondary school curricula. In this regard, STEM outreach programs can complement formal learning settings and help to promote engineering as well as science to school students. In a long-term outreach collaboration with scientists and engineers, we developed an outreach program in the field of magnetoelectric sensing that includes an out-of-school project day and various accompanying teaching materials. In this article, we motivate the relevance of the topic for educational outreach, share the rationales, objectives and aims, models and implementation strategies of our program and provide practical advice for those interested in outreach in the field of magnetoelectric sensing.


Assuntos
Engenharia , Tecnologia , Humanos , Matemática , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
3.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258660, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758034

RESUMO

Due to COVID-19 precautions, the Vanderbilt University summer biomedical undergraduate research program, the Vanderbilt Summer Science Academy (VSSA), rapidly transitioned from offering an in-person training program to a virtual seminar format. Our program typically supports undergraduate development through research and/or clinical experience, meeting with individuals pursuing postgraduate training, and providing career development advice. Evidence supports the idea that summer programs transform undergraduates by clarifying their interest in research and encouraging those who haven't previously considered graduate studies. We were interested in exploring whether a virtual, synchronous program would increase participants' scientific identity and clarify postgraduate career planning. Rather than create a virtual research exposure, our 5-week "Virtual VSSA" program aimed to simulate the casual connections that would naturally be made with post-undergraduate trainees during a traditional summer program. In seminars, presenters discussed 1) their academic journey, explaining their motivations, goals, and reasons for pursuing a career in science as well as 2) a professional story that illustrated their training. Seminars included Vanderbilt University and Medical School faculty, M.D., MD/Ph.D., as well as Ph.D. students from diverse scientific and personal backgrounds. In addition, weekly informational sessions provided an overview of the nature of each degree program along with admissions advice. Through pre-and post-program surveys, we found that students who registered for this experience already strongly identified with the STEMM community (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Medicine). However, participation in the Virtual VSSA increased their sense of belonging. We also uncovered a gap in participants' understanding of postgraduate pathways prior to participation and found that our program significantly increased their self-reported understanding of postgraduate programs. It also increased their understanding of why someone would pursue a Ph.D. or Ph.D./MD versus M.D. These changes did not uniformly impact participants' planned career paths. Overall, by providing personal, tangible stories of M.D., MD/Ph.D., and Ph.D. training, the Virtual VSSA program offered seminars that positively impacted students' sense of belonging with and connection to the STEMM disciplines.


Assuntos
Engenharia/educação , Matemática/educação , Tecnologia/educação , Academias e Institutos , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Escolha da Profissão , Docentes/educação , Humanos , Conhecimento , Mentores/educação , Grupos Minoritários/educação , Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes , Universidades
4.
IEEE Pulse ; 12(5): 27-29, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784268

RESUMO

One of the core missions of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) is to be a platform for enhancing the personal and professional development of its members. This month we focus on two related priority areas of the IEEE EMBS Student Activities Committee (SAC) [1], namely Leadership Development and Professional Development Portfolios, and bring you up close to the student and professional leaders actively building these programs. The Leadership Development Portfolio, currently led by Agnieszka Lach from Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland, focuses on nurturing and supporting student leaders of the EMBS globally. The Professional Development Portfolio, currently led by Josée Rosset from the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, aims to help EMBS student members develop their skills and experiences in the practice of biomedical engineering.


Assuntos
Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Bioengenharia , Engenharia Biomédica , Engenharia , Humanos , Liderança
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770041

RESUMO

The intention of this study was to identify the elements that engineering students consider fundamental for successful learning on engineering courses. The aim was to provide generic guidelines suitable for any engineering course with which the teaching may be adapted in the light of comments from students, while student learning improves. The abrupt transition from face-to-face to asynchronous online teaching due to the COVID-19 pandemic prompted reflection among students on both teaching methods. Students were invited to evaluate each method through a survey of open-ended questions, identifying useful elements for their learning. The survey was repeated over nine weeks, to obtain the views of students after they had accepted the change and had critically analyzed how to improve online teaching. A cross-coded qualitative and mixed (word counting) analysis showed that the explanation of engineering concepts should be organized, hierarchical, repetitive, and exemplified. Furthermore, the teacher should link all the activities and projects to the concepts explained and quickly solve any doubts that they raised. As a consequence of the online teaching resulting from COVID-19, the need of independent student learning and peer support was also very evident. Teaching functions are essential on engineering courses, as teachers have to explain the overall concepts carefully, identify the key concepts, and demonstrate their industrial and professional applications. Furthermore, teaching methodologies that balance these aspects with autonomy and peer support for learning on engineering courses should be promoted.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Engenharia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 9210050, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721567

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel swarm-based metaheuristic algorithm is proposed, which is called tuna swarm optimization (TSO). The main inspiration for TSO is based on the cooperative foraging behavior of tuna swarm. The work mimics two foraging behaviors of tuna swarm, including spiral foraging and parabolic foraging, for developing an effective metaheuristic algorithm. The performance of TSO is evaluated by comparison with other metaheuristics on a set of benchmark functions and several real engineering problems. Sensitivity, scalability, robustness, and convergence analyses were used and combined with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Friedman test. The simulation results show that TSO performs better compared to other comparative algorithms.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Benchmarking , Engenharia
7.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(9): 3383-3396, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622645

RESUMO

Accurately understanding the features and connotations of complex engineering problems is an important prerequisite for setting graduation requirements, constructing curriculum and designing teaching contents. By discussing the characteristics of complex engineering problems in the biological industry, this paper explored the demands for undergraduates in Yangtze river delta region, summarized the typical jobs and their requirements, and expounded the connotation of complex engineering problems contained in various typical tasks. On this basis, a gradual curriculum system was constructed, which included multiple stages of conceiving, formation and application, to cultivate the ability to solve complex engineering problems in the major of bioengineering. The curriculum coordinated the implementation of deep integration of industry and education, research feed back course construction, course team and advanced courses building up, professional associations covered all crews and students, supporting the ability training of solving complex engineering problems.


Assuntos
Currículo , Engenharia , Biotecnologia , Humanos , Indústrias , Resolução de Problemas
8.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 8456736, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630555

RESUMO

In actual product development, the cognitive differences between users and designers make it difficult for the designed products to be recognized by users. To reduce the cognitive differences between these two design subjects, this paper proposes a method of cognitive matching of the design subjects. First, we use the relevant methods of Kansei engineering to quantify the Kansei image cognition of the two design subjects and construct a cognitive matching model of the design subjects with information entropy and the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS). Second, according to the Kansei image, the Kansei image prototype cluster is constructed, and the representative Kansei image prototype is obtained. Then, we combine an artificial neural network (ANN) with a cognitive matching model of the design subjects to construct a product Kansei image evaluation system; this is used to evaluate the evolved forms. Finally, a product Kansei image form evolution system is constructed based on the genetic algorithm (GA). To some extent, the system simulates the cognitive matching process between designers and users in product design, helps designers to more accurately understand the cognitive trends of the two design subjects, and provides a theoretical basis for the intelligent design of product forms through the cognitive balance of multiple design subjects. This paper takes a beverage bottle as an example to verify the feasibility of the model through a comparative study.


Assuntos
Cognição , Redes Neurais de Computação , Engenharia , Humanos
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640851

RESUMO

Individual products and models on the market must be specifically differentiated from the rest to meet user demand. In terms of consumer purchasing behaviour, consumers increasingly base their decisions on subjective terms or the impression that the product leaves on them, both in terms of functionality, usability, safety, and price adequacy, and regarding the emotions and feelings that it triggers in them. This demand has lead both Asia and Europe to implement new methodologies to develop new products, such as "emotional design" or Kansei engineering. This paper presents a systematic literature review (SLR) on the most relevant methodologies based on Kansei engineering and their relevant results in the specific discipline of product design, addressing these five questions: (RQ1) How many studies on KE and emotional design are there in the Scopus and Web of Science (WoS) databases from 1995 to February 2021? (RQ2) Which research topics and types of KE are addressed? (RQ3) Who is leading the research on KE and emotional design? (RQ4) What are the benefits and drawbacks of using and applying the methodology? (RQ5) What are the limitations of the current research? We analysed 87 studies focusing on the Kansei methodology used for product design and device technologies (e.g., shape design, actuators, sensors, structure) and aesthetic aspects (e.g., Kansei words selection, the quantification of measured emotions of results, and detected shortcomings), and provided the database with all the collected information. One identified and highlighted sector in the results is the electronic-technological-device sector. Results confirm that this type of methodology has a majority and direct application in these sectors, and they are widely represented in the automotive and electronics industries. Lastly, this SLR provides researchers with a guide for comparative emotional-design work, and facilitates future designers who want to implement emotional design in their work by selecting the specific type according to the results of the SLR.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Engenharia , Emoções , Europa (Continente) , Tecnologia
10.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 27(5): 64, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613471

RESUMO

The idea of technocracy has been widely criticized in Western literature in the philosophy and sociology of technology. A common critique of technocracy is that it represents an "antidemocratic" and "dehumanizing" ideology. This paper invites Western scholars to reconsider their oppositions to technocracy by drawing on resources from Confucian ethics. In doing so, this paper synthesizes the major ethical challenges of technocracy mainly concerned by Western scholars in philosophy, political theories, sociology, and policy studies. This paper argues that incorporating Confucian resources such as the rule of virtue into technocracy may be helpful for reexamining these ethical challenges to technocracy that are deeply rooted in Western liberal democratic ideologies. The Confucian rule of virtue means that social policies should be made by the virtuous and capable and these policies need to have impacts on the moral progress of the society. Confucian values provide ethical guidance for technocrats in assessing the moral quality of the sociotechnical systems they build. From the Confucian perspective, sociotechnical systems are often assessed based on the criterion whether and how these sociotechnical systems contribute to a process of harmonization. This paper will introduce some practical cases that demonstrate how technical experts and expertise contribute to organizational and social management. In these cases, virtues and the rule of virtue do play a crucial role: virtues either determine the selection of technocrats and the legitimization of their political power or are embedded in engineering design and affect human behavior in the use context.


Assuntos
Teoria Ética , Virtudes , Engenharia , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Filosofia
11.
IEEE Pulse ; 12(5): 19-23, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714736

RESUMO

How do we begin to consider ways to broaden the reach of our field, both to engage younger students and also those from different ethnicities, classes, and socio-economic backgrounds? Where are the opportunities to make our research, our laboratory, our surrounding community more open, inclusive, and diverse? By what means can we increase outreach in our communities, providing avenues for diverse students to explore STEM topics and engage in research?


Assuntos
Engenharia , Ciência/educação , Estudantes , Tecnologia/educação , Engenharia/educação , Humanos
12.
Work ; 70(2): 443-453, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organizational factors including a proper safety culture are among the important contributors of major accidents in process industriesOBJECTIVE: This study evaluates and compares the dimensions of safety culture maturity (SCM) and resilience engineering (RE) among 423 employees of government-owned drilling companies (GODC) and private drilling companies (PDC) located in Azar oilfield, Ilam province, southwest of Iran. METHODS: The maturity of safety culture was measured using the modified version of Hudson safety culture maturity questionnaire and RE performance was studied using the resilience analysis gird (RAG). The relationship between RE and the SCM was discussed according to Hollnagel conceptual model. RESULTS: The results showed that lowest and highest levels of SCM in all dimensions were observed in the pathological (11.75%) and reactive (28%) levels, respectively. However, high levels of SCM have not been established in any of the studied drilling companies. The status of SCM dimensions and levels as well as RE performance was better in PDC compared to GODC which is consistent with their safety performance lagging indicators. CONCLUSION: This study showed that RE abilities could be improved by establishment of high levels of safety culture maturity.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Gestão da Segurança , Engenharia , Governo , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(4): 3204, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717489

RESUMO

The use of machine learning (ML) in acoustics has received much attention in the last decade. ML is unique in that it can be applied to all areas of acoustics. ML has transformative potentials as it can extract statistically based new information about events observed in acoustic data. Acoustic data provide scientific and engineering insight ranging from biology and communications to ocean and Earth science. This special issue included 61 papers, illustrating the very diverse applications of ML in acoustics.


Assuntos
Acústica , Aprendizado de Máquina , Atenção , Engenharia
14.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(4): 902-907, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618628

RESUMO

Although active learning is highly recognized and recommended in the educational community, instructors are still struggling with how to incorporate active learning tools into writing courses. This study aims to 1) describe specific challenges encountered in the course of Molecular Cell Biology Laboratory-Critical Thinking through Writing (BIOL3810-CTW); 2) introduce the active learning approaches and metacognition integrated into this writing-intensive course; 3) demonstrate the effectiveness of these active learning approaches in engaging students in classes; and 4) share the principles of integrating active learning activities into writing courses in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and beyond.


Assuntos
Currículo , Metacognição , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Engenharia/educação , Humanos , Matemática/educação , Ciência/educação , Tecnologia/educação , Redação
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502646

RESUMO

The electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique has been applied successfully to detect minor damage in engineering structures including reinforced concrete (RC). However, in the presence of temperature variations, it can cause false alarms in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. This paper has developed an innovative approach that integrates the EMI methodology with multilevel hierarchical machine learning techniques and the use of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature and strain sensors to evaluate the mechanical performance of RC beams strengthened with near surface mounted (NSM)-fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) under sustained load and varied temperatures. This problem is a real challenge since the bond behavior at the concrete-FRP interface plays a key role in the performance of this type of structure, and additionally, its failure occurs in a brittle and sudden way. The method was validated in a specimen tested over a period of 1.5 years under different conditions of sustained load and temperature. The analysis of the experimental results in an especially complex problem with the proposed approach demonstrated its effectiveness as an SHM method in a combined EMI-FBG framework.


