Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 470
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6289, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271078

RESUMO

Biological microorganisms overcome the Brownian motion at low Reynolds numbers by utilizing symmetry-breaking mechanisms. Inspired by them, various microrobot locomotion methods have been developed at the microscale by breaking the hydrodynamic symmetry. Although the boundary effects have been extensively studied for microswimmers and employed for surface-rolling microrobots, the behavior of microrobots in the proximity of multiple wall-based "confinement" is yet to be elucidated. Here, we study the confinement effect on the motion of surface-rolling microrobots. Our experiments demonstrate that the locomotion efficiency of spherical microrollers drastically decreases in confined spaces due to out-of-plane rotational flows generated during locomotion. Hence, a slender microroller design, generating smaller rotational flows, is shown to outperform spherical microrollers in confined spaces. Our results elucidate the underlying physics of surface rolling-based locomotion in confined spaces and present a design strategy with optimal flow generation for efficient propulsion in such areas, including blood vessels and microchannels.


Assuntos
Robótica , Robótica/métodos , Espaços Confinados , Movimento (Física) , Locomoção , Hidrodinâmica
2.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052593

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulphide poisoning is an acute poisoning event that occurs frequently in summer. A case of acute hydrogen sulphide poisoning in a confined space in August 2018 was investigated and clinical data were analyzed. This is a typical case of acute hydrogen sulfide gas poisoning in a confined space. The main cause of the accident is the lack of occupational protection and illegal rescue. Among the 5 patients, 3 died, 1 patient had long-term sequelae of nervous system damage such as cortical blindness, and 1 patient was cured.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Gás , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Intoxicação , Acidentes , Acidentes de Trabalho , Espaços Confinados , Humanos
3.
Behav Processes ; 201: 104712, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905925

RESUMO

Many cats show signs of fear and stress during veterinary examinations and procedures, with environmental stimuli such as noise contributing to these responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of background noise commonly heard in veterinary clinics (people talking, kennel doors shutting, dogs barking) on behavioural and physiological responses in companion cats. In Experiment 1, owned cats underwent a mock physical examination in a veterinary clinic with (n = 16) or without (n = 16) a pre-recorded noise track. A second experiment was conducted to assess cat responses to noise outside of handling and a clinic environment. In Experiment 2, shelter cats were either exposed (n = 15) or not exposed (n = 15) to the same noise track while allowed free movement in a small enclosure. Physiological and behavioural responses previously validated as negative responses in cats (e.g., indicative of fear, stress and aversion) were recorded, and outcome variables were compared between treatments. For both experiments, cats exposed to the noise track showed higher heart and respiratory rates. Noise was not associated with behavioural changes during the physical examination; however, cats who were freely moving showed more behavioural signs of fear and/or stress during noise exposure compared to the no noise conditions. These results show that high levels of background noise elicit physiological stress responses in cats, while ceiling effects of the examination and exposure to the clinic environment likely prevented treatment-related behavioral differences from being detected during the physical examination. It is recommended that those working with cats in environments with high levels of background noise limit cat exposure to these noises to reduce cat fear and stress.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Espaços Confinados , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Gatos , Cães , Medo , Hospitais Veterinários , Humanos , Animais de Estimação
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742666

