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1.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 82: 106766, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182815

RESUMO

The relation between circulating concentrations of progesterone and 17ß-estradiol prior to insemination play a key role in optimizing fertility in cattle. This study aimed to determine the impact of endogenous progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) concentrations on uterine bacterial community abundance and diversity in beef cattle. Angus-influenced heifers were subjected to an industry standard estrous synchronization protocol. Uterine flushes were collected on d -2 (endogenous P4) and d 0 (endogenous E2) and used for targeting the V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA bacterial gene. Plasma was collected on d -2 and 0 for quantification of P4 and E2 concentrations by radioimmunoassay, respectively. Heifers were allotted to one of the following groups: High P4 + High E2 (H-H; n = 11), High P4 + Low E2 (H-L; n = 9), Low P4 + High E2 (L-H; n = 9), Low P4 + Low E2 (L-L; n = 11). Results indicated that Shannon's diversity index tended to be greater for H-L heifers compared to L-H heifers on d 0 (P = 0.10). For H-L heifers from d -2 to d 0, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria decreased and Tenericutes increased (P < 0.01). Within phylum Actinobacteria, the relative abundance of Corynebacterium decreased from d -2 to d 0 in treatment groups H-H, H-L, and L-L (P < 0.05); however, did not differ by d for L-H heifers. Within phylum Tenericutes, the relative abundance of Ureaplasma increased from d -2 to d 0 for H-L heifers (P = 0.01). Additionally for H-L heifers, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes tended to increase from day -2 to on d 0 (P = 0.07). For H-L heifers, uterine pH increased from day -2 to d 0 (P = 0.05). These results suggest that differing endogenous concentrations of P4 and E2 may be associated with shifts in uterine microbiota and pH, and this could ultimately impact fertility outcomes in beef cattle.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro , Progesterona , Bovinos , Feminino , Animais , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Estradiol , Estro , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária
2.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13782, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36345759

RESUMO

ß-Carotene is an essential nutrient in cattle reproduction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ß-carotene supplementation on ovarian activities throughout the estrous cycle in nonpregnant Japanese Black cows. The estrous cycles of eight nonpregnant Japanese Black cows were synchronized using a double synch protocol, and the cows were divided into two groups. The cows in the ß-carotene (BC) group received supplementation with 1000 mg/day ß-carotene for 46 days including the synchronization period. The cows in the control (C) group did not receive ß-carotene supplementation. The results showed that ß-carotene supplementation at 1000 mg/day was sufficient to maintain a high plasma ß-carotene concentration and increase the plasma retinol concentration and that ß-carotene supplementation had no significant effects on the dominant follicle diameter, total number of estrus behaviors, or length of the estrous cycle. In contrast, the areas under the P4 concentration curves in the BC group were higher than those obtained for the C group. In conclusion, a high plasma ß-carotene concentration in Japanese Black cows promotes P4 production in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and total P4 production throughout the estrous cycle without changing the length of the estrous cycle.


Assuntos
Progesterona , beta Caroteno , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , beta Caroteno/farmacologia , Ciclo Estral , Folículo Ovariano , Estro , Sincronização do Estro/métodos
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 414, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progesterone plays a crucial role in the maintenance of pregnancy from conception to about 100-120 days of gestation when placenta becomes the main source of gestagens. The aim of the study was to test progesterone concentration 14 days after ovulation in pregnant mares and relate it to peak estral endometrial edema and the presence of intrauterine fluid (IUF) after artificial insemination (AI), the number of treatments against IUF, and the time from AI to the day when the uterus was found free of fluid. RESULTS: Mares were divided into two groups: group A (n = 13; age 10.8 ± 4.5 years) in which a normal embryonic vesicle with a diameter ≥ 14 mm and a corpus luteum with a diameter ≥ 15 mm were found 14 days after ovulation, and group B (n = 22; age 9.4 ± 4 .0 years) in which 14 days after ovulation, a small (< 15 mm) corpus luteum and/or a small embryonic vesicle was observed (diameter < 14 mm). Mares from group A had a significantly higher progesterone concentrations at 14 days after ovulation compared with group B mares. The presence of IUF, the number of treatments against IUF, and the time from AI to the day when uterus was found free of fluid did not affect progesterone concentration measured 14 days after ovulation. In group B, a significant correlation was found between progesterone concentration measured 14 days after ovulation and endometrial edema evaluated during estrus. CONCLUSIONS: In some cases poor development of endometrial edema during estrus can be associated with lower progesterone production 14 days after ovulation. Nevertheless, scientific explanation for this finding cannot be given based on our study.


