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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 365, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus infection manifests varying clinical characteristics and severity in diverse populations with different immune statuses. The signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal involvement are nonspecific. Here, we present a case of cytomegalovirus colitis in an immunocompetent adolescent, which manifested as intestinal pseud-obstruction. CASE PRESENTATION: A 15-year-old man who had contracted novel coronavirus infection one month earlier was admitted to our hospital with fever, abdominal pain, and hematochezia. His abdomen was distended, and laboratory evaluation revealed a decrease in the blood count, an increase in inflammatory indicators and hepatic impairment. Imaging shows bowel wall thickening and dilatation of the colon. A diagnosis of intestinal infection combined with acute intestinal pseud-obstruction was made. Diarrhea persisted despite conservative treatment with empirical antibiotics. A colonoscopy was performed. Pathology confirmed cytomegalovirus infection. Ganciclovir therapy was initiated, and subsequent review showed a good recovery. CONCLUSIONS: The case was diagnosed as cytomegalovirus colitis. We reviewed the reports of 9 cases of bowel obstruction, including our own, and found that the majority of the adult patients were elderly with underlying disease. Clinical and endoscopic manifestations are typically nonspecific, and imaging shows typical signs of intestinal obstruction. The final diagnosis was confirmed by pathology. Most of them have a good prognosis. We suggest that cytomegalovirus colitis can also lead to intestinal obstruction and that viral reactivation in immunocompetent individuals may be associated with inflammatory conditions and viral coinfection, particularly with the novel coronavirus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Enterocolite , Obstrução Intestinal , Infecções Intra-Abdominais , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Idoso , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Ganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Colonoscopia , Enterocolite/complicações , Infecções Intra-Abdominais/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Biomolecules ; 14(3)2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540710

RESUMO

Human Campylobacter jejuni infections are of worldwide importance and represent the most commonly reported bacterial enteritis cases in middle- and high-income countries. Since antibiotics are usually not indicated and the severity of campylobacteriosis is directly linked to the risk of developing post-infectious complications, non-toxic antibiotic-independent treatment approaches are highly desirable. Given its health-promoting properties, including anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities, we tested the disease-alleviating effects of oral menthol in murine campylobacteriosis. Therefore, human gut microbiota-associated IL-10-/- mice were orally subjected to synthetic menthol starting a week before C. jejuni infection and followed up until day 6 post-infection. Whereas menthol pretreatment did not improve campylobacteriosis symptoms, it resulted in reduced colonic C. jejuni numbers and alleviated both macroscopic and microscopic aspects of C. jejuni infection in pretreated mice vs. controls. Menthol pretreatment dampened the recruitment of macrophages, monocytes, and T lymphocytes to colonic sites of infection, which was accompanied by mitigated intestinal nitric oxide secretion. Furthermore, menthol pretreatment had only marginal effects on the human fecal gut microbiota composition during the C. jejuni infection. In conclusion, the results of this preclinical placebo-controlled intervention study provide evidence that menthol application constitutes a promising way to tackle acute campylobacteriosis, thereby reducing the risk for post-infectious complications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter jejuni , Enterocolite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Interleucina-10/genética , Mentol/farmacologia , Mentol/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Campylobacter/complicações , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Enterocolite/tratamento farmacológico , Enterocolite/microbiologia
3.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 40(1): 87, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512700

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to compare the fecal metabolome in post pull-through HD with and without HAEC patients and healthy young children using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. METHODS: Fresh fecal samples were collected from children under 5 years of age in both post-pull-through HD patients and healthy Thai children. A total of 20 fecal samples were then analyzed using NMR spectroscopy. RESULTS: Thirty-four metabolites identified among HD and healthy children younger than 5 years were compared. HD samples demonstrated a significant decrease in acetoin, phenylacetylglutamine, and N-acetylornithine (corrected p value = 0.01, 0.04, and 0.004, respectively). Succinate and xylose significantly decreased in HD with HAEC group compared to HD without HAEC group (corrected p value = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Moreover, glutamine and glutamate metabolism, and alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism were the significant pathways involved, with pathway impact 0.42 and 0.50, respectively (corrected p value = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively). CONCLUSION: Differences in class, quantity, and metabolism of protein and other metabolites in young children with HD after pull-through operation were identified. Most of the associated metabolic pathways were correlated with the amino acids metabolism, which is required to maintain intestinal integrity and function.


Assuntos
Enterocolite , Doença de Hirschsprung , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Doença de Hirschsprung/cirurgia , Enterocolite/cirurgia , Intestinos , Fezes/química , Glutamatos/análise , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Allergol Int ; 73(2): 196-205, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553113

RESUMO

Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy with gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea. The development of international consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and management of FPIES in 2017 enabled us to compare patients worldwide, regardless of geographic variation in disease features. As a result, it has become clear that there is heterogeneity among patients with FPIES or that there are cases that partly fit the diagnostic criteria for FPIES but have different characteristics. This review highlights the heterogeneity in FPIES characteristics in terms of trigger foods, the age of onset, differences in geographic regions, and symptoms; it further proposes four disease entities, including acute FPIES in children, acute FPIES in adults, chronic FPIES, and early-onset neonatal FPIES, depending on the age of onset and presumed pathophysiology. The major symptoms at onset and trigger foods differ in acute FPIES in children, acute FPIES in adults, and chronic FPIES, whereas the disease entities may share a similar pathophysiology. Early-onset neonatal FPIES may have a different pathophysiology than acute or chronic FPIES, and may not necessarily fulfil the full diagnostic criteria for acute or chronic FPIES described in the international consensus guidelines. Due to the similarity in symptoms, early-onset neonatal FPIES may sometimes be misdiagnosed as necrotizing enterocolitis. We aim to increase awareness of FPIES among medical staff in pediatrics, neonatology, and internal medicine and promote research, to gain a better understanding of the heterogeneity and pathophysiology of FPIES.


Assuntos
Enterocolite , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome , Enterocolite/diagnóstico , Enterocolite/etiologia , Vômito , Alérgenos
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1280188, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38435302

RESUMO

Human infections caused by Pseudomonas citronellolis, an environmental bacterium, are infrequent, with only two cases related to uncommon urinary tract infections and bacteremia reported in recent years. All these cases typically occurred in elderly patients with compromised or decreased immune function. Simultaneously, the epithelial barrier disruption induced by invasive biopsy procedures or gastrointestinal disorders such as gastroenteritis provided a pathway for Pseudomonas citronellolis to infiltrate the organism. In this study, we present the first report of a case where Pseudomonas citronellolis and Escherichia coli were isolated from the inflamed appendix of a patient without underlying conditions. Compared to the Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas citronellolis has never been isolated in patients with appendicitis. We identified the species using MALDI-TOF MS and genetic sequencing. Based on our findings, we highlight the perspective that Pseudomonas citronellolis can colonize the intestines of healthy individuals and may trigger infections like appendicitis.


Assuntos
Apendicite , Enterocolite , Pseudomonas , Idoso , Humanos , Escherichia coli/genética , Virulência , Intestinos , Doença Aguda , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
6.
Allergol Int ; 73(2): 188-195, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326194

RESUMO

Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE mediated food allergy presenting with delayed onset of projectile vomiting in the absence of cutaneous and respiratory symptoms. The pathophysiology of FPIES remains poorly characterized. The first international consensus guidelines for FPIES were published in 2017 and provided clinicians with parameters on the diagnosis and treatment of FPIES. The guidelines have served as a resource in the recognition and management of FPIES, contributing to an increased awareness of FPIES. Since then, new evidence has emerged, shedding light on adult-onset FPIES, the different phenotypes of FPIES, the recognition of new food triggers, center-specific food challenge protocols and management of acute FPIES. Emerging evidence indicates that FPIES impacts both pediatric and adult population. As a result, there is growing need to tailor the consensus guidelines to capture diagnoses in both patient groups. Furthermore, it is crucial to provide food challenge protocols that meet the needs of both pediatric and adult FPIES patients, as well as the subset of patients with atypical FPIES. This review highlights the evolving clinical evidence relating to FPIES diagnosis and management published since the 2017 International FPIES Guidelines. We will focus on areas where recent published evidence may support evolution or revision of the guidelines.


Assuntos
Enterocolite , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Vômito , Enterocolite/diagnóstico , Enterocolite/etiologia , Enterocolite/terapia , Alérgenos , Administração Cutânea , Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos
7.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 24(3): 95-106, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38214821

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Food allergies are immune-mediated, complex disorders, which are the source of increasing health concern worldwide. The goal of this review is to present an updated summary of the food allergy (FA) burden among children and adults across different populations, focusing on research from the past 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: FAs impact a growing number of global residents-particularly those residing in higher-income, industrialized regions. Moreover, growing epidemiologic evidence suggests that the population health burden of non-IgE-mediated FAs, such as food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, may also be higher than previously reported. FA is a complex trait that impacts infants, children, as well as adults across the globe. The population health burden of both IgE- and non-IgE-mediated FAs is likely to grow in the absence of rapid advances and widespread implementation of effective FA prevention and treatment interventions. Systematic epidemiological research initiatives are needed, both nationally and globally, to better understand and reduce the burden of these allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Enterocolite , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Lactente , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Imunoglobulina E , Prevalência
8.
Afr J Paediatr Surg ; 21(1): 34-38, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38259017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors report their experience of the transanal endorectal pull through technique as described by De la Torre Mondragon in the treatment of Hirschsprung's disease (HD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a retro prospective, observational and descriptive hospital based study involving all proven cases of HD managed within a time frame of 8 years. RESULTS: Fifty two patients with a mean age of 18 months at the time of surgery. The male pre dominance was remarkable. The mean duration of the surgery was 2 h and a half hours. The surgical indication was based on the history, clinical findings and on the contrast enema (transition zone) with a 24 h film (prolonged contrast evacuation) and calculation of the rectosigmoid index (<1). With a mean follow up of 16 months, the morbidity was dominated by soiling, anastomotic strictures and enterocolitis. The mortality in one case was related to a post operative enterocolitis that was not amenable to resuscitation. CONCLUSION: Soiling, anastomotic strictures and enterocolitis are the main post operative complications of TEPT in the treatment of HD in our practice.


Assuntos
Enterocolite , Doença de Hirschsprung , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Constrição Patológica , Doença de Hirschsprung/diagnóstico , Doença de Hirschsprung/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Feminino
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2275, 2024 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280919

RESUMO

Tomato pomace (TP), an antioxidant-rich byproduct, may be suitable for noble applications. The regulation of ROS generation and the anti-inflammatory response can help to prevent ulceration. The purpose of this study was to examine TP for antioxidants, in silico anti-inflammatory properties, and its potential to protect against ulceration and erosion triggered by indomethacin. Tomato pomace extract (TPE) was encapsulated either alone or with probiotics to maximize its potential effect. These microcapsules were investigated in indomethacin-treated rats. TPE demonstrated antioxidant activity as well as high levels of carotenoids (15 mg/g extract) and polyphenols. Because of their binding affinity as well as hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions with the active sites of TNF-α and IL-1ß inflammatory cytokines, ellagic acid and rutin may be implicated in the anti-inflammatory effect of TPE, according to the docking study. TPE microcapsules, either alone or in combination with probiotics, demonstrated a protective effect against enterocolitis by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, as evidenced by the decrease in stomach and intestinal MDA, NO, IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α levels and the increase in CAT, SOD, and GSH activities. The produced microcapsules are suggested to be promising candidates for protection against gastric ulcers and erosion.


Assuntos
Enterocolite , Probióticos , Solanum lycopersicum , Úlcera Gástrica , Ratos , Animais , Indometacina/efeitos adversos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Cápsulas/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/farmacologia
10.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 22, 2024 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38238810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic enterocolitis is a rare disorder characterized by abnormal eosinophilic infiltration of the small intestine and the colon. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 29-year-old White man, who presented with an acute bowel obstruction. He had a history of a 2 months non-bloody diarrhea. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) and a MR enterography showed a multifocal extensive ileitis. White blood cell and eosinophilic polynuclei count was elevated (700/mm3). Ileo-colonoscopy showed normal ileum and segmental petechial colitis. Pathology showed a high eosinophilic infiltration in the colon. The patient was treated with steroids, with a clinical, biological and radiological recovery. CONCLUSION: Eosinophilic enterocolitis should be kept in mind as a rare differential diagnosis in patients presenting with small bowel obstruction.


Assuntos
Colite , Enterocolite , Eosinofilia , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Enterocolite/diagnóstico , Colite/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Eosinofilia/patologia
12.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 78(1): 36-42, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38291694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Inflammation on diagnostic rectal biopsy for children with suspected Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is reported on pathology, and its significance is unknown. We describe the management and outcomes of a cohort with inflammation on rectal biopsy compared to those without. Specifically, to address the hypothesis that inflammation on diagnostic biopsy is associated with increased complication rates irrespective of intervention type and timing. METHODS: A single institution retrospective review of children with HSCR who underwent biopsy and endorectal pull-through (ERPT) from 2010 to 2020 was performed. The primary outcome was overall complications at 30-days following ERPT. Secondary outcomes included timing and type of operative intervention as well as postoperative enterocolitis diagnosed within 6-months of ERPT. RESULTS: Forty-nine children were identified; inflammation was present on diagnostic biopsy for 17 children. Those with inflammation were more likely to have clinical evidence of enterocolitis at the time of biopsy (p = 0.001) and were more likely to undergo leveling colostomy before ERPT (p = 0.01). Children with inflammation had a higher anastomotic leak rate (p = 0.04). Subgroup analysis of patients with inflammation undergoing primary ERPT versus leveling colostomy demonstrated no significant difference in outcomes following definitive ERPT. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests inflammation on diagnostic rectal biopsy for HSCR is associated with increased anastomotic leak rates. While additional prospective studies are indicated, attention to methods of mitigating inflammation and confirming its resolution before definitive pull-through may be of benefit for improving clinical outcomes in patients found with inflammation on diagnostic rectal biopsy.