RESUMO

Employee performance in terms of knowledge of job scope, safe working practices, and safety-related attitude at work are used to measure an organization's success in managing employee welfare and safety to prevent workplace injury and death. This study aims to determine the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice on safe working in confined space among water services workers. A cross-sectional study involving a randomly selected 207 water services workers working in a confined space was performed in the central region of Malaysia. The assessment was performed using a validated Malay self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and Logistic regression were used for data analyses. The study's participants were all men, with a mean (SD) age of 35.2 (8.83) years. The average working duration was 10.8 years. Overall, 67.1% of participants had good knowledge, while 65.7% had a positive attitude. The majority of the workers (60.4%) were found to follow safe working practices. Regression analysis revealed that significant predictors for knowledge were age [Adjusted odds ratio (Adj. OR) 2.793; 95% CI: 1.310, 5.955; p = 0.008] and attitude (Adj. OR 2.127; 95% CI: 1.011, 4.526; p = 0.048). Attitude was influenced by marital status (Adj. OR 4.126; 95% CI: 2.079, 8.186; p < 0.001) and knowledge level (Adj. OR 2.224; 95% CI: 1.025, 4.824; p = 0.043). A positive attitude was the sole predictor influencing the safe practice (Adj. OR; 1.878; 95% CI: 1.041, 3.388; p = 0.036). In conclusion, the workers' levels of knowledge, attitudes, and practices were relatively satisfactory. Extensive investment in workplace safety and health programs, appropriate training, growth opportunities, and effective employee performance evaluation methodologies may assist workers in performing at their best.


Assuntos
Espaços Confinados , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Água
5.
Cell Syst ; 13(7): 514-529.e10, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679858

RESUMO

Navigation through a dense, physically confining extracellular matrix is common in invasive cell spread and tissue reorganization but is still poorly understood. Here, we show that this migration is mediated by cyclic changes in the activity of a small GTPase RhoA, which is dependent on the oscillatory changes in the activity and abundance of the RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factor, GEF-H1, and triggered by a persistent increase in the intracellular Ca2+ levels. We show that the molecular clock driving these cyclic changes is mediated by two coupled negative feedback loops, dependent on the microtubule dynamics, with a frequency that can be experimentally modulated based on a predictive mathematical model. We further demonstrate that an increasing frequency of the clock translates into a faster cell migration within physically confining spaces. This work lays the foundation for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms dynamically driving cell migration in complex environments.


Assuntos
Espaços Confinados , Microtúbulos , Movimento Celular/genética , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho
6.
Biophys J ; 121(13): 2653-2662, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398019

RESUMO

Symbiotic bacteria often navigate complex environments before colonizing privileged sites in their host organism. Chemical gradients are known to facilitate directional taxis of these bacteria, guiding them toward their eventual destination. However, less is known about the role of physical features in shaping the path the bacteria take and defining how they traverse a given space. The flagellated marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri, which forms a binary symbiosis with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, must navigate tight physical confinement during colonization, squeezing through a tissue bottleneck constricting to ∼2 µm in width on the way to its eventual home. Using microfluidic in vitro experiments, we discovered that V. fischeri cells alter their behavior upon entry into confined space, straightening their swimming paths and promoting escape from confinement. Using a computational model, we attributed this escape response to two factors: reduced directional fluctuation and a refractory period between reversals. Additional experiments in asymmetric capillary tubes confirmed that V. fischeri quickly escape from confined ends, even when drawn into the ends by chemoattraction. This avoidance was apparent down to a limit of confinement approaching the diameter of the cell itself, resulting in a balance between chemoattraction and evasion of physical confinement. Our findings demonstrate that nontrivial distributions of swimming bacteria can emerge from simple physical gradients in the level of confinement. Tight spaces may serve as an additional, crucial cue for bacteria while they navigate complex environments to enter specific habitats.


Assuntos
Espaços Confinados , Natação , Aliivibrio fischeri/fisiologia , Animais , Decapodiformes/microbiologia , Decapodiformes/fisiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162265

RESUMO

Confined space workers do a wide range of tasks, many of which have a significant risk of hazardous exposure. Hence, a reliable and valid questionnaire is important in assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of workers in this field. The present study was conducted to develop and validate a questionnaire that could assess the KAP for safe working in a confined space. The questionnaire went through a development and validation process. The development stage consisted of a literature review, expert's opinion, and evaluation by experts in the field via cognitive debriefing. The validation stage encompassed exploratory and confirmatory parts to investigate the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. A total of 350 participants were recruited among confined space workers from two oil and gas companies in Malaysia. The two-parameter logistic item response theory (2-PL IRT) analysis was used for the knowledge section. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used in the attitude and practice sections of the validation stage. The development stage resulted in 30 items for knowledge, attitude, and practice sections. Items in the knowledge section showed an acceptable difficulty and discrimination, as noted during the 2-PL IRT analysis. The EFA resulted in a one-factor model for attitude and practice sections, and contained 18 items, with factor loading > 0.4. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.804 and 0.917 for attitude and practice sections, respectively. The CFA for attitude and practice sections indicated a good model fitness (Raykov's rho = 0.814 and 0.912, respectively). All items indicated good reliability and valid psychometrics for determining KAP on safe working in a confined space.


