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1.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 763, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is insufficient clinical and microbiological evidence to support the use of diode laser and air-polishing with erythritol as supplements to scaling and root planning(SRP). The aim of the current study is to evaluate the clinical and microbiologic efficacy of erythritol subgingival air polishing and diode laser in treatment of periodontitis. METHODS: The study encompassed twenty-four individuals seeking periodontal therapy and diagnosed with stage I and stage II periodontitis. Eight patients simply underwent SRP. Eight more patients had SRP followed by erythritol subgingival air polishing, and eight patients had SRP followed by diode laser application. At baseline and six weeks, clinical periodontal parameters were measured, including Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), periodontal Probing Depth (PPD), and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL). The bacterial count of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans(A.A), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.G) was evaluated at different points of time. RESULTS: The microbiological assessment revealed significant differences in the count of A.A. between the laser and erythritol groups immediately after treatment, indicating a potential impact on microbial levels. However, the microbial levels showed fluctuations over the subsequent weeks, without statistically significant differences. Plaque indices significantly decreased post-treatment in all groups, with no significant inter-group differences. Gingival indices decreased, and the laser group showed lower values than erythritol and control groups. PPD and CAL decreased significantly across all groups, with the laser group exhibiting the lowest values. CONCLUSION: The supplementary use of diode laser and erythritol air polishing, alongside SRP, represents an expedited periodontal treatment modality. This approach leads to a reduction in bacteria and improvement in periodontal health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This clinical trial was registered on Clinical Trials.gov (Registration ID: NCT06209554) and released on 08/01/2024.


Assuntos
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Carga Bacteriana , Índice de Placa Dentária , Raspagem Dentária , Eritritol , Lasers Semicondutores , Índice Periodontal , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Aplainamento Radicular , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/isolamento & purificação , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/efeitos dos fármacos , Abrasão Dental por Ar/métodos , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Raspagem Dentária/métodos , Eritritol/uso terapêutico , Seguimentos , Lasers Semicondutores/uso terapêutico , Perda da Inserção Periodontal/terapia , Perda da Inserção Periodontal/microbiologia , Bolsa Periodontal/terapia , Bolsa Periodontal/microbiologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodontite/terapia , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Aplainamento Radicular/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14215, 2024 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38902505

RESUMO

Fruit pomace, as a by-product of fruit and vegetable processing, is a cheap and easily accessible material for further processing that can replace selected recipe ingredients, most often flour. In addition, their advantage is their high health-promoting potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the simultaneous use of erythritol (100% sucrose substitution) and the addition of varying amounts of blackcurrant, chokeberry and apple pomace (0%, 10%, 30% and 50% by weight of flour) on the glycaemic response after consumption of shortbread cookies in an in vivo study with humans (ISO 26642:2010). It was shown that an increase in the addition of each type of pomace reduced the glycaemic index value of the cookies. The pomace and sucrose-sweetened cookies were classified in the medium and low GI group. For each type of pomace, an increase in its share in the recipe of cookies was associated with a reduction in GI values (pomace: apple 49.1-37.2%, blackcurrant 56.4-41.0%, chokeberry 59.4-35.5%). Similar correlations were shown for the use of erythritol (pomace: apple 39.5-29.1%, blackcurrant 43.9-31.9%, chokeberry 34.6-20.7%). A significant effect of pomace addition on the GI values of shortbread cookies, was only observed for sucrose-sweetened products. The results obtained allow the conclusion that there is potential for the use of waste raw materials in the production of functional foods.


Assuntos
Eritritol , Frutas , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Frutas/química , Adulto , Masculino , Malus , Feminino , Ribes/química , Glicemia/análise , Adulto Jovem , Edulcorantes/farmacologia
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 280: 116545, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850709

RESUMO

Isoprenoid metabolism and its derivatives took part in photosynthesis, growth regulation, signal transduction, and plant defense to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, how aluminum (Al) stress affects the isoprenoid metabolism and whether isoprenoid metabolism plays a vital role in the Citrus plants in coping with Al stress remain unclear. In this study, we reported that Al-treatment-induced alternation in the volatilization rate of monoterpenes (α-pinene, ß-pinene, limonene, α-terpinene, γ-terpinene and 3-carene) and isoprene were different between Citrus sinensis (Al-tolerant) and C. grandis (Al-sensitive) leaves. The Al-induced decrease of CO2 assimilation, maximum quantum yield of primary PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), the lower contents of glucose and starch, and the lowered activities of enzymes involved in the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway might account for the different volatilization rate of isoprenoids. Furthermore, the altered transcript levels of genes related to isoprenoid precursors and/or derivatives metabolism, such as geranyl diphosphate (GPP) synthase (GPPS) in GPP biosynthesis, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS), chlorophyll synthase (CHS) and GGPP reductase (GGPPR) in chlorophyll biosynthesis, limonene synthase (LS) and α-pinene synthase (APS) in limonene and α-pinene synthesis, respectively, might be responsible for the different contents of corresponding products in C. grandis and C. sinensis. Our data suggested that isoprenoid metabolism was involved in Al tolerance response in Citrus, and the alternation of some branches of isoprenoid metabolism could confer different Al-tolerance to Citrus species.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Citrus , Limoneno , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Terpenos , Alumínio/toxicidade , Terpenos/metabolismo , Citrus/metabolismo , Citrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Limoneno/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Hemiterpenos/metabolismo , Cicloexenos/metabolismo , Fosfatos Açúcares/metabolismo , Butadienos/metabolismo , Eritritol/análogos & derivados , Eritritol/metabolismo , Ácido Mevalônico/metabolismo , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Citrus sinensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrus sinensis/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Volatilização
4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5303, 2024 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38906898

RESUMO

The methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway is responsible for biosynthesis of the precursors of isoprenoid compounds in eubacteria and plastids. It is a metabolic alternative to the well-known mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid production found in archaea and eukaryotes. Recently, a role for the MEP pathway in oxidative stress detection, signalling, and response has been identified. This role is executed in part through the unusual cyclic intermediate, methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate (MEcDP). We postulate that this response is triggered through the oxygen sensitivity of the MEP pathway's terminal iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster enzymes. MEcDP is the substrate of IspG, the first Fe-S cluster enzyme in the pathway; it accumulates under oxidative stress conditions and acts as a signalling molecule. It may also act as an antioxidant. Furthermore, evidence is emerging for a broader and highly nuanced role of the MEP pathway in oxidative stress responses, implemented through a complex system of differential regulation and sensitivity at numerous nodes in the pathway. Here, we explore the evidence for such a role (including the contribution of the Fe-S cluster enzymes and different pathway metabolites, especially MEcDP), the evolutionary implications, and the many questions remaining about the behaviour of the MEP pathway in the presence of oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Eritritol , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosfatos Açúcares , Eritritol/metabolismo , Eritritol/análogos & derivados , Fosfatos Açúcares/metabolismo , Proteínas Ferro-Enxofre/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Terpenos/metabolismo
5.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 24(4): 116, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38910225

RESUMO

Chloroplasts are not only critical photosynthesis sites in plants, but they also participate in plastidial retrograde signaling in response to developmental and environmental signals. MEcPP (2-C-Methyl-D-erythritol-2,4-cyclopyrophosphate) is an intermediary in the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway in chloroplasts. It is a critical precursor for the synthesis of isoprenoids and terpenoid derivatives, which play crucial roles in plant growth and development, photosynthesis, reproduction, and defense against environmental constraints. Accumulation of MEcPP under stressful conditions triggers the expression of IMPα-9 and TPR2, contributing to the activation of abiotic stress-responsive genes. In this correspondence, we discuss plastidial retrograde signaling in support of a recently published paper in Molecular Plant (Zeng et al. 2024). We hope that it can shed more insight on the retrograde signaling cascade.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos , Estresse Fisiológico , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transdução de Sinais , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Eritritol/metabolismo , Eritritol/análogos & derivados , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Fosfatos Açúcares/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 5/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 5/genética
6.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(8): 240, 2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867081