Assuntos
Estro , Progesterona , Gravidez , Cavalos , Feminino , Animais , Ovulação , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Edema/veterinária
4.
Res Vet Sci ; 152: 579-581, 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36201904

RESUMO

Leptospirosis in ruminants presents as a chronic disease that causes several reproductive disorders leading to severe economic losses. The current recommended treatment can be efficient to eliminate the renal carrier state, however little is known about the effect of this drug in removing the genital carrier state and the hormonal influence on it. A total of 12 primiparous sheep experimentally infected with a strain of Leptospira santarosai serogroup Sejroe, FV52 strain, were used and distributed as group A (estrus; n = 5), group B (metaestrus; n = 4) and group C (control; n = 3). At D0, groups A and B were treated with streptomycin (25 mg/kg) single dose. Samples of cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) were collected on days 0, 3, and 35 post-treatment, while uterine fragment (UF) samples were collected on days 3 and 35, for PCR. Even after antibiotic treatment, all groups presented infected animals, at D3 and D35, with no significant difference between the treated and control groups. Based on these results, it was conducted a second protocol of treatment with streptomycin, IM (25 mg/kg) for three consecutive days, which was 100% effective to eliminate the genital carrier state; therefore, that protocol should be recommended.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Doenças dos Ovinos , Feminino , Ovinos , Animais , Estreptomicina/uso terapêutico , Leptospirose/tratamento farmacológico , Leptospirose/veterinária , Sorogrupo , Estro , Útero , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Endocrine ; 78(3): 476-483, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301508

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our previous study showed that 6-h fasting increased insulin expression in the hypothalamus of male rats. We, therefore, wanted to examine if this phenomenon occurs in female rats and whether it depended on the estrus cycle phase. METHODS: Female rats in proestrus or diestrus were either exposed to 6-h fasting or had ad libitum access to food. The serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and hypothalamic insulin levels were determined using radioimmunoassay. The hypothalamic insulin mRNA expression was measured by RT-qPCR, while the hypothalamic insulin distribution was assessed immunohistochemically. RESULTS: Albeit the short-term fasting lowered circulating insulin, both hypothalamic insulin mRNA expression and hypothalamic insulin content remained unaltered. As for the hypothalamic insulin distribution, strong insulin immunopositivity was noted primarily in ependymal cells lining the upper part of the third ventricle and some neurons mainly located within the periventricular nucleus. The pattern of insulin distribution was similar between the controls and the females exposed to fasting regardless of the estrous cycle phase. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate that the control of insulin expression in the hypothalamus differs from that in the pancreatic beta cells during short-term fasting. Furthermore, they also imply that the regulation of insulin expression in the female hypothalamus is different from males but independent of the estrus cycle phase.


Assuntos
Jejum , Insulina , Animais , Ratos , Feminino , Masculino , Insulina/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Estro/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
6.
Theriogenology ; 194: 162-170, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265337

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the vascularization features of canine ovaries during the follicular phase and the formation of the corpora lutea by using Doppler ultrasonography and Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS). Eight healthy bitches were enrolled in the study and were evaluated at five different timepoints (T1 - T5) of the estrous cycle established by vaginal cytology and serum progesterone concentration. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed by a single operator using the ACUSON S2000/SIEMENS machine equipped with a linear multifrequency transducer (9.0 MHz). Color-coded Doppler evaluation of the ovarian parenchyma was performed to investigate the aspects of the signal detection throughout the different timepoints. Pulsed-wave Doppler of the intraovarian arteries was performed to evaluate spectral waveform and doppler velocimetric parameters of Systolic Peak Velocity (SPV cm/s), End Diastolic Velocity (EDV cm/s), Resistivity Index (RI) and Pulsatility Index (PI). CEUS evaluation of the ovaries was performed using a vascular contrast agent (SonoVue®, Bracco, Sao Paulo, Brazil) and the CADENCE™ Contrast Pulse Sequencing (CPS, Siemens) software, in order to perform both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Perfusion parameters of pixel number, peak intensity (PPI in %), time to peak intensity (TTP in s), mean transit time (MTT in s) and area under the curve (AUC in %). Colour-coded Doppler evaluation demonstrated an increase in signal detection as cycle progressed, with blood flow initially detected with few coloured pixels and mainly at the ventral surface of the ovaries. Further on, the number of coloured pixels increased and spreading to the central region, resulting in a circular-like pattern around the corpora hemorrhagica. The spectral waveform was consistent at all timepoints. SPV (cm/s) and EDV (cm/s) presented a numeric trend and a slight statistical difference at all timepoints, whereas no difference was found for RI and PI. CEUS evaluation demonstrated an increase in pixel intensity across all the timepoints. Quantitative CEUS analysis revealed a statistical difference in PPI (%), MTT (s) and AUC (%) at T5. CEUS evaluation of the ovaries was feasible and demonstrated a marked increase in perfusion parameters in the late postovulatory period, demonstrating its applicability in the assessment of canine corpora lutea development.