Assuntos
Espaços Confinados , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216456

RESUMO

Sulfur-containing groups preorganized on macrocyclic scaffolds are well suited for liquid-phase complexation of soft metal ions; however, their binding potential was not extensively studied at the air-water interface, and the effect of thioether topology on metal ion binding mechanisms under various conditions was not considered. Herein, we report the interface receptor characteristics of topologically varied thiacalixarene thioethers (linear bis-(methylthio)ethoxy derivative L2, O2S2-thiacrown-ether L3, and O2S2-bridged thiacalixtube L4). The study was conducted in bulk liquid phase and Langmuir monolayers. For all compounds, the highest liquid-phase extraction selectivity was revealed for Ag+ and Hg2+ ions vs. other soft metal ions. In thioether L2 and thiacalixtube L4, metal ion binding was evidenced by a blue shift of the band at 303 nm (for Ag+ species) and the appearance of ligand-to-metal charge transfer bands at 330-340 nm (for Hg2+ species). Theoretical calculations for thioether L2 and its Ag and Hg complexes are consistent with experimental data of UV/Vis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffractometry of Ag-thioether L2 complexes and Hg-thiacalixtube L4 complex for the case of coordination around the metal center involving two alkyl sulfide groups (Hg2+) or sulfur atoms on the lower rim and bridging unit (Ag+). In thiacrown L3, Ag and Hg binding by alkyl sulfide groups was suggested from changes in NMR spectra upon the addition of corresponding salts. In spite of the low ability of the thioethers to form stable Langmuir monolayers on deionized water, one might argue that the monolayers significantly expand in the presence of Hg salts in the water subphase. Hg2+ ion uptake by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of ligand L3 was proved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Together, these results demonstrate the potential of sulfide groups on the calixarene platform as receptor unit towards Hg2+ ions, which could be useful in the development of Hg2+-selective water purification systems or thin-film sensor devices.


Assuntos
Espaços Confinados , Mercúrio , Ligantes , Mercúrio/química , Metais/química , Sais , Sulfetos/química , Enxofre , Água/química
9.
Biomater Sci ; 10(6): 1470-1475, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35170621

RESUMO

Matrices formed by self-assembly of amino acids and their derivatives are suitable for cell spreading, migration and proliferation, and widely used in tissue engineering and organ regeneration, due to the biological endogenous molecules and weak intermolecular forces. The self-assembly process is not only affected by dynamic and thermodynamic factors, but also the assembled space. In this work, capillary tubes with different diameters are chosen to mimic a confined environment and the effect of capillary space on the self-assembly behavior of Fmoc-amino acids with different oil-water partition coefficients (log P) was investigated. The amino acids can form special morphologies and structures through the limitation of the Brownian motion and the template effect exerted by a confined environment. Meanwhile, the obtained parallel ordered fiber network was applied to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) and support the adhesion and proliferation of monolayer flat epithelial cells (HUVECs). We believe that the exploration of the self-assembly of amino acids in confined space can promote the understanding of the supramolecular self-assembly mechanism and offer a great opportunity in building the specific structures of vessels or tissues in vitro.