RESUMO

Erythritol, as a new type of natural sweetener, has been widely used in food, medical, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and other fields due to its unique physical and chemical properties and physiological functions. In recent years, with the continuous development of strategies such as synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, omics-based systems biology and high-throughput screening technology, people's understanding of the erythritol biosynthesis pathway has gradually deepened, and microbial cell factories with independent modification capabilities have been successfully constructed. In this review, the cheap feedstocks for erythritol synthesis are introduced in detail, the environmental factors affecting the synthesis of erythritol and its regulatory mechanism are described, and the tools and strategies of metabolic engineering involved in erythritol synthesis are summarized. In addition, the study of erythritol derivatives is helpful in expanding its application field. Finally, the challenges that hinder the effective production of erythritol are discussed, which lay a foundation for the green, efficient and sustainable production of erythritol in the future and breaking through the bottleneck of production.


Assuntos
Eritritol , Engenharia Metabólica , Eritritol/metabolismo , Eritritol/biossíntese , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Vias Biossintéticas , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Edulcorantes/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 271(Pt 1): 132261, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744367

RESUMO

Co-solutes such as sucrose and sugar alcohol play a significant part in low methoxyl pectin (LMP) gelation. To explore their gelation mechanism, we investigated the gelation behavior of LMP in the presence of erythritol and sucrose with Ca2+. Results revealed that the introduction of erythritol and sucrose improved the hardness of the gels, fixed more free water, accelerated the rate of gel structuring, and enhanced the gel strength. FT-IR confirmed the reinforced hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic forces between the pectin chains after introducing co-solutes. And it could be observed clearly by SEM that the cross-linking density of gel network enhanced with co-solutes. Furthermore, gel disruption experiments suggested the presence of ionic interaction, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic forces in LMP gels. Finally, we concluded that the egg-box regions cross-linked only by LMP and Ca2+ were too weak to form a stable gel network structure. Adding co-solutes could increase the amount of cross-linking between pectin chains and enlarge the cross-linking zones, which favored the formation of a dense gel network by more hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic forces. Sucrose gels had superior physicochemical properties and microstructure than erythritol gels due to sucrose's excellent hydration capacity and chemical structure characteristics.


Assuntos
Eritritol , Géis , Pectinas , Sacarose , Pectinas/química , Eritritol/química , Sacarose/química , Géis/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cálcio/química , Água/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
8.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(7): e0425623, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38785428

RESUMO

Isoprenoids are a diverse family of compounds that are synthesized from two isomeric compounds, isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. In most bacteria, isoprenoids are produced from the essential methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. The terminal enzymes of the MEP pathway IspG and IspH are [4Fe-4S] cluster proteins, and in Zymomonas mobilis, the substrates of IspG and IspH accumulate in cells in response to O2, suggesting possible lability of their [4Fe-4S] clusters. Here, we show using complementation assays in Escherichia coli that even under anaerobic conditions, Z. mobilis IspG and IspH are not as functional as their E. coli counterparts, requiring higher levels of expression to rescue viability. A deficit of the sulfur utilization factor (SUF) Fe-S cluster biogenesis pathway did not explain the reduced function of Z. mobilis IspG and IspH since no improvement in viability was observed in E. coli expressing the Z. mobilis SUF pathway or having increased expression of the E. coli SUF pathway. Complementation of single and double mutants with various combinations of Z. mobilis and E. coli IspG and IspH indicated that optimal growth required the pairing of IspG and IspH from the same species. Furthermore, Z. mobilis IspH conferred an O2-sensitive growth defect to E. coli that could be partially rescued by co-expression of Z. mobilis IspG. In vitro analysis showed O2 sensitivity of the [4Fe-4S] cluster of both Z. mobilis IspG and IspH. Altogether, our data indicate an important role of the cognate protein IspG in Z. mobilis IspH function under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. IMPORTANCE: Isoprenoids are one of the largest classes of natural products, exhibiting diversity in structure and function. They also include compounds that are essential for cellular life across the biological world. In bacteria, isoprenoids are derived from two precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, synthesized primarily by the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. The aerotolerant Z. mobilis has the potential for methylerythritol phosphate pathway engineering by diverting some of the glucose that is typically efficiently converted into ethanol to produce isoprenoid precursors to make bioproducts and biofuels. Our data revealed the surprising finding that Z. mobilis IspG and IspH need to be co-optimized to improve flux via the methyl erythritol phosphate pathway in part to evade the oxygen sensitivity of IspH.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Eritritol , Escherichia coli , Zymomonas , Zymomonas/metabolismo , Zymomonas/enzimologia , Zymomonas/genética , Eritritol/metabolismo , Eritritol/análogos & derivados , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas Ferro-Enxofre/metabolismo , Proteínas Ferro-Enxofre/genética , Terpenos/metabolismo , Oxirredutases
9.
Appetite ; 200: 107422, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788930

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High sugar intake is associated with many chronic diseases. However, non-caloric sweeteners (NCSs) might fail to successfully replace sucrose due to the mismatch between their rewarding sweet taste and lack of caloric content. The natural NCS erythritol has been proposed as a sugar substitute due to its satiating properties despite being non-caloric. We aimed to compare brain responses to erythritol vs. sucrose and the artificial NCS sucralose in a priori taste, homeostatic, and reward brain regions of interest (ROIs). METHODS: We performed a within-subject, single-blind, counterbalanced fMRI study in 30 healthy men (mean ± SEM age:24.3 ± 0.8 years, BMI:22.3 ± 0.3 kg/m2). Before scanning, we individually matched the concentrations of both NCSs to the perceived sweetness intensity of a 10% sucrose solution. During scanning, participants received 1 mL sips of the individually titrated equisweet solutions of sucrose, erythritol, and sucralose, as well as water. After each sip, they rated subjective sweetness liking. RESULTS: Liking ratings were significantly higher for sucrose and sucralose vs. erythritol (both pHolm = 0.0037); water ratings were neutral. General Linear Model (GLM) analyses of brain blood oxygen level-depended (BOLD) responses at qFDR<0.05 showed no differences between any of the sweeteners in a priori ROIs, but distinct differences were found between the individual sweeteners and water. These results were confirmed by Bayesian GLM and machine learning-based models. However, several brain response patterns mediating the differences in liking ratings between the sweeteners were found in whole-brain multivariate mediation analyses. Both subjective and neural responses showed large inter-subject variability. CONCLUSION: We found lower liking ratings in response to oral administration of erythritol vs. sucrose and sucralose, but no differences in neural responses between any of the sweeteners in a priori ROIs. However, differences in liking ratings between erythritol vs. sucrose or sucralose are mediated by multiple whole-brain response patterns.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Eritritol , Preferências Alimentares , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Sacarose , Edulcorantes , Humanos , Eritritol/farmacologia , Eritritol/análogos & derivados , Eritritol/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/farmacologia , Preferências Alimentares/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Método Simples-Cego , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Percepção Gustatória/efeitos dos fármacos , Recompensa
10.
J Dent ; 146: 105069, 2024 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38762077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to systematically review the effect of sugar substitute consumption on caries prevention in permanent teeth among children and adolescents. DATA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing the clinical effect of sugar substitutes (both high- and low-intensity sweeteners) in preventing caries in permanent teeth among children and adolescents aged 6-19 were included. SOURCES: A systematic search was conducted in three databases (PubMed, Web of Science and Embase) without any restrictions on publication year. STUDY SELECTION: The initial search found 1,859 items, and finally, 15 studies (11 RCTs and 4 CCTs) with a total of 6325 participants (age: 6-18 years) were included. The Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment tools were used for quality assessment. Most (80%, 12/15) were graded as having a 'moderate' or 'high' risk of bias. All trials investigated sugar alcohol, which is a low-intensity sweetener. Xylitol was the most commonly investigated (73.3%, 11/15), followed by sorbitol (46.7%, 7/15), and erythritol (13.3%, 2/15). Results of the meta-analysis showed that both xylitol (standardized mean difference [SMD]: -0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.85 to -0.16, P = 0.005) and sorbitol (SMD: -0.10, 95% CI: -0.19 to -0.01, P = 0.03) had a significant effect in preventing dental caries compared to no treatment/placebo. No clinical trials on high-intensity sweeteners such as aspartame and saccharin were found. CONCLUSION: The consumption of xylitol or sorbitol is potentially effective in preventing caries in permanent teeth among children and adolescents. No clinical evidence is available regarding the role of high-intensity sweeteners in caries prevention. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The use of xylitol or sorbitol as sugar substitutes has a beneficial effect in preventing dental caries among children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Dentição Permanente , Sorbitol , Edulcorantes , Xilitol , Humanos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Xilitol/uso terapêutico , Sorbitol/uso terapêutico , Edulcorantes/uso terapêutico , Eritritol/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 60(6): 248-249, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738732
12.
Molecules ; 29(10)2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38792051

RESUMO

Erythritol is a polyol with a sweet taste but low energy value. Thanks to its valuable properties, as well as growing social awareness and nutritional trends, its popularity is growing rapidly. The aim of this study was to increase the effectiveness of erythritol production from glucose using new UV mutants of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica obtained in the Wratislavia K1 strain. The ability of the new strains to biosynthesize erythritol and utilize this polyol was examined in shake-flask cultures and fed-batch processes conducted in a stirred tank reactor with a total glucose concentration of 300 and 400 g/L. The Wratislavia K1 strain produced erythritol most efficiently (97.5 g/L; 192 h) at an initial glucose concentration of 250 g/L (total: 300 g/L). New strains were assessed under such conditions, and it was noted that the highest erythritol concentration (145 g/L; 183 h) was produced by the K1UV15 strain. A significant improvement in the erythritol biosynthesis efficiency (148 g/L; 150 h) was achieved upon the increase in (NH4)2SO4 to 3.6 g/L. Further, in the culture with such a concentration of the nitrogen source and increased total glucose level (400 g/L), the K1UV15 strain produced 226 g/L of erythritol within 281 h.


Assuntos
Eritritol , Glucose , Mutação , Yarrowia , Eritritol/metabolismo , Yarrowia/metabolismo , Yarrowia/genética , Yarrowia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glucose/metabolismo , Fermentação , Raios Ultravioleta , Reatores Biológicos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612549

RESUMO

Erythritol has shown excellent insecticidal performance against a wide range of insect species, but the molecular mechanism by which it causes insect mortality and sterility is not fully understood. The mortality and sterility of Drosophila melanogaster were assessed after feeding with 1M erythritol for 72 h and 96 h, and gene expression profiles were further compared through RNA sequencing. Enrichment analysis of GO and KEGG revealed that expressions of the adipokinetic hormone gene (Akh), amylase gene (Amyrel), α-glucosidase gene (Mal-B1/2, Mal-A1-4, Mal-A7/8), and triglyceride lipase gene (Bmm) were significantly up-regulated, while insulin-like peptide genes (Dilp2, Dilp3 and Dilp5) were dramatically down-regulated. Seventeen genes associated with eggshell assembly, including Dec-1 (down 315-fold), Vm26Ab (down 2014-fold) and Vm34Ca (down 6034-fold), were significantly down-regulated or even showed no expression. However, there were no significant differences in the expression of three diuretic hormone genes (DH44, DH31, CAPA) and eight aquaporin genes (Drip, Big brain, AQP, Eglp1, Eglp2, Eglp3, Eglp4 and Prip) involved in osmolality regulation (all p value > 0.05). We concluded that erythritol, a competitive inhibitor of α-glucosidase, severely reduced substrates and enzyme binding, inhibiting effective carbohydrate hydrolysis in the midgut and eventually causing death due to energy deprivation. It was clear that Drosophila melanogaster did not die from the osmolality of the hemolymph. Our findings elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the mortality and sterility in Drosophila melanogaster induced by erythritol feeding. It also provides an important theoretical basis for the application of erythritol as an environmentally friendly pesticide.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Infertilidade , Animais , Feminino , Transcriptoma , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Oviposição , alfa-Glucosidases , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Eritritol/farmacologia , Amilases , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(8)2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673766