Assuntos
Ovário , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Feminino , Cães , Animais , Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Ovário/irrigação sanguínea , Brasil , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Ultrassonografia Doppler/veterinária , Corpo Lúteo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estro , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17685, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271290

RESUMO

The rodent estrous cycle modulates a range of biological functions, from gene expression to behavior. The cycle is typically divided into four stages, each characterized by distinct hormone concentration profiles. Given the difficulty of repeatedly sampling plasma steroid hormones from rodents, the primary method for classifying estrous stage is by identifying vaginal epithelial cell types. However, manual classification of epithelial cell samples is time-intensive and variable, even amongst expert investigators. Here, we use a deep learning approach to achieve classification accuracy at expert level. Due to the heterogeneity and breadth of our input dataset, our deep learning approach ("EstrousNet") is highly generalizable across rodent species, stains, and subjects. The EstrousNet algorithm exploits the temporal dimension of the hormonal cycle by fitting classifications to an archetypal cycle, highlighting possible misclassifications and flagging anestrus phases (e.g., pseudopregnancy). EstrousNet allows for rapid estrous cycle staging, improving the ability of investigators to consider endocrine state in their rodent studies.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Roedores , Feminino , Animais , Estro , Ciclo Estral/metabolismo , Hormônios
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(10): 8523-8534, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055839

RESUMO

The objectives of this retrospective observational study were to determine the associations of anogenital distance (AGD) with (a) postpartum estrous activity, (b) diameter of the preovulatory follicle, (c) intensity of estrous expression, (d) postestrus ovulation, (e) corpus luteum (CL) size, and (f) concentrations of progesterone at estrus and on d 7 after estrus. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 178; 55 primiparous, 123 multiparous) were enrolled into the study during the first postpartum week. All cows were continuously monitored by a pedometer-based automated activity monitoring (AAM) system for estrus. Postpartum estrous activity was assessed using the AAM estrus alerts, in which cows with at least one true estrus alert (i.e., a relative increase in steps from each cow's baseline detected by the AAM and the presence of at least one follicle >15 mm, a CL <20 mm, or no CL detected by ultrasound) by the first 50 d in milk (DIM) were considered to have commenced estrous activity. At the estrus alert >60 DIM, ovulation was determined by ultrasound at 24 h, 48 h, and 7 d after estrus, and blood samples were collected at estrus alert and on d 7 after estrus for progesterone analysis. The AGD was measured from the center of the anus to the base of the clitoris and classified as either short- or long-AGD using 2 cut-points of 148 mm (predictive of the probability of pregnancy to first insemination; short-AGD, n = 115; long-AGD, n = 63) and 142 mm (the median AGD; short-AGD, n = 90; long-AGD, n = 88). Regardless of the cut-point used, early postpartum estrous activity by 50 DIM (67 vs. 54%), duration of estrus (11.6 vs. 9.7 h), and preovulatory follicle diameter (20 vs. 19 mm) were greater in short-AGD than in long-AGD cows. Increased peak of activity at estrus in short-AGD cows (354 vs. 258% mean relative increase) was affected by an interaction between AGD and parity in which multiparous long-AGD cows had lesser relative increase in activity than primiparous cows (217 vs. 386%, respectively). Mean progesterone concentration at estrus was lesser in short-AGD (0.47 vs. 0.61 ng/mL) than in long-AGD cows. The ovulatory response at 24 h did not differ, but at 48 h (91 vs. 78%) and on d 7 after estrus (97 vs. 84%) it was greater in short-AGD cows. Although CL diameter on d 7 after estrus did not differ, short-AGD cows had greater progesterone concentration 7 d after estrus than long-AGD cows (4.1 vs. 3.2 ng/mL, respectively). In conclusion, greater proportions of short-AGD cows commenced estrous activity by 50 DIM, had larger preovulatory follicles, exhibited greater duration of estrus, had reduced progesterone concentration at estrus, had greater ovulation rates and progesterone concentration 7 d after estrus compared with long-AGD cows, with no difference in CL size between AGD groups. Because all the differences in physiological characteristics of short-AGD cows reported herein favor improved reproductive outcomes, we infer that these are factors contributing to improved fertility reported in short-AGD cows compared with long-AGD cows.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro , Progesterona , Animais , Bovinos , Estro/fisiologia , Sincronização do Estro/fisiologia , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação/fisiologia , Ovulação/fisiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
9.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 244: 107045, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932512

RESUMO

Nutritional changes immediately after insemination cause increased embryonic mortality, but the mechanisms controlling this are not well known. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of nutritional change on estrus expression, steroid concentrations, peripheral and uterine luminal fluid metabolites, and embryo quality in beef heifers. Heifers (n = 139) were assigned to one of two pre-artificial insemination (AI) dietary treatments: LOW (≤ 90% NEm) or HIGH (≥ 139% NEm). Heifers were on treatment for 33-36 days before AI (d0) when half of the heifers in each treatment were randomly reassigned to generate four treatments; HIGH-HIGH, HIGH-LOW, LOW-HIGH, and LOW-LOW. Heifers remained on treatments until embryo collection (d 6-8). Negative energy balance was achieved among LOW heifers as demonstrated by body weight loss and increased NEFA concentrations (P < 0.05). Pre-AI treatment influenced expression of estrus (P = 0.05; HIGH 80.4 ± 4.0% vs. LOW 69.4 ± 4.2%). Estradiol concentrations and interval to estrus were not affected by treatment (P > 0.55); however, progesterone concentrations were reduced among LOW compared to HIGH (3.57 ± 0.27, 4.64 ± 0.26 ng/mL, respectively; P = 0.004), and heifers maintained on the HIGH pre-AI diet had consistently greater concentrations of progesterone from d 0 to d 8 (P = 0.014). Pre-AI treatment influenced embryo stage (P = 0.05; HIGH 3.61 ± 0.32 vs. LOW 2.72 ± 0.30). Post-AI treatment affected embryo grade (P = 0.02; HIGH 1.78 ± 0.23 vs. LOW 2.64 ± 0.27). In summary, pre-AI nutrient restriction caused decreased expression of estrus, reduced progesterone concentrations after AI, and negatively impacted embryo development, while post-AI restriction hindered embryo quality.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro , Progesterona , Animais , Bovinos , Dinoprosta , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Estro , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Nutrientes
10.
Theriogenology ; 192: 45-51, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36044806

RESUMO

The present study was performed to evaluate the reproductive performance of gilts inseminated using fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocol. A total of 408 Landrace × Yorkshire crossbred gilts were included in the experiment. Gilts at 8 months of age were randomly allocated into three groups: control AI (n = 192), treatment 1-TAI (n = 117) and treatment 2-FTAI (n = 99). Gilts in the control AI group were inseminated 2-3 times during standing oestrus at 0, 12 and 24 h after the onset of oestrus. Gilts in the treatment 1-TAI group were orally administered 20 mg per day of altrenogest for 18 days and then inseminated 2-3 times during standing oestrus by conventional AI. Gilts in the treatment 2-FTAI group were synchronized like gilts in treatment 1-TAI group but then GnRH (10 µg of buserelin) was administered 120 h after the end of altrenogest treatment and fixed time artificial inseminated twice at 24 and 32 h after GnRH irrespective of the presence of oestrus or not. Conception rate of gilts in treatment 2-FTAI (87.9%) was similar to the treatment 1-TAI (94.9%) and control AI (83.3%) (P > 0.05). Conception rate in treatment 1-TAI (94.9%) was higher compared to control AI group (83.3%, P = 0.040). Farrowing rate of gilts in treatment 2-FTAI (83.8%) was similar to treatment 1-TAI (89.7%) and control AI (76.0%) (P > 0.05). Farrowing rate of treatment 1-TAI (89.7%) was higher than control AI gilts (76.0%, P = 0.033). In treatment 2-FTAI, the conception and farrowing rate of the nine gilts that were inseminated even if they were not detected in oestrus (all during warm season) was 44.4% and 44.4%, respectively. Regular return to oestrus was similar between groups (9.4%, 0.9% and 4.1% for control AI, treatment 1-TAI and treatment 2-FTAI, respectively, P > 0.05). The total number of piglets born per litter in treatment 1-TAI group was higher than control AI (13.1 ± 0.2 versus 11.6 ± 0.2, respectively, P < 0.001) and treatment 2-FTAI groups (12.2 ± 0.3, P = 0.019). The number of piglets born alive was higher in treatment 1-TAI (12.1 ± 0.3) compared to treatment 2-FTAI (11.3 ± 0.2) and control AI group (11.2 ± 0.3). The percentage of stillbirth and mummified foetus were not different between groups (P > 0.05). The present study indicated that fixed-time AI in gilts can be successfully performed by administration of altrenogest for 18 days, GnRH at 120 h after altrenogest withdrawal and then double fixed-time AI at 24 and 32 h after the administration of GnRH. Fertility metrics such as conception rate, farrowing rate and litter performances using this method were similar to gilts inseminated at oestrus with conventional AI.


Assuntos
Busserrelina , Inseminação Artificial , Animais , Estro , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Reprodução , Sus scrofa , Suínos
11.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 34(14): 920-932, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969892

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Most of our current knowledge regarding echidna reproductive behaviour is based on qualitative measurements; therefore, it is unclear if specific behavioural cues could be utilised in their captive reproductive management. AIMS: This study aimed to identify quantitative changes in general and reproductive behaviour of echidna breeding pairs and pregnant females that might facilitate the detection of oestrus and impending oviposition and provide a summary of reproductive behaviour observed in a captive colony over a three-year observation period. METHODS: Three echidna breeding pairs and two trios were monitored daily for seven reproductive and eight general behaviours during the 2020 breeding season. After confirmed copulation, females were monitored for four egg-laying and eight general behaviours until egg incubation. General observations of reproductive behaviours during the 2018-2020 breeding seasons were recorded as part of routine husbandry. KEY RESULTS: For breeding pairs, there was a significant rate of change over time before and after copulation for the behaviours 'urogenital sniffing', 'rolling' and 'copulation attempt'. For pregnant females, time engaged in 'pacing' significantly increased while 'time eating' and the 'quantity of food eaten' significantly decreased on the day of oviposition. We were not able to identify oestrus from specific behaviours, but our observations suggest that the female echidna's period of receptivity is less than 24h. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency that males express 'urogenital sniffing', 'rolling' and 'copulation attempt' toward the female can be used to alert zookeepers that copulation has likely occurred. Increased pacing, reduced feeding time and quantity of food eaten can aid zookeepers to identify impending oviposition. IMPLICATIONS: This study demonstrates that there are quantifiable changes in specific echidna behaviours that can be incorporated into zoo husbandry practices to improve the reproductive management of this species.


Assuntos
Comportamento Reprodutivo , Tachyglossidae , Animais , Estro , Feminino , Masculino , Oviposição , Gravidez , Reprodução
12.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 57(11): 1428-1439, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924392

RESUMO

The aim of the first study was to determine the influence of the calf handling (restricted or full contact) and fenceline bull stimulation on performance of mothers and their calves. The aim of the second study was to determine the relative impact of calf-bull contact, comparing the result of restricted calf and no bull with that of fenceline calf contact and direct bull contact on the performance of mother buffaloes and their calves. In Experiment 1, 24 mother-calf dyads were allocated to three treatments: NCB (no calf-mother-bull contact), RC-FBC (restricted calf and fenceline bull contact) and FC-FBC (fenceline calf and fenceline bull contact). In Experiment 2, another 24 mother-calf dyads were allocated to two treatments: RC-NB (restricted calf and no bull contact) and FC-DBC (fenceline calf and direct bull contact). In Experiment 1, average daily gain (ADG) was greater in FC-FBC than RC-FBC and NCB calves (p < .05). Average dry matter intake (DMI) was greater in FC-FBC than RC-FBC and NCB calves. DMI of buffaloes was greater in FC-FBC than RC-FBC and NCB. Daily milk yield of buffaloes was more (p < .05) in FC-FBC (10.2 ± 0.2 kg) than RC-FBC (8.4 ± 0.2 kg) and RC-FBC (7.8 ± 0.2 kg). There were no statistical differences observed in the interval from calving to first oestrus, first service, service period among three groups. In Experiment 2, ADG's and DMI were greater in FC-FBC calves than RC-FBC (p < .05). DMI of buffaloes was greater in FC-DBC than RC-NBC (p < .05). Daily milk yield of buffaloes was greater (p < .05) in FC-DBC (11.6 ± 0.2 kg) than RC-NBC (8.3 ± 0.2 kg). The first oestrus (51.5 ± 3.1 vs. 103.2 ± 7.2), days to first service (74.8 ± 3.5 vs.112.0 ± 7.6) and service period (78.8 ± 4.8 vs.118.9 ± 8.3 days) were lower (p < .05) in FC-DBC than RC-NBC buffaloes. The fenceline calf-mother contact increased the growth rate, FCR, and feeding efficiency of buffalo calves; reduced some stress responses and improved the productive performance of buffalo mothers. Further, mother-bull contact stimulated the post-partum reproductive performance of buffaloes in fenceline calf contact.


Assuntos
Bison , Búfalos , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Humanos , Búfalos/fisiologia , Mães , Reprodução , Estro/fisiologia , Leite , Ração Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Desmame
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(10): 8411-8425, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36028340