Assuntos
Espaços Confinados , Fluorenos , Aminoácidos/química , Matriz Extracelular/química , Fluorenos/química
10.
J Agric Saf Health ; 28(1): 65-81, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130589

RESUMO

HIGHLIGHTS: Approximately ten cases were documented annually over the 44-year period; 48% were in the last decade and 28% were in the last three years, primarily due to more aggressive surveillance and on-line access to incident reports. A total of 389 incidents involving 459 individuals were documented, of which 59% were fatal; >85% of the victims were male, with an average age of 37. 49 rescue incidents involved a total of 119 secondary victims, indicating that approximately 26% of the victims were secondary victims, including first responders. 20% of all victims, when age was known, were children or youth under the age of 21. ABSTRACT: There is limited published research exploring the frequency and causes of livestock waste-related fatalities and injuries among farm operators and workers. While there has been ongoing surveillance of mortality and morbidity involving agricultural confined space-related incidents, such as grain storage facilities, few resources have been invested in estimating the frequency of livestock waste-related incidents, which are often reported as primarily involving confined spaces. Existing surveillance efforts have historically underreported fatal cases, injuries, and near misses and misclassified these incidents as non-farm related. For nearly 40 years, the Purdue Agricultural Confined Spaces Incident Database (PACSID) has been used to document agricultural confined space-related incidents, of which manure storage and handling activities have accounted for 22% of the cases documented. The specific goal of this study was to address the gap in the current understanding of the frequency and severity of injuries associated with livestock waste storage, handling, and transport by: (1) developing a consistent way to identify, document, and code these cases; (2) summarizing all known U.S. cases, both fatal and non-fatal, currently documented in the PACSID; (3) identifying the most significant risks contributing to livestock waste storage, handling, and transport-related incidents; and (4) providing evidence-based recommendations and mitigation strategies to enhance the effectiveness of current injury prevention measures. The PACSID and other sources were mined for relevant data, and an aggressive effort was made to document additional cases through a variety of surveillance methods. A total of 459 individual U.S. cases from the study period (1975 to 2019) were identified, coded using a uniform coding system, and summarized. Overall, cases were documented in 43 states, with 66% (302 cases) documented in heavily agricultural and, more specifically, historically strong dairy production states. Of the cases reviewed, 59% were fatal, males ages 21 to 30 and dairy farm workers were identified as high-risk populations, 20% were identified as under the age of 21, and 49 incidents involved multiple victims. Farm injury data limitations and underreporting were problematic, especially during the early years of the study period. However, the findings provide a foundation for recommending safer workplace safety and health practices, evaluating existing engineering and regulatory standards, assessing the impacts of current injury prevention efforts, and redesigning farm safety programs, especially those targeting livestock workers, to reduce the frequency and severity of these incidents.


Assuntos
Gado , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trabalho , Adolescente , Adulto , Agricultura , Animais , Criança , Espaços Confinados , Fazendas , Humanos , Masculino , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 26, 2022 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35125119

RESUMO

A human spaceflight to Mars is scheduled for the next decade. In preparation for this unmatched endeavor, a plethora of challenges must be faced prior to the actual journey to Mars. Mission success will depend on the health of its crew and its working capacity. Hence, the journey to Mars will also depend on the microbiome and its far-reaching effects on individual crew health, the spaceship's integrity, and food supply. As human beings rely on their microbiome, these microbes are essential and should be managed to ensure their beneficial effects outweigh potential risks. In this commentary, we focus on the current state of knowledge regarding a healthy (gut) microbiome of space travelers based on research from the International Space Station and simulation experiments on Earth. We further indicate essential knowledge gaps of microbial conditions during long-term space missions in isolated confined space habitats or outposts and give detailed recommendations for microbial monitoring during pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight. Finally, the conclusion outlines open questions and aspects of space traveler's health beyond the scope of this commentary. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Marte , Microbiota , Voo Espacial , Astronautas , Espaços Confinados , Humanos , Astronave
12.
Prev. tab ; 24(1): 11-21, ene-mar 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-206182

RESUMO

Objetivo: Se ha postulado que se podría reducir la concentración de algunas sustancias tóxicas de los ambientes contaminados por humo de tabaco mediante la utilización de la placa de espuma porosa que se basa en el fenómeno de la fotocatálisis. Hemos realizado un estudio con el objetivo de evaluar la eficacia de la placa porosa fotocatalítica tipo ACEAIR (PPFCA), en relación con la disminución/eliminación de algunos de los componentes de humo del tabaco en un entorno cerrado y controlado. Material y métodos: Se han realizado dos experimentos. En el primero se encendió un cigarrillo en una habitación cerrada en ausencia de ventilación y posteriormente se activó la placa. Se calculó la concentración de partículas (PM2,5 PM1 y PM10), compuestos orgánicos volátiles (COV) y formaldehídos antes y a los 15 minutos de la colocación de la PPFCA y a las 24 horas. En un día posterior, se realizaron las mismas determinaciones en condiciones similares, pero en ausencia de la PPFCA. En el segundo experimento se encendió un primer cigarrillo y se continuó encendiendo un nuevo cigarrillo cada hora durante 8 horas con el objeto de simular una situación más habitual en la vida diaria. Se midieron los mismos contaminantes con y sin placa. Resultados: Se produjeron reducciones moderadas de cada uno de los componentes tóxicos analizados con la utilización de la PPFCA que oscilaron entre un 20 a un 50%. Conclusiones: La utilización de la PPFCA sirvió para reducir ligeramente la concentración de algunas sustancias tóxicas, pero no fue capaz de provocar su completa eliminación.(AU)


Objective: It has been postulated that it would be possible to reduce the concentration of some toxic substances of the environments contaminated by tobacco smoke by using porous foam plates based on the phenomenon of the photocatalysis. We have performed a study with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of the ACEAIR (PPFCA) type photocatalytic plate in relationship with the decrease/elimination of some of the components of tobacco smoke in a closed and controlled setting. Material and methods: Two experiments have been conducted. In the first one, a cigarette was lighted up in a closed room in the absence of ventilation and then the plate was activated. The concentration of particles (PM 2.5 PM 1 and PM 10), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and formaldehydes were calculated before and at 15 minutes of placing the PPFCA and at 24 hours. In a later date, the same measurements were made under similar conditions, but in the absence of the PPFCA. In the second experiment, a first cigarette was lit up and a new cigarette was lit up every hour during 8 hours in order to simulate a more common situation in the daily life. The same contaminants with and without the plate were measured. Results: Moderate reductions that ranged from 20 to 50% of each one of the toxic components analyzed occurred with the use of the PPFCA. Conclusions: The use of the PPFCA served to slightly reduce the concentration of some toxic substances, but it was not capable of provoking their complete elimination.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Substâncias Tóxicas , Espaços Confinados , Filtros de Ar , Tabaco , Fumaça
13.
Inj Prev ; 28(2): 165-174, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656989

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Agriculture stands out in relation to the high number of occupational incidents and diseases. In this sense, grains postharvest operations, such as receiving, precleaning, drying, storage and shipping the grains, are highlighted in the number of injuries and fatalities. AIM: To identify and extract qualitative and quantitative data related to the main occupational hazards present in grains postharvest operations at preprocessing and storage facilities. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out in the databases of Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science for papers published between 1980 and 2019. The abstract should have described a study related to any occupational hazard (physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and mechanical) and at least one of the occupational hazards should be related to any postharvest operations. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: In total, 42% of 38 analysed papers were published between 2015 and 2019. Three journals were responsible for 45% of publications related to occupational hazards present in grains postharvest operations. The most part of analysed publications related to confined spaces, grain entrapment, machine entanglement and falls hazards are related to Purdue University's Agricultural Safety and Health Program which applied research in occupational safety at grains postharvest. CONCLUSIONS: The creation of standardised internationals can collaborate to reduce occupational risks in grain storage units. It is suggested the development of monitoring technologies to obtain real-time information on noise, dust, gases and heat in postharvest operations and equipment. The use of intelligent algorithms can create prevention mechanisms for possible occupational risks and avoid injuries to employees.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Saúde do Trabalhador , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Agricultura , Espaços Confinados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 816: 151527, 2022 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762944

RESUMO

Aerosols in indoor air have various adverse effects on human health. Considering the use of forced ventilation and fan mixing (individually and in combination), the variation in charge number and their effects on aerosol transmission in confined spaces were explored in this study with the distinction of particle sources. In the case of sources originating from the external space, natural penetration acquires a greater number of negative charges. Forced ventilation of a confined space acts on the fate of particles in the neighboring confined space, while the internal fan has a negligible effect on both the number concentration and charge number of particles in the exterior. The combination of forced ventilation and fan mixing increases charge numbers, altering the lifetime of particles in the external regional environment by deposition or adsorption, particularly for neutralized particles. In the case of sources originating from the interior area, application of an internal fan weakens the ventilation effect from forced ventilation, resulting in internal particle loss by depositing on internal surfaces due to electrostatic charge, increasing the potential risk of resuspension. Additionally, source origin is associated with particle fate, and the charge generated under the action of external forces contributes to the transmission pathways and the fate of the particles in the air. This study investigates the transmission pathways and the fate of aerosols from the perspective of charge number, hopefully contributing to an in-depth understanding of the transmission mechanisms of toxic substances in confined spaces with aerosols as carriers.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Espaços Confinados , Aerossóis , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Ventilação
15.
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto, Online) ; 32: e3212, 2022. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1365215

RESUMO

Abstract The recommendation of standards for companies supports the safety of workers. This study aimed to describe the psychosocial risk factors perceived by personnel that work in confined spaces. Qualitative study, conducted via interviews with 50 employees. Data were processed using the Interface de R pour les Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires software, with a descending hierarchical classification. The psychosocial risk management model identified five risk dimensions and described the interface between the categories of work context and content: interpersonal relationships (29.58%), task planning (23.50%), role in the organization (17.83%), home-work interface (15.10%), and workload and work pace (13.97%). The risk factors identified from the workers'' perspective allow reviewing psychosocial assessment, management practices, and the advancement of scientific knowledge, essential to rethink current legislation and mental health care for professionals that work in confined spaces.


Resumo As normas regulamentadoras oferecem diretrizes às empresas para execução do trabalho, inclusive para a área de segurança. O objetivo foi descrever fatores de risco psicossocial percebidos por trabalhadores atuantes em espaços confinados. Estudo qualitativo, conduzido por meio de entrevistas com 50 trabalhadores. Os dados foram processados, segundo classificação hierárquica descendente, pelo software Interface de R pour les Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires. O modelo de gestão de riscos psicossociais, identificou cinco dimensões de risco distribuídas nas categorias de contexto e conteúdo do trabalho: relacionamento interpessoal (29,58%), planejamento de tarefas (23,50%), papel na organização (17,83%), interface casa-trabalho (15,10%) e carga e ritmo de trabalho (13,97%). Os fatores de risco identificados, na perspectiva dos trabalhadores, possibilitam a revisão de práticas de avaliação psicossocial, gestão e o avanço no conhecimento científico, importantes para subsidiar tomadas de decisão para o cuidado à saúde mental de profissionais atuantes em espaços confinados.


Resumen Las normas de reglamentación contienen lineamientos de ejecución de trabajo para las empresas, incluso para el área de seguridad. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir los factores de riesgo psicosocial percibidos por los trabajadores que actúan en espacios confinados. Este estudio es cualitativo, en que se aplicaron entrevistas a 50 trabajadores. Los datos fueron procesados, según la clasificación jerárquica descendiente, por el programa Interface de R pour les Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires. El modelo de gestión de riesgos psicosociales identificó cinco dimensiones de riesgo, distribuidas en las categorías de contexto y contenido del trabajo: relación interpersonal (29,58%); planificación de tareas (23,5%); papel en la organización (17,83%); interface casa-trabajo (15,1%); y carga y ritmo de trabajo (13,97%). Los factores de riesgo identificados por los trabajadores posibilitan la revisión de prácticas de evaluación psicosocial, gestión y avance en el conocimiento científico, importantes elementos para repensar la toma de decisión en la atención a la salud mental de profesionales que actúan en espacios confinados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gestão de Recursos Humanos , Estresse Psicológico , Condições de Trabalho , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Risco , Saúde do Trabalhador , Espaços Confinados , Relações Interpessoais
16.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260065, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational welding fumes contain varieties of toxic metal particles and may affect cardiovascular system like the Particulate Matters (PM). Few studies have focused on the effects of toxic metals on the hemodynamic balance; however, the reporting results were not consistent. This study aimed to investigate the association between toxic metals exposure (Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn) and Lead (Pb)) and blood hemostatic parameters status after a 3-week exposure cessation among workers exposed to welding fumes. METHODOLOGY: Structured interviews and biological samplings were conducted for 86 male workers without a history of Anemia and Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and working in a confined space to construct crude oil tanks. Metal levels of Cr, Mn and Pb in urine were measured during the working days using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) method. The concentrations of hemostatic proteins in blood (White blood cell counts (WBC), Lymphocytes, Monocyte, Eosinophil, Neutrophil, Hematocrit (Hct) were assessed after a 3 weeks exposure cessation. Workers were divided into groups based on occupation type (welder group and non-welder group), and based on metal levels (high and low exposure groups) for comparison. Linear regression models were used to explore the association between metal exposure and multiple blood hemostatic parameters adjusted for age, Body Mass Index (BMI), and smoking status. RESULTS: Urine Mn and Cr level of the welder group was significantly higher than the non-welder group (Mn: 0.96 VS 0.22 ug/g creatinine, p < 0.001; Cr: 0.63 VS 0.22 ug/g creatinine, p < 0.01). The mean value of Hct in the welder group was 44.58 ± 2.84 vol%, significantly higher than the non-welder group (43.07 ± 3.31 vol%, p = 0.026). The median value of WBC in the high Mn-exposed group (6.93 ± 1.59 X 106 Cell/ml) was significantly lower than the low Mn-exposed group (7.90 ± 2.13 X 106 Cell/ml, p = 0.018). The linear regression analyses showed that there was a significantly negative association between log transformed WBC value and the Mn exposure groups (high and low) after adjusting for age, BMI, and smoking status (ß = - 0.049, p = 0.045), but no significant result was found between WBC and occupation types (welder and non-welder) (p > 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis also showed positive association between Hct and occupational types (welder and non-welders) (ß = 0.014, p = 0.055). The other hemostatic parameters were not different from controls when divided by occupation type or metal level groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that welders were exposed to about 3 to 4 times higher Mn and Cr concentrations than non-welders. Moreover, one third of the non-welders were exposed to high-exposure groups of Mn and Cr metals. Regression models revealed a significant association of the WBC counts with the Mn exposure group. Therefore, we infer that Mn exposure may play a significant role on the blood hemostatic parameters of workers in the confined space. Hazard identification for non-welders should also be conducted in the confined space.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Gás/epidemiologia , Ferreiros , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Cromo/sangue , Cromo/toxicidade , Espaços Confinados , Eosinófilos , Gases/toxicidade , Hematócrito , Hemodinâmica , Hemostáticos/toxicidade , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Contagem de Leucócitos , Manganês/sangue , Manganês/toxicidade , Monócitos , Neutrófilos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/economia , Tailândia , Soldagem
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 697435, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248999

RESUMO

Beyond all doubts, the exploration of outer space is a strategically important and priority sector of the national economy, scientific and technological development of every and particular country, and of all human civilization in general. A number of stress factors, including a prolonged confinement in a limited hermetically sealed space, influence the human body in space on board the spaceship and during the orbital flight. All these factors predominantly negatively affect various functional systems of the organism, in particular, the astronaut's immunity. These ground-based experiments allow to elucidate the effect of confinement in a limited space on both the activation of the immunity and the changes of the immune status in dynamics. Also, due to simulation of one or another emergency situation, such an approach allows the estimation of the influence of an additional psychological stress on the immunity, particularly, in the context of the reserve capacity of the immune system. A sealed chamber seems a convenient site for working out the additional techniques for crew members selection, as well as the countermeasures for negative changes in the astronauts' immune status. In this review we attempted to collect information describing changes in human immunity during isolation experiments with different conditions including short- and long-term experiments in hermetically closed chambers with artificial environment and during Antarctic winter-over.