RESUMO

The plastidic 2-C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway supplies the precursors of a large variety of essential plant isoprenoids, but its regulation is still not well understood. Using metabolic control analysis (MCA), we examined the first enzyme of this pathway, 1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), in multiple grey poplar (Populus × canescens) lines modified in their DXS activity. Single leaves were dynamically labeled with 13CO2 in an illuminated, climate-controlled gas exchange cuvette coupled to a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer, and the carbon flux through the MEP pathway was calculated. Carbon was rapidly assimilated into MEP pathway intermediates and labeled both the isoprene released and the IDP+DMADP pool by up to 90%. DXS activity was increased by 25% in lines overexpressing the DXS gene and reduced by 50% in RNA interference lines, while the carbon flux in the MEP pathway was 25-35% greater in overexpressing lines and unchanged in RNA interference lines. Isoprene emission was also not altered in these different genetic backgrounds. By correlating absolute flux to DXS activity under different conditions of light and temperature, the flux control coefficient was found to be low. Among isoprenoid end products, isoprene itself was unchanged in DXS transgenic lines, but the levels of the chlorophylls and most carotenoids measured were 20-30% less in RNA interference lines than in overexpression lines. Our data thus demonstrate that DXS in the isoprene-emitting grey poplar plays only a minor part in controlling flux through the MEP pathway.


Assuntos
Eritritol , Eritritol/análogos & derivados , Populus , Fosfatos Açúcares , Transferases , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Populus/enzimologia , Eritritol/metabolismo , Fosfatos Açúcares/metabolismo , Transferases/metabolismo , Transferases/genética , Hemiterpenos/metabolismo , Butadienos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Pentanos/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
15.
Int. microbiol ; 27(2): 581-596, Abr. 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-232303

RESUMO

Erythritol has been produced by various microorganisms including Yarrowia, Moniliella, Aureobasidium, and Candida strains. Due to its relatively high price, erythritol sweetener is used lesser than other polyols despite having many advantages. Therefore, in this study, Moniliella pollinis strain was improved for erythritol production by chemical mutagenesis and subsequently screening for cost-effective carbon sources for the enhanced erythritol yield. M. pollinis was subjected to N-methyl N-nitro N-nitroso guanidine (NTG), ethyl methyl sulfonate (EMS), and UV mutagenesis for improved erythritol production. The fmutant strains were evaluated for enhanced erythritol production medium optimization by using different carbon substrates at the shake flask level. To enhance the production of erythritol and statistical media, optimization was carried out using a central composite design (CCD). Among 198 isolated mutants, Mutant-58 strain generated by EMS mutagenesis was selected for further assessment. The Mutant-58 strain showed significant morphological changes as compared to the parent strain. Furthermore, statistically optimized media composition resulted in the higher production of erythritol (91.2 ± 3.4 g/L) with a yield of 40.7 ± 3.4 % in shake flask experiments. The optimized medium composition for erythritol production constitutes (g/L) 225 jaggery, 4.4 yeast extract (YE), 4.4 KH2PO4, 0.31 MgSO4, and pH 5.5. The present study demonstrated strain improvement, media, and process optimization resulting in a 30% increase in the erythritol production in the Mutant-58 as compared to the parent strain. This is also the first instance where jaggery has been used as a cost-effective carbon source alternative to glucose for industrial-scale erythritol production. (AU)


Assuntos
Eritritol , Microrganismos Aquáticos , Yarrowia , Candida , Edulcorantes
16.
Plant Physiol ; 195(3): 2323-2338, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478585