Assuntos
Enterocolite , Doença de Hirschsprung , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Doença de Hirschsprung/complicações , Doença de Hirschsprung/diagnóstico , Doença de Hirschsprung/cirurgia , Reto/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fístula Anastomótica , Relevância Clínica , Inflamação/complicações , Enterocolite/diagnóstico , Enterocolite/etiologia , Biópsia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia
13.
Infect Immun ; 92(2): e0031823, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38189339

RESUMO

Inflammation has a pronounced impact on the intestinal ecosystem by driving an expansion of facultative anaerobic bacteria at the cost of obligate anaerobic microbiota. This pathogen "blooming" is also a hallmark of enteric Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm) infection. Here, we analyzed the contribution of bacterial and host factors to S. Tm "blooming" in a gnotobiotic mouse model for S. Tm-induced enterocolitis. Mice colonized with the Oligo-Mouse-Microbiota (OMM12), a minimal bacterial community, develop fulminant colitis by day 4 after oral infection with wild-type S. Tm but not with an avirulent mutant. Inflammation leads to a pronounced reduction in overall intestinal bacterial loads, distinct microbial community shifts, and pathogen blooming (relative abundance >50%). S. Tm mutants attenuated in inducing gut inflammation generally elicit less pronounced microbiota shifts and reduction in total bacterial loads. In contrast, S. Tm mutants in nitrate respiration, salmochelin production, and ethanolamine utilization induced strong inflammation and S. Tm "blooming." Therefore, individual Salmonella-specific inflammation-fitness factors seem to be of minor importance for competition against this minimal microbiota in the inflamed gut. Finally, we show that antibody-mediated neutrophil depletion normalized gut microbiota loads but not intestinal inflammation or microbiota shifts. This suggests that neutrophils equally reduce pathogen and commensal bacterial loads in the inflamed gut.


Assuntos
Enterocolite , Microbiota , Salmonelose Animal , Camundongos , Animais , Salmonella typhimurium , Sorogrupo , Bactérias , Inflamação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vida Livre de Germes , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia
15.
Nutrition ; 118: 112293, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38043390

RESUMO

Cases of association between celiac disease and wheat allergy have been described in the literature. However, to date, no reported cases have linked celiac disease with wheat food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES). We report a case of this association. A child diagnosed with celiac disease at the age of 2 years, following a gluten-free diet, experienced uncontrollable vomiting, and subsequent hypotension within 2 h of accidental ingestion of wheat flour. As a result, the child required hospitalization for fluid therapy. A similar episode occurred when the child turned 5 y, again resulting from accidental gluten ingestion. This time, the symptoms included vomiting, hypotension, and a loss of consciousness, leading to hospitalization for rehydration treatment. After this second episode, on suspicion of FPIES, the patient was referred to the pediatric allergists, who confirmed the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of an association between celiac disease and FPIES. It has been hypothesized that exclusion diets in food-allergic children may lead to an increase in specific immunoglobulin E levels for those foods and, consequently, the risk of anaphylaxis. However, FPIES is not an immunoglobulin E-mediated condition. Hence, further investigations are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms linking these 2 disorders.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca , Enterocolite , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Hipotensão , Humanos , Criança , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/complicações , Doença Celíaca/complicações , Farinha/efeitos adversos , Triticum/efeitos adversos , Enterocolite/terapia , Enterocolite/complicações , Alérgenos , Vômito/complicações , Imunoglobulina E , Hipotensão/complicações , Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos
16.
J Pediatr Surg ; 59(2): 220-224, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37981542