RESUMO

The primary objective of this randomized controlled experiment was to evaluate the insemination dynamic and reproductive performance of cows managed with a targeted reproductive management (TRM) program designed to prioritize artificial insemination (AI) at detected estrus (AIE) and optimize timing of AI by grouping cows based on detection of estrus during the voluntary waiting period (VWP). Our secondary objective was to evaluate reproductive outcomes for cows with or without estrus during the VWP. Lactating Holstein cows fitted with an ear-attached sensor for detection of estrus were randomly assigned to a TRM treatment that prioritized AIE based on detection of estrus during the VWP (TP-AIE; n = 488), a non-TRM treatment that prioritized AIE (P-AIE; n = 489), or an all timed AI (TAI) treatment with extended VWP (ALL-TAI; n = 491). In TP-AIE, cows with or without automated estrus alerts (AEA) recorded during the VWP received AIE if detected in estrus for at least 31 ± 3 or 17 ± 3 d after a 49 d VWP, respectively. Cows not AIE with or without AEA during the VWP received TAI after Ovsynch with progesterone supplementation and 2 PGF2α treatments (P4-Ov) at 90 ± 3 or 74 ± 3 d in milk (DIM), respectively. In P-AIE, cows received AIE if detected in estrus for 24 ± 3 d after a 49 d VWP, and if not AIE received TAI at 83 ± 3 DIM after P4-Ov. In ALL-TAI, cows received TAI at 83 ± 3 DIM after a Double-Ovsynch protocol. Data were analyzed by logistic and Cox's proportional hazard regression. The proportion of cows AIE did not differ for TP-AIE (71.0%) and P-AIE (74.6%). Overall P/AI at 39 d after first service was greater for the ALL-TAI (47.6%) than for the P-AIE (40.2%) and TP-AIE (39.5%) treatments. The hazard of pregnancy up to 150 DIM was greater for cows in TP-AIE (hazard ratio = 1.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-1.4) and P-AIE (hazard ratio = 1.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-1.4) than for cows in the ALL-TAI treatment which resulted in median time to pregnancy of 89, 89, and 107 d. Conversely, the proportion of cows pregnant at 150 DIM did not differ (ALL-TAI 78.5%, P-AIE 76.3%, TP-AIE 76.0%). Except for a few outcomes for which no difference was observed, cows detected in estrus during the VWP had better performance than cows not detected in estrus. Cows with AEA during the VWP were more likely to receive AIE, had greater P/AI, and greater pregnancy rate up to 150 DIM regardless of first service management. We conclude that a TRM program designed to prioritize AIE by grouping cows based on detection of estrus during the VWP was an effective strategy to submit cows for first service resulting in similar or improved performance than a non-TRM program that prioritized AIE or an all-TAI program with extended VWP. Also, AEA recorded during the VWP might be used as a strategy for identifying subgroups of cows with different reproductive performance.


Assuntos
Detecção do Estro , Sincronização do Estro , Animais , Bovinos , Dinoprosta , Estro , Detecção do Estro/métodos , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Gravidez , Progesterona , Prostaglandinas F
14.
J Reprod Dev ; 68(5): 324-329, 2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922914

RESUMO

Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and sex steroids were measured in bovine dominant follicles and corpora lutea during the estrus cycle and in follicular cysts. Paired ovaries from beef heifers (n = 47) were classified, by their morphological features, either into four stages of the estrus cycle (Day 1 = day of ovulation, Day 20 = day of estrus) as Stage I (Days 1-4; n = 8), Stage II (Days 5-10; n = 10), Stage III (Days 11-17; n = 8), and Stage IV (Days 18-20; n = 11) or follicular cystic (n = 10). Cysts (n = 15) were subdivided into estrogen-active (n = 7) and estrogen-inactive (n = 8) cysts. INSL3, testosterone, and estradiol-17ß concentrations in the dominant follicular fluid of Stage IV were higher than those in Stages II and III (P < 0.05). INSL3 concentrations in the cystic fluid were similar to those in dominant follicles at Stage IV, whereas testosterone and estradiol-17ß concentrations were lower in cysts (P < 0.05). INSL3 content per estrogen-inactive cyst was higher than that of Stage IV (P < 0.05). INSL3 and progesterone concentrations in luteal tissue and contents per corpus luteum were higher in Stages II and III (P < 0.05). In conclusion, INSL3 secretion in bovine dominant follicles increased with maturation. Follicular cysts may retain the production of INSL3 during their formation but tend to lose the capacity for testosterone secretion. Estrogen-inactive cysts subjected to advanced atresia may accumulate more INSL3. INSL3 production in bovine corpora lutea is enhanced during maturation.


Assuntos
Cisto Folicular , Insulinas , Animais , Bovinos , Corpo Lúteo , Estradiol , Estrogênios , Estro , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Folículo Ovariano/química , Peptídeos , Progesterona , Testosterona
15.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 88(3): e13592, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35785505

RESUMO

We previously reported that interferon-tau (IFNT), derived from day-7 blastocyst, generates anti-inflammatory responses in bovine endometrial epithelial cells (BEECs) in vitro. However, the real in vivo impact of early embryo-derived IFNT on the uterine proteomic profile is mostly unknown. This study aimed to investigate proteomic changes of uterine flush (UF) when infused with a low physiological level of IFNT without embryo on day-8 post-estrus and its possible impact on the uterine immunological microenvironment. First, a fresh medium was infused into the uterine lumen on day-6, from which UF was obtained 24 h later, and this procedure was repeated on day-7 (control UF). On day-8, this procedure was done with a medium containing recombinant bovine IFNT (100 pg/ml) (IFNT-supplemented UF). Control and IFNT-supplemented UF were tested for immune responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Real-time PCR results revealed that IFNT-supplemented UF downregulated pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFA, IL1B) and upregulated anti-inflammatory cytokine (TGFB1) and PTGES in PBMCs. Through 2-D PAGE, followed by TOF/TOF mass spectrometer, apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1) protein was identified in the IFNT-supplemented UF, which was confirmed by ELISA analysis. Proteomic analysis revealed again that the in vitro stimulation of BEECs by IFNT upregulated Apo-A1 expression. Further, stimulation of PBMCs with recombinant bovine Apo-A1 downregulated TNFA and NFKB and upregulated TGFB1 and PTGES in PBMCs. Altogether, our results suggest that minute amounts of IFNT alone, normally secreted from bovine blastocyst, stimulate Apo-A1 secretion from the endometrial epithelium in the absence of embryo that initiates an anti-inflammatory environment, which could pave the way for the acceptance of early embryo in the uterus.