RESUMO

Hydroxylated monoterpenes (HMTPs) are differentially emitted by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants resisting bacterial infection. We have studied the defensive role of these volatiles in the tomato response to bacteria, whose main entrance is through stomatal apertures. Treatments with some HMTPs resulted in stomatal closure and pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR1) induction. Particularly, α-terpineol induced stomatal closure in a salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid-independent manner and conferred resistance to bacteria. Interestingly, transgenic tomato plants overexpressing or silencing the monoterpene synthase MTS1, which displayed alterations in the emission of HMTPs, exhibited changes in the stomatal aperture but not in plant resistance. Measures of both 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-2,4-cyclopyrophosphate (MEcPP) and SA levels revealed competition for MEcPP by the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway and SA biosynthesis activation, thus explaining the absence of resistance in transgenic plants. These results were confirmed by chemical inhibition of the MEP pathway, which alters MEcPP levels. Treatments with benzothiadiazole (BTH), a SA functional analog, conferred enhanced resistance to transgenic tomato plants overexpressing MTS1. Additionally, these MTS1 overexpressors induced PR1 gene expression and stomatal closure in neighboring plants. Our results confirm the role of HMTPs in both intra- and interplant immune signaling and reveal a metabolic crosstalk between the MEP and SA pathways in tomato plants.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos , Doenças das Plantas , Estômatos de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Ácido Salicílico , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiologia , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Solanum lycopersicum/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Estômatos de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxilação , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fosfatos Açúcares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pseudomonas syringae/patogenicidade , Pseudomonas syringae/fisiologia , Eritritol/análogos & derivados , Eritritol/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 40(3): 665-686, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38545970

RESUMO

Erythritol is a novel 4-carbon sugar alcohol produced by microbes in the presence of hyper-osmotic stress. It has excellent potential to serve as an alternative sugar for people with diabetes and also a platform compound for synthesizing various C4 compounds, such as 1, 3-butadiene, 1, 4-butanediol, 2, 5-dihydrofuran and so on. Compared with other polyols, the fermentative production of erythritol is more challenging. Yarrowia lipolytica is the preferred chassis of erythritol biosynthesis for its high-titer and high-productivity. At present, there are still some bottlenecks in the production of erythritol by Y. lipolytica, such as weak metabolic activity, abundant by-products, and low industrial attributes. Progress has been made in tailoring high version strains according to industrial needs. For example, the highest titer of erythritol produced by the metabolically engineered Y. lipolytica reached 196 g/L and 150 g/L, respectively, by using glucose or glycerol as the carbon sources. However, further improving its production performance becomes challenging. This review summarizes the research progress in the synthesis of erythritol by Y. lipolytica from the perspectives of erythritol producing strains, metabolic pathways, modular modifications, and auxiliary strategies to enhance the industrial properties of the engineered strain. Key nodes in the metabolic pathway and their combination strategies are discussed to guide the research on promoting the production of erythritol by Y. lipolytica.


Assuntos
Yarrowia , Humanos , Yarrowia/genética , Yarrowia/metabolismo , Eritritol/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Fermentação , Carbono/metabolismo
18.
Microb Cell Fact ; 23(1): 77, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erythritol is a four-carbon polyol with an unclear role in metabolism of some unconventional yeasts. Its production has been linked to the osmotic stress response, but the mechanism of stress protection remains unclear. Additionally, erythritol can be used as a carbon source. In the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, its assimilation is activated by the transcription factor Euf1. The study investigates whether this factor can link erythritol to other processes in the cell. RESULTS: The research was performed on two closely related strains of Y. lipolytica: MK1 and K1, where strain K1 has no functional Euf1. Cultures were carried out in erythritol-containing and erythritol-free media. Transcriptome analysis revealed the effect of Euf1 on the regulation of more than 150 genes. Some of these could be easily connected with different aspects of erythritol assimilation, such as: utilization pathway, a new potential isoform of transketolase, or polyol transporters. However, many of the upregulated genes have never been linked to metabolism of erythritol. The most prominent examples are the degradation pathway of branched-chain amino acids and the glyoxylate cycle. The high transcription of genes affected by Euf1 is still dependent on the erythritol concentration in the medium. Moreover, almost all up-regulated genes have an ATGCA motif in the promoter sequence. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may be particularly relevant given the increasing use of erythritol-induced promoters in genetic engineering of Y. lipolytica. Moreover, use of this yeast in biotechnological processes often takes place under osmotic stress conditions. Erythritol might be produce as a by-product, thus better understanding of its influence on cell metabolism could facilitate processes optimization.


Assuntos
Yarrowia , Yarrowia/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Eritritol/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Carbono/metabolismo
19.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 263, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489040

RESUMO

Elucidation of the thermotolerance mechanism of erythritol-producing Yarrowia lipolytica is of great significance to breed robust industrial strains and reduce cost. This study aimed to breed thermotolerant Y. lipolytica and investigate the mechanism underlying the thermotolerant phenotype. Yarrowia lipolytica HT34, Yarrowia lipolytica HT36, and Yarrowia lipolytica HT385 that were capable of growing at 34 °C, 36 °C, and 38.5 °C, respectively, were obtained within 150 days (352 generations) by adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) integrated with 60Co-γ radiation and ultraviolet ray radiation. Comparative genomics analysis showed that genes involved in signal transduction, transcription, and translation regulation were mutated during adaptive evolution. Further, we demonstrated that thermal stress increased the expression of genes related to DNA replication and repair, ceramide and steroid synthesis, and the degradation of branched amino acid (BCAA) and free fatty acid (FFA), while inhibiting the expression of genes involved in glycolysis and the citrate cycle. Erythritol production in thermotolerant strains was remarkably inhibited, which might result from the differential expression of genes involved in erythritol metabolism. Exogenous addition of BCAA and soybean oil promoted the growth of HT385, highlighting the importance of BCAA and FFA in thermal stress response. Additionally, overexpression of 11 out of the 18 upregulated genes individually enabled Yarrowia lipolytica CA20 to grow at 34 °C, of which genes A000121, A003183, and A005690 had a better effect. Collectively, this study provides novel insights into the adaptation mechanism of Y. lipolytica to thermal stress, which will be conducive to the construction of thermotolerant erythritol-producing strains. KEY POINTS: • ALE combined with mutagenesis is efficient for breeding thermotolerant Y. lipolytica • Genes encoding global regulators are mutated during thermal adaptive evolution • Ceramide and BCAA are critical molecules for cells to tolerate thermal stress.


Assuntos
Yarrowia , Yarrowia/metabolismo , Eritritol , Glicerol/metabolismo , Glicólise , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Ceramidas/farmacologia
20.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 121(6): 1937-1949, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548668

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of hyphal formation in Yarrowia lipolytica and biochar addition on erythritol production by submerged fermentation. Hyphal formation significantly inhibited erythritol production by Y. lipolytica. Transcriptome analysis suggested that the impaired erythritol synthesis of hyphal cells was associated with the differential expression of genes involved in amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, and cell wall stability. Deletion of RAS2 responsible for yeast-to-hypha transition and EYD1 included in erythritol degradation blocked hyphal formation and improved erythritol production. Biochar prepared from corncob, sugarcane bagasse (SB), corn straw, peanut shell, coconut shell, and walnut shell (WS) had a positive effect on erythritol production, of which WS pyrolyzed at 500°C (WSc) performed the best in flask fermentation. In a 3.7 L bioreactor, 220.20 ± 10 g/L erythritol with a productivity of 2.30 ± 0.10 g/L/h was obtained in the presence of 1.4% (w/v) WSc and 0.7% SBc (SB pyrolyzed at 500°C) within 96 h. These results suggest that inhibition of hyphal formation together with biochar addition is an efficient way to promote erythritol production.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Eritritol , Hifas , Yarrowia , Eritritol/biossíntese , Eritritol/metabolismo , Yarrowia/genética , Yarrowia/metabolismo , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hifas/metabolismo , Hifas/genética , Hifas/efeitos dos fármacos , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Carvão Vegetal/química , Fermentação , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia
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