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hirschsprung Disease (HD) is typically diagnosed in the neonatal period. A small subset of patients have a prolonged course of abdominal distention and constipation prior to diagnosis. Late HD is defined as having been diagnosed at greater than or equal to one year of age. The literature is limited and offers conflicting data on the implications of a late diagnosis. We aim to investigate the presentation, operative approach, and functional outcomes of a large cohort of patients with a late HD diagnosis. METHODS: All patients with a late diagnosis of HD (after 1 year of age) at our institution between 1997 and 2021 were included. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed with HD at a median age of 3.4 years. Chronic constipation, failure to thrive, and enterocolitis occurred in 100 %, 31 %, and 14 %, respectively. All patients underwent contrast enema and biopsies during their workup, identifying primarily rectosigmoid disease (n = 27) and total colonic aganglionosis (n = 1). Surgical intervention was performed in 27 patients, with 4 patients (15 %) needing a stoma (3 with plan for staged pull-through, 1 long-term stoma) and 23 patients (85 %) undergoing a single-stage pull-through. Postoperative complications included Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (n = 5), ostomy prolapse and revision (n = 2), abdominal distention requiring ileostomy creation (n = 2), redo pull-through (n = 2), retroperitoneal hematoma (n = 1), and cecostomy tube placement (n = 1). At a median follow-up of 5.4 years, 83 % of eligible patients achieved fecal continence with 43 % needing laxatives for persistent constipation. CONCLUSION: Recognizing a late presentation of HD requires a high index of suspicion. Patients with a late diagnosis did not experience an increased rate of permanent stoma, complications, or redo surgery compared to rates reported for the larger HD population. Similar long-term functional outcomes were achieved compared to the larger HD population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.


Assuntos
Enterocolite , Doença de Hirschsprung , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Doença de Hirschsprung/diagnóstico , Doença de Hirschsprung/cirurgia , Doença de Hirschsprung/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Diagnóstico Tardio , Constipação Intestinal/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Enterocolite/diagnóstico , Enterocolite/etiologia , Enterocolite/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Vet Pathol ; 61(2): 303-315, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37818978

RESUMO

Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are used extensively in biomedical research, often with a focus on the gastrointestinal tract, and yet a full characterization of their normal resident intestinal cell populations has not been published. In addition, chronic enterocolitis (CE), also known as idiopathic chronic diarrhea, affects up to 25% of colony-housed rhesus macaques, often requiring euthanasia for welfare concerns and severely limiting their value as a breeding animal or research subject. We aimed to characterize subjective and objective variables in sections of the ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum in 16 healthy rhesus macaques and compare these results with a cohort of 37 animals euthanized for CE to produce relevant diagnostic thresholds and to improve case definitions for future studies. We found neutrophils to be an infrequent but expected component of the large intestinal leukocyte population. Animals with CE had significantly increased total leukocyte populations between crypts in the cecum, colon, and rectum; variable increases in specific cell populations across all levels of the distal intestinal tract; and significantly increased intraepithelial CD3+ T cells in the colon and rectum. Concentrations of enteroendocrine cells, enterochromaffin cells, and intestinal mast cells were not significantly different between healthy and affected individuals. This study characterizes individual leukocyte populations in the rhesus macaque lower intestinal tract, is the first to evaluate rhesus macaque intestinal mast cells, and provides key diagnostic thresholds for evaluating animals with potential CE.


Assuntos
Enterocolite , Humanos , Animais , Macaca mulatta , Enterocolite/veterinária , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/veterinária , Íleo , Células Enterocromafins
20.
Allergol Int ; 73(2): 275-281, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38151409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adults with food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) often develop severe abdominal symptoms after eating seafood. However, no investigation of a food elimination strategy for adult FPIES patients has been performed to date. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of seafood-avoidant adults by telephone interview, based on the diagnostic criteria for adult FPIES reported by González et al. We compared the clinical profiles, abdominal symptoms, and causative seafoods between FPIES and immediate-type food allergy (IgE-mediated FA) patients. We also profiled the detailed intake-status of seafoods in adult FPIES patients. RESULTS: Twenty-two (18.8 %) of 117 adults with seafood-allergy were diagnosed with FPIES. Compared with the IgE-mediated FA patients, FPIES patients had an older age of onset, more pre-existing gastrointestinal and atopic diseases, more episodes, longer latency and duration of symptoms, more nausea, abdominal distention, and severe abdominal pain, and more frequent vomiting and diarrhea. In particular, abdominal distention-reflecting intestinal edema and luminal fluid retention-may be the most distinctive characteristic symptom in adult FPIES (p < 0.001). Bivalves, especially oysters, were the most common cause of FPIES. Strikingly, intake-status profiling revealed that many FPIES patients can safely ingest an average of 92.6 % of seafood species other than the causative species. CONCLUSIONS: There are many differentiators between FPIES and IgE-mediated FA, which may reflect differences in the underlying immunological mechanisms. Although seafood FPIES is unlikely to induce tolerance, many patients can ingest a wide variety of seafood species after a long period from onset.


Assuntos
Enterocolite , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Adulto , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome , Enterocolite/diagnóstico , Enterocolite/epidemiologia , Alérgenos , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Imunoglobulina E
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