Assuntos
Astronautas/psicologia , Espaços Confinados , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Voo Espacial/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Regiões Antárticas , Simulação por Computador , Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Microbiota/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Espacial , Simulação de Ambiente Espacial , Astronave , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Environ Res ; 202: 111679, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: If the different transmission risks of respiratory infectious diseases according to the type of confined space and associated factors could be discovered, this kind of information will be an important basis for devising future quarantine policies. However, no comprehensive systematic review or meta-analysis for this topic exists. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to analyze different transmission risks of respiratory infectious diseases according to the type of confined space. This information will be an important basis for devising future quarantine policies. METHODS: A medical librarian searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (until December 01, 2020). RESULTS: A total of 147 articles were included. The risk of transmission in all types of confined spaces was approximately 3 times higher than in open space (combined RR, 2.95 (95% CI 2.62-3.33)). Among them, school or workplace showed the highest transmission risk (combined RR, 3.94 (95% CI 3.16-4.90)). Notably, in the sub-analysis for SARS-CoV-2, residential space and airplane were the riskiest space (combined RR, 8.30 (95% CI 3.30-20.90) and 7.30 (95% CI 1.15-46.20), respectively). DISCUSSION: Based on the equation of the total number of contacts, the order of transmission according to the type of confined space was calculated. The calculated order was similar to the observed order in this study. The transmission risks in confined spaces can be lowered by reducing each component of the aforementioned equation. However, as seen in the data for SARS-CoV-2, the closure of one type of confined space could increase the population density in another confined space. The authority of infection control should consider this paradox. Appropriate quarantine measures targeted for specific types of confined spaces with a higher risk of transmission, school or workplace for general pathogens, and residential space/airplane for SARS-CoV-2 can reduce the transmission of respiratory infectious diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Espaços Confinados , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9055

RESUMO

De acordo com a Organização Mundial de Saúde, locais fechados são focos de contágio de COVID-19 e devem ser bem ventilados para evitar a disseminação da doença. A renovação do ar evita que os aerossóis, partículas microscópicas que são liberadas na respiração e na fala, fiquem suspensos no ambiente. Neste vídeo, a equipe COVID-19 DivulgAÇÃO Científica conversa sobre esse assunto com Ricardo Gomes Passos, pesquisador do Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Espaços Confinados , Distanciamento Físico , e-Acessibilidade
20.
Virol J ; 18(1): 109, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has spread rapidly worldwide and disease prevention is more important than ever. In the absence of a vaccine, knowledge of the transmission routes and risk areas of infection remain the most important existing tools to prevent further spread. METHODS: Here we investigated the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the hospital environment at the Uppsala University Hospital Infectious Disease ward by RT-qPCR and determined the infectivity of the detected virus in vitro on Vero E6 cells. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in several areas, although attempts to infect Vero E6 cells with positive samples were unsuccessful. However, RNase A treatment of positive samples prior to RNA extraction did not degrade viral RNA, indicating the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsids or complete virus particles protecting the RNA as opposed to free viral RNA. CONCLUSION: Our results show that even in places where a moderate concentration (Ct values between 30 and 38) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found; no infectious virus could be detected. This suggests that the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the hospital environment subsides in two states; as infectious and as non-infectious. Future work should investigate the reasons for the non-infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 virions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Espaços Confinados , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Risco , SARS-CoV-2/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ventilação/métodos , Células Vero
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...