Assuntos
Engenharia , Polímeros , Impedância Elétrica , Aprendizado de Máquina , Temperatura
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502685

RESUMO

Attempts in digital management of structures are among the most popular topics in the trend of Information of Things (IoT). However, the implementation lags behind. This work recognized that Computer Aided Design (CAD) comprises the core of modern engineering; thus, most digital information can be available if CAD is used not only in design but also for life cycle structural health monitoring (SHM). Based on this concept, the newly designed method utilizes the isogeometric analysis (IGA) tool to include the Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing (DFOS) information by proposing a fiber mesh model. The IGA model can be obtained directly from CAD, and the boundary conditions can be provided directly or indirectly from DFOS in real time and remotely. Hence a practical method of SHM is able to achieve highly efficient and accurate numerical model creation, which can even accommodate non-linear constitutive property of materials. The proposed method was applied to a pipe deformation model as an example. The inverse analysis method is also shown to determine the contact force for loading on the pipe, which shows the potential for many engineering applications.


Assuntos
Engenharia , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577511

RESUMO

Engineering education benefits from the application of modern technology, allowing students to learn essential Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related concepts through hands-on experiences. Robotic kits have been used as an innovative tool in some educational fields, being readily accepted and adopted. However, most of the time, such kits' knowledge level requires understanding basic concepts that are not always appropriate for the student. A critical concept in engineering is the Cartesian Coordinate System (CCS), an essential tool for every engineering, from graphing functions to data analysis in robotics and control applications and beyond. This paper presents the design and implementation of a novel Two-Dimensional Cartesian Coordinate System Educational Toolkit (2D-CACSET) to teach the two-dimensional representations as the first step to construct spatial thinking. This innovative educational toolkit is based on real-time location systems using Ultra-Wide Band technology. It comprises a workbench, four Anchors pinpointing X+, X-, Y+, Y- axes, seven Tags representing points in the plane, one listener connected to a PC collecting the position of the Tags, and a Graphical User Interface displaying these positions. The Educational Mechatronics Conceptual Framework (EMCF) enables constructing knowledge in concrete, graphic, and abstract levels. Hence, the students acquire this knowledge to apply it further down their career path. For this paper, three instructional designs were designed using the 2D-CACSET and the EMCF to learn about coordinate axes, quadrants, and a point in the CCS.


Assuntos
Engenharia , Aprendizagem , Criatividade , Humanos , Estudantes , Tecnologia
19.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 20(4): ar54, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546099

RESUMO

Evidence-based teaching practices (EBPs) foster college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students' engagement and performance, yet our knowledge of what contributes to the effectiveness of these practices is less established. We propose a framework that links four social-cognitive variables-students' trust in their instructors, growth mindset, buy-in to instructional practices, and course engagement-to long-standing desired student outcomes of academic performance and intent to persist in science. This framework was tested in classrooms identified as having a high level of EBP implementation with a multi-institutional sample of 2102 undergraduates taught by 14 faculty members. Results indicate that the buy-in framework is a valid representation of college students' learning experiences within EBP contexts overall as well as across underrepresented student groups. In comparison to students' level of growth mindset, students' trust in their instructors was more than twice as predictive of buy-in to how the course was being taught, suggesting that students' views of their instructors are more associated with thriving in a high-EBP course environment than their views of intelligence. This study contributes to the dialogue on transforming undergraduate STEM education by providing a validated student buy-in framework as a lens to understand how EBPs enhance student outcomes.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Confiança , Engenharia , Humanos , Matemática , Ensino , Tecnologia
20.
Biomater Sci ; 9(20): 6691-6717, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494042

RESUMO

Engineering cellular membranes with functional molecules provides an attractive strategy to manipulate cellular behaviors and functionalities. Currently, synthetic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has emerged as a promising molecular tool to engineer cellular membranes for biomedical applications due to its molecular recognition and programmable properties. In this review, we summarized the recent advances in anchoring DNA on the cellular membranes and their applications. The strategies for anchoring DNA on cell membranes were summarized. Then their applications, such as immune response activation, receptor oligomerization regulation, membrane structure mimicking, cell-surface biosensing, and construction of cell clusters, were listed. The DNA-enabled intelligent systems which were able to sense stimuli such as DNA strands, light, and metal ions were highlighted. Finally, insights regarding the remaining challenges and possible future directions were provided.


Assuntos
DNA , Engenharia , Membrana Celular , Íons
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