Assuntos
Interferon Tipo I , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Animais , Apolipoproteínas/metabolismo , Bovinos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Endométrio/metabolismo , Estro , Feminino , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Proteômica
16.
Animal ; 16(8): 100585, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35901655

RESUMO

The primary objective of this study was to develop an automated infrared thermography platform (Estrus BenchMark) capable of measuring skin temperature and tail movements as a means of identifying cows in estrus. The secondary objective was to evaluate the accuracy of Estrus BenchMark to detect estrus compared to in-line milk progesterone (P4) analysis (Herd Navigator System) in a commercial dairy herd managed under a robotic milking system. Data were collected on forty-six cows from 45 to 120 d after calving. Cows were flagged in estrus when milk P4 fell below 5 ng/mL. The Estrus BenchMark true positive estrus alerts (Sensitivity; Se%) were compared to Herd Navigator System estrus alerts at different time-windows (±12 h, ±24 h, ±48 h, and ±72 h) relative to the Estrus BenchMark estrus alerts for all the estrus alerts (AE) and confidence-quality estrus (CQE; >80% quality) alerts identified by Herd Navigator System. The Estrus BenchMark captured skin temperature and tail movements resulting in vulva exposure (left tail movements, LTail; right tail movements, RTail; and pooled tail movements, PTail) for each milking event. Skin temperature tended to increase when the milk P4 concentration (Least-Squares Means ±â€¯SE) dropped for AE (estrus day [d 0]; P4; 3.51 ±â€¯0.05 ng/mL, Skin temperature; 33.31 ±â€¯2.38 °C) compared with d -7 (P4; 20.22 ±â€¯0.73 ng/mL; Skin temperature: 32.05 ±â€¯3.77 °C). The increase in skin temperature, however, was significant in cows with CQE > 80% at d 0 (32.75 ±â€¯0.29 °C) compared to d -7 (31.80 ±â€¯0.28 °C). The prevalence of tail movements to expose vulva was greater (P = 0.01) in AE at d 0 (LTail: 62.50%; PTail; 68.75%; and RTail: 56.25%) compared with d -7 (LTail: 18.75%; PTail: 9.37%: and RTail: 9.37%), and d +4 (LTail: 9.37%; PTail: 9.37%; and RTail: 12.5%). Moreover, the higher prevalence of tail movements at d 0 was observed in cows with CQE > 80% (LTail; 65%, PTail; 80%, and RTail; 70%) compared to those with CQE < 80%. The highest Estrus BenchMark Youden index (YJ; 0.45), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR; 9.04), and Efficiency (0.77) were achieved for AE in a ±48 h window and at ±72 h window for CQE (YJ; 0.66, DOR; 25.29, and Efficiency 0.76) relative to Herd Navigator System estrus alerts. The highest Estrus BenchMark resulted in 58% estrus detection rates for AE and 80% for cows with CQE compared to the Herd Navigator System.


Assuntos
Detecção do Estro , Termografia , Animais , Bovinos , Estro , Detecção do Estro/métodos , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Leite/química , Progesterona/análise , Termografia/métodos , Termografia/veterinária , Vulva/química
17.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(10): 9315-9324, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor estrus expression behavior causes suboptimal reproductive efficiency through poor conception rate. Various signaling pathways are involved in estrus expression but arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene with oxytocin predominantly regulates estrus behavior. This study aimed to perform genomic characterization and evolutionary dynamics of AVP gene through association testing of the novel polymorphic loci and comparative genomic analysis to explore the potential effect of AVP gene on estrus behavior of Nili-Ravi buffaloes. METHODS AND RESULTS: 198 Nili-Ravi buffaloes were screened for the quest of novel polymorphism in the AVP gene. In exon-1, five polymorphic sites were detected including deletion of two (c.47delA and c.57delA) nucleotides that caused drastic variation in subsequent amino acid sequence due to frame shift including functional short peptide of nine residues. The 3-D structure revealed a loss of transmembrane loop between 16 and 31 residues in Nili-Ravi buffalo AVP protein sequence, suggesting that missing loop apparently reduced the gene functionality in Nili-Ravi buffalo by inhibiting cellular reactions and muting the animal estrus cyclicity. Three polymorphisms detected in AVP gene were significantly associated with silent estrus (P < 0.05). The comparative genomic analysis revealed that AVP gene is present on chromosome 14 having one conserved motif (Neurohypophysial) in buffalo. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested the potential use of polymorphic sites as promising genetic markers for selection of buffaloes with pronounced estrus expression.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Ocitocina , Animais , Arginina Vasopressina/genética , Búfalos/genética , Estro/genética , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Genômica , Nucleotídeos , Ocitocina/genética
18.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 81: 106749, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834880

RESUMO

Studies in cats and dogs have proven the usefulness of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a diagnostic tool to determine the castration status or to diagnose ovarian remnant syndrome. Yet the secretion pattern of AMH over the estrous cycle in queens has not been investigated so far. Seven healthy sexually intact female cats were examined daily for signs of estrous behavior over a trial period of 4 months. Five queens showed regular estrous behavior, 1 queen was mated in her first heat and 1 queen never showed any signs of heat. To distinguish between inter-estrus and metestrus progesterone levels were determined. Serum samples for AMH and progesterone measurement were collected from the regular cycling queens in late anestrus, at several times during heat, inter-estrus and metestrus, from the mated queen during her first heat and during pregnancy, and in the acycling queen at various times during the trial period. The measured AMH values in anestrus were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in heat (P < 0.001), metestrus (P = 0.12) and inter-estrus (P = 0.449). In anestrus the median AMH levels were 10.26 ng/ml (range 4.96 to 22.90 ng/ml), in heat 5.97 ng/ml (range 3.32- 22.96 ng/ml), in inter-estrus 10.47 (range 3.35-22.96 ng/ml) and in metestrus 6.38 ng/ml (range 4.50-10.75 ng/ml. The pregnant cat showed median AMH concentrations of 6.47 ng/ml (range 5.60-9.80 ng/ml) during her pregnancy. The acycling queen had solely low AMH values with a median concentration of 0.39 ng/ml. In conclusion there were high variations of the AMH levels among and within the individual cats and between heat cycles in the single cat. Remarkable high AMH concentrations were measured in the younger queens of the study in their first estrous cycles and also in anestrus, when less ovarian activity is expected. Further studies are necessary to emphasize the reasons for these high AMH concentrations especially in young queens.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano , Progesterona , Anestro , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Ciclo Estral , Estro , Feminino , Gravidez
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 149: 90-93, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35777284

RESUMO

Artificial insemination (AI) is the most important biotechnology in pig reproduction. To achieve the best possible fertility results, appropriate timing of the insemination is essential. The optimal time for AI is 12 h before to 4 h after ovulation. This time-frame, unlike in estrus, is not recognizable through external indicators. It would, therefore, be beneficial to find simple and economical methods that support manual estrus checks and are able to determine the time of ovulation more accurately. On this basis, starting 80 h after weaning, 14 DanBred sows (parity: 5.2 ± 2.4) were checked for ovulation via ultrasound scans every 8 h over a period of 72 h. Additionally, rectal fecal samples were taken and analyzed for their estrogen concentration to assess possible relations to ovulation time. On average, sows ovulated 121 ± 10 h after weaning and 16 ± 9 h after onset of heat. There was a prominent drop in fecal estrogen levels 4 h before ovulation when compared to almost all other points in time (before ovulation: 20 h (P = 0.056), 12 h (P = 0.006); after ovulation: 4 h and 12 h (P < 0.001)). There are, however, significant differences in the sow-individual fecal estrogen concentrations for which several influencing factors must be considered.


Assuntos
Inseminação Artificial , Ovulação , Animais , Estrogênios , Estro , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Gravidez , Reprodução , Suínos , Desmame
20.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 260(13): 1683-1689, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of stage of estrus cycle (day after ovulation) at the time of transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration (TVA) on parameters related to the success of in vitro equine embryo production. ANIMALS: 14 healthy mares were used; 11 completed the study and were included for analysis. PROCEDURES: Mares underwent TVA of all follicles ≥ 5 mm diameter at each of 3 timepoints: 7 days after ovulation, 14 days after ovulation, and S-DSF (subordinate to a dominant stimulated follicle), during estrus at 24 hours after gonadotropin administration. The 3 treatments were assigned to each mare in random order; mares underwent follicle growth and ovulation between treatments. Recovered oocytes were matured in vitro, subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and cultured to the blastocyst stage in vitro. RESULTS: Total follicle numbers differed significantly between individual mares but did not differ between treatments. The number of follicles of different sizes significantly (P < 0.05) differed between treatments, with mares in the Day 7 treatment having more follicles 5 to 9 mm in diameter and fewer follicles 20 to 24 mm in diameter than mares in the other 2 treatments. After in vitro maturation culture, there were significantly more mature oocytes in the S-DSF treatment than in the other 2 treatments. There were no differences in blastocyst rate after ICSI among treatment groups. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Timing of TVA for aspiration of S-DSFs may increase the number of mature oocytes available for ICSI. Understanding of the effects of timing of TVA will help veterinarians to maximize the efficiency of this procedure.


Assuntos
Sêmen , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas , Cavalos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/veterinária , Blastocisto , Estro , Oócitos
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