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1.
Elife ; 122024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598269

RESUMO

Heat stress can cause cell death by triggering the aggregation of essential proteins. In bacteria, aggregated proteins are rescued by the canonical Hsp70/AAA+ (ClpB) bi-chaperone disaggregase. Man-made, severe stress conditions applied during, e.g., food processing represent a novel threat for bacteria by exceeding the capacity of the Hsp70/ClpB system. Here, we report on the potent autonomous AAA+ disaggregase ClpL from Listeria monocytogenes that provides enhanced heat resistance to the food-borne pathogen enabling persistence in adverse environments. ClpL shows increased thermal stability and enhanced disaggregation power compared to Hsp70/ClpB, enabling it to withstand severe heat stress and to solubilize tight aggregates. ClpL binds to protein aggregates via aromatic residues present in its N-terminal domain (NTD) that adopts a partially folded and dynamic conformation. Target specificity is achieved by simultaneous interactions of multiple NTDs with the aggregate surface. ClpL shows remarkable structural plasticity by forming diverse higher assembly states through interacting ClpL rings. NTDs become largely sequestered upon ClpL ring interactions. Stabilizing ring assemblies by engineered disulfide bonds strongly reduces disaggregation activity, suggesting that they represent storage states.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes , Defeitos do Tubo Neural , Humanos , Animais , Morte Celular , Estro , Alimentos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70
2.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(4): e14560, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595035

RESUMO

Estrus identification is one of the common issues in buffaloes because of their short estrus duration and silent estrus problem. Hence, specific biomarkers facilitating in identifying the estrus stage would be helpful to buffalo farmers and researchers. In our previous studies, taurine, a non-protein amino acid that helps in the secretion of reproductive hormones such as GnRH, was found to be associated with postpartum anestrus in buffaloes. Therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the level of taurine in serum during different stages of the oestrous cycle in healthy cyclic buffaloes. Blood samples were collected from healthy cyclic buffaloes (n = 4), and taurine was estimated at the estrus (0th day), proestrus (-2nd day), metestrus (3rd day) and diestrus (+10th day) stages using TLC method. The days of the oestrous cycle were determined by ultrasonography and observation of behavioural signs by trained professionals. The results revealed that taurine was consistently present in the serum. However, the highest concentration of taurine was observed at the proestrus (0.20 ± 0.03 mg/mL) stage, which was greater (p < .05) than metestrus (0.10 ± 0.05 mg/mL) and diestrus (0.13 ± 0.03 mg/mL) stages, but comparable with the estrus stage. These results were also validated in the simulated population datasets of population size 6 to 10,000. Further, ROC curve analysis for the large simulated population indicated the efficiency of taurine to distinguish proestrus from metestrus and diestrus stages at a lower cutoff value of <0.1643 mg/mL with 60% sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, the present study concludes that serum taurine concentration could help in detecting proestrus stage of buffalo estrous cycle.


Assuntos
Bison , Búfalos , Feminino , Animais , Taurina , Ciclo Estral , Estro , Diestro , Proestro
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612602

RESUMO

Molecular property prediction is an important task in drug discovery, and with help of self-supervised learning methods, the performance of molecular property prediction could be improved by utilizing large-scale unlabeled dataset. In this paper, we propose a triple generative self-supervised learning method for molecular property prediction, called TGSS. Three encoders including a bi-directional long short-term memory recurrent neural network (BiLSTM), a Transformer, and a graph attention network (GAT) are used in pre-training the model using molecular sequence and graph structure data to extract molecular features. The variational auto encoder (VAE) is used for reconstructing features from the three models. In the downstream task, in order to balance the information between different molecular features, a feature fusion module is added to assign different weights to each feature. In addition, to improve the interpretability of the model, atomic similarity heat maps were introduced to demonstrate the effectiveness and rationality of molecular feature extraction. We demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method on chemical and biological benchmark datasets by comparative experiments.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Descoberta de Drogas , Animais , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Estro , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado
4.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(3): e14552, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501571

RESUMO

Urovagina (UV) is less studied in cows. The vaginal contents, constrictor vestibule muscle activity, circulating progesterone, pelvic girdle, vagina and vulva angles were compared on Days 0 and 14 within and between UV (UV group; n = 36) and normal (N group; n = 36) cows. The oestrous duration was compared among the groups. Parameters for various UV severities were also compared. Another set of pregnant-postpartum cows (P-PP group; n = 31) underwent monthly evaluations for UV and the angles from the third month of pregnancy until the second month postpartum. The effect of age, parity and body condition score on UV severities on Day 0, and parity on angles in the P-PP group was evaluated. Different variables were correlated in different groups. The UV group was repeat breeder, exhibited prolonged oestrus and reduced progesterone on Day 14. The latter increased with UV severity on Day 0. On Day 14, severe form of UV was more prevalent. The UV severity increased with parity. In the UV group, a cranioventral pelvic girdle on Day 0 became more cranioventral on Day 14 and was correlated with the vagina moving from a caudodorsal position on Day 0 to a cranioventral position on Day 14. In the P-PP group, the pelvic girdle and vagina remained caudodorsal and UV was undetectable throughout the study. Vagina and vulva displayed a parity-by-month interaction in the P-PP group. To summarize, the UV characteristics were influenced by the oestrous cycle stage, pelvic girdle angles, and parity.


Assuntos
Período Pós-Parto , Progesterona , Gravidez , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Vagina , Estro/fisiologia , Vulva , Paridade
5.
Theriogenology ; 220: 35-42, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471389

RESUMO

Estrogens have proven to be effective in bovine estrus induction protocols. Considering the extensive use of these products in large-scale estrus synchronization, the primary objective of the present study was to assess their effects on pregnancy rate (PR) using a meta-analysis approach. A total of 797 papers were screened from three major databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus). Sixty-one studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The pregnancy status (success or failure) at 30 days post-insemination was considered as the effect size data. The odds ratios (OR) of PR were evaluated by considering the effects of estrogens in groups with or without estrogen intervention. The impact of estrogen (including factors such as type, dose, and time of administration) and animal characteristics (such as breed, type, and parity) was taken into account when assessing the effectiveness of estrogen response as PR. The results showed an OR of 1.25 (95% CI: 1.15-1.36; P = 0.000) for PR in animals that received estrogen compared to cattle that did not receive estrogen. Estradiol benzoate (OR = 1.3) and estradiol cypionate (OR = 1.2), with doses ranging from 1 to 3 mg (OR = 1.13-1.7), significantly increased the OR of PR. In terms of PR, beef cattle exhibited a higher odds ratio (OR = 1.4; P = 0.000) compared to dairy cattle (OR = 1.1; P = 0.09). The administration of estrogens in the estrus synchronization protocol significantly improved PR in both artificial insemination (OR = 1.2; P = 0.000) and embryo transfer (OR = 1.3; P = 0.033) programs. In summary, incorporating estrogens into estrus induction protocols led to an enhancement of the OR of PR among cattle.


Assuntos
Estrogênios , Progesterona , Feminino , Gravidez , Bovinos , Animais , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Taxa de Gravidez , Progesterona/farmacologia , Estradiol/farmacologia , Estro/fisiologia , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia
6.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0301005, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547106

RESUMO

During the oestrous cycle, the bovine endometrium undergoes morphological and functional changes, which are regulated by alterations in the levels of oestrogen and progesterone and consequent changes in gene expression. To clarify these changes before and after oestrus, RNA-seq was used to profile the transcriptome of oestrus-synchronized beef heifers. Endometrial samples were collected from 29 animals, which were slaughtered in six groups beginning 12 h after the withdrawal of intravaginal progesterone releasing devices until seven days post-oestrus onset (luteal phase). The groups represented proestrus, early oestrus, metoestrus and early dioestrus (luteal phase). Changes in gene expression were estimated relative to gene expression at oestrus. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to identify canonical pathways and functional processes of biological importance. A total of 5,845 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. The lowest number of DEGs was observed at the 12 h post-oestrus time point, whereas the greatest number was observed at Day 7 post-oestrus onset (luteal phase). A total of 2,748 DEGs at this time point did not overlap with any other time points. Prior to oestrus, Neurological disease and Organismal injury and abnormalities appeared among the top IPA diseases and functions categories, with upregulation of genes involved in neurogenesis. Lipid metabolism was upregulated before oestrus and downregulated at 48h post-oestrus, at which point an upregulation of immune-related pathways was observed. In contrast, in the luteal phase the Lipid metabolism and Small molecule biochemistry pathways were upregulated.


Assuntos
Estro , Progesterona , Bovinos , Animais , Feminino , Progesterona/metabolismo , Endométrio/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma
7.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1907, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429257

RESUMO

Plants are capable of assembling beneficial rhizomicrobiomes through a "cry for help" mechanism upon pathogen infestation; however, it remains unknown whether we can use nonpathogenic strains to induce plants to assemble a rhizomicrobiome against pathogen invasion. Here, we used a series of derivatives of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 to elicit different levels of the immune response to Arabidopsis and revealed that two nonpathogenic DC3000 derivatives induced the beneficial soil-borne legacy, demonstrating a similar "cry for help" triggering effect as the wild-type DC3000. In addition, an increase in the abundance of Devosia in the rhizosphere induced by the decreased root exudation of myristic acid was confirmed to be responsible for growth promotion and disease suppression of the soil-borne legacy. Furthermore, the "cry for help" response could be induced by heat-killed DC3000 and flg22 and blocked by an effector triggered immunity (ETI) -eliciting derivative of DC3000. In conclusion, we demonstrate the potential of nonpathogenic bacteria and bacterial elicitors to promote the generation of disease-suppressive soils.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Pseudomonas syringae , Animais , Estro , Temperatura Alta , Solo
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5784, 2024 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461157

RESUMO

The estrus cycle in female rodents has been shown to affect a variety of physiological functions. However, little is known about its presumably thorough effect on auditory processing during the sleep-wake cycle and sleep deprivation. Vertex auditory evoked potentials (vAEPs) were evoked by single click tone stimulation and recorded during different stages of the estrus cycle and sleep deprivation performed in metestrus and proestrus in female rats. vAEPs showed a strong sleep-dependency, with the largest amplitudes present during slow wave sleep while the smallest ones during wakefulness. Higher amplitudes and longer latencies were seen in the light phase during all vigilance stages. The largest amplitudes were found during proestrus (light phase) while the shortest latencies were seen during estrus (dark phase) compared to the 2nd day diestrus baseline. High-amplitude responses without latency changes were also seen during metestrus with increased homeostatic sleep drive. More intense and faster processing of auditory information during proestrus and estrus suggesting a more effective perception of relevant environmental cues presumably in preparation for sexual receptivity. A 4-h sleep deprivation resulted in more pronounced sleep recovery in metestrus compared to proestrus without difference in delta power replacement suggesting a better tolerance of sleep deprivation in proestrus. Sleep deprivation decreased neuronal excitability and responsiveness in a similar manner both during metestrus and proestrus, suggesting that the negative consequences of sleep deprivation on auditory processing may have a limited correlation with the estrus cycle stage.


Assuntos
Estro , Privação do Sono , Ratos , Feminino , Animais , Metestro , Proestro , Diestro
9.
J Anim Sci ; 1022024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502838

RESUMO

Higher estrus-associated temperatures (HEAT) are a hallmark feature in sexually active females. The overarching aim of this study was to characterize the variability, magnitude, and persistence of HEAT in heifers and suckled beef cows as well as identify associated factors when occurring during thermoneutral conditions at the onset of the spring breeding season. In both heifers and cows, estrus was induced using a 7-d controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-PGF2α protocol. Vaginal temperature after prostaglandin F2α administration was recorded every 5 min using a Thermochron iButton affixed to a blank CIDR (containing no progesterone). Estrus was defined as when a heifer first stood to be mounted or when a cow had an Estrotect patch score of 3 or 4. Level of HEAT varied among individual animals. When comparing common HEAT variables using a mixed model with date nested within a year, maximum HEAT (39.9 ±â€…0.1 and 40.0 ±â€…0.1 °C) and duration (15.5 ±â€…0.8 and 15.4 ±â€…0.7) were similar in heifers and cows, respectively. However, the magnitude and persistence of HEAT differed. Total area under the HEAT curve was 117.1 ±â€…13.5 and 158.7 ±â€…12.3 for heifers vs cows, respectively (P = 0.0571). Further, 42.9% of heifers and 49% of cows had maximum HEAT ≥ 40 °C which persisted up to 6.5 and 10 h, respectively. When ambient conditions were predominantly thermoneutral, temperature humidity index had minimal impact on HEAT (mixed model, repeated measures over time). Toward identifying associated factors with different aspects of HEAT using best fit hierarchical linear regression models, baseline vaginal temperature and baseline duration were the most highly associated independent variables. Follicle size, estradiol and progesterone levels, and other available animal-related variables (e.g., age, weight, hair coat score) explained only a small amount of variation in HEAT. In summary, level of HEAT varies in estrus females even under thermoneutral conditions. Because HEAT can persist for an extended time, direct effects on fertility important components are unavoidable. Whether HEAT is a good or bad component of the periovulatory microenvironment is the basis of ongoing and future studies.


When striving for a pregnancy, estrus is a critically important event. Higher estrus-associated temperatures (HEAT) are a hallmark feature in sexually active females. The importance of HEAT for pregnancy, however, remains unclear. Toward filling this critical knowledge gap, efforts described in the current study focused on examining variability of HEAT in individual animals, 2) defining the magnitude and persistence of HEAT, 3) identifying HEAT-associated factors, and 4) examining the similarity of HEAT between heifers and suckled beef cows when occurring at the onset of a spring breeding season. Although the magnitude and persistence of HEAT varied, 42.9% of heifers and 49% of cows reached temperatures ≥ 40 °C which in some cases persisted up to 6.5 and 10 h, respectively. When attempting to identify factors that could explain why some females exhibiting estrus remained hot for an extended time, available animal and environmental data contributed little. Even so, because HEAT can persist for an extended time, direct effects on fertility important components are unavoidable. Whether too much HEAT is good or bad for pregnancy is the basis of ongoing and future studies.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro , Temperatura Alta , Bovinos , Feminino , Animais , Temperatura , Progesterona/farmacologia , Estro , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia
10.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 201, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383305

RESUMO

To gain a deeper understanding of the metabolic differences within and outside the body, as well as changes in transcription levels following estrus in yaks, we conducted transcriptome and metabolome analyses on female yaks in both estrus and non-estrus states. The metabolome analysis identified 114, 13, and 91 distinct metabolites in urine, blood, and follicular fluid, respectively. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis highlighted an enrichment of pathways related to amino acid and lipid metabolism across all three body fluids. Our transcriptome analysis revealed 122 differentially expressed genes within microRNA (miRNA) and 640 within long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). Functional enrichment analysis of lncRNA and miRNA indicated their involvement in cell signaling, disease resistance, and immunity pathways. We constructed a regulatory network composed of 10 lncRNAs, 4 miRNAs, and 30 mRNAs, based on the targeted regulation relationships of the differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, the accumulation of metabolites such as amino acids, steroids, and organic acids, along with the expression changes of key genes like miR-129 during yak estrus, provide initial insights into the estrus mechanism in yaks.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Líquido Folicular , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Estro/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes
11.
J Appl Anim Welf Sci ; 27(1): 12-20, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314791

RESUMO

In mammals, progesterone and estrogens affect the stress response. The study aimed to compare the physiological and behavioral responses to the social isolation of ewes during the estrus or luteal phase. Estrous and diestrous ewes (n = 10 and 8 respectively) were individually isolated in a novel place for 10 min. Ewes' behavior was recorded during the test. Cortisol, blood proteins and glucose concentrations, and the skin surface temperature were determined before and after the test. Cortisol increased immediately after the test ended (P = 0.02). Serum total protein (P = 0.02), globulin (P < 0.0001), and plasma glucose (P = 0.006) concentrations were greater in estrus than in the luteal phase. The abdominal skin surface temperature was greater during estrus than during the luteal phase (P = 0.02). Ewes in estrus spent more time standing up immobile than ewes in the luteal phase (P = 0.05). In conclusion, the physiological and behavioral responses changed according to the phase of the estrous cycle. These results highlight the need for future studies focusing on how reproductive status influences the stress response to different management practices in sheep.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Fase Luteal , Feminino , Animais , Ovinos , Fase Luteal/fisiologia , Estro/fisiologia , Progesterona , Mamíferos
12.
J Proteomics ; 296: 105124, 2024 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364903

RESUMO

Buffalo is a silent heat animal and doesn't show prominent signs of estrous like cattle so it becomes difficult for farmers to determine the receptivity of the animal based purely on the animal behaviour. India, having a huge population size, needs to produce more milk for the population. Successful artificial insemination greatly depends on the receptivity of the animal. Hence the present study aimed to identify the changes in the metabolome of the buffalo. GC-MS based mass spectrometric analysis was deployed for the determination of estrous by differential expression of metabolites. It was found that hydracrylic acid, 3-bromo-1-propanol and benzyl serine were significantly upregulated in the estrous phase of buffalo (p.value ≤0.05, FC ≥ 2). The pathway enrichment analysis also supported the same as pathways related to amino acid metabolism and fatty acid metabolism were up regulated along with the Warburg effect which is linked to the rapid cell proliferation which might help prepare animals to meet the energy requirement during the estrous. Further analysis of the metabolic biomarkers using ROC analysis also supported these three metabolites as probable biomarkers as they were identified with AUC values of 0.7 or greater. SIGNIFICANCE: The present study focuses on the untargeted metabolomics studies of buffalo urine with special reference to the estrous phase of reproductive cycle. The estrous signals are more prominent in cattle, where animals show clear estrous signals such as mounting and discharge along with vocal signals. Buffalo is a silent heat animal and it becomes difficult for farmers to detect the estrous based on the physical and behavioral signals. Hence the present study focuses on GC-MS based untargeted metabolomics to identify differentially expressed urine metabolites. In this study, hydracrylic acid, 3-bromo-1-propanol and benzyl serine were found to be significantly upregulated in the estrous phase of buffalo (p-value ≤0.05, FC ≥ 2). Further confirmation of the metabolic biomarkers was done using Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis which also supported these three metabolites as probable biomarkers as they had AUC values of 0.7 or greater. Hence, this study will be of prime importance for the people working in the area of animal metabolomics.


Assuntos
1-Propanol , Ácido Láctico/análogos & derivados , Serina , Humanos , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Estro , Metabolômica , Biomarcadores/análise , Metaboloma , Propanóis
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3466, 2024 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342935

RESUMO

The subject of the article is devoted to the development of a matrix collocation technique based upon the combination of the fractional-order shifted Vieta-Lucas functions (FSVLFs) and the quasilinearization method (QLM) for the numerical evaluation of the fractional multi-order heat conduction model related to the human head with singularity and nonlinearity. The fractional operators are adopted in accordance with the Liouville-Caputo derivative. The quasilinearization method (QLM) is first utilized in order to defeat the inherent nonlinearity of the problem, which is converted to a family of linearized subequations. Afterward, we use the FSVLFs along with a set of collocation nodes as the zeros of these functions to reach a linear algebraic system of equations at each iteration. In the weighted [Formula: see text] norm, the convergence analysis of the FSVLFs series solution is established. We especially assert that the expansion series form of FSVLFs is convergent in the infinity norm with order [Formula: see text], where K represents the number of FSVLFs used in approximating the unknown solution. Diverse computational experiments by running the presented combined QLM-FSVLFs are conducted using various fractional orders and nonlinearity parameters. The outcomes indicate that the QLM-FSVLFs produces efficient approximate solutions to the underlying model with high-order accuracy, especially near the singular point. Furthermore, the methodology of residual error functions is employed to measure the accuracy of the proposed hybrid algorithm. Comparisons with existing numerical models show the superiority of QLM-FSVLFs, which also is straightforward in implementation.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Osteopatia , Humanos , Animais , Algoritmos , Estro
14.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 362024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38402905

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Declining fertility is an issue in multiple mammalian species. As the site of fertilisation and early embryo development, the oviduct plays a critical role in embryo survival, yet there is a paucity of information on how the oviduct regulates this process. AIMS: We hypothesised that differences in steroid hormone signalling and/or immune function would be observed in a model of poor embryo survival, the peripubertal ewe. METHODS: We examined expression of steroid hormones in systemic circulation, oviductal expression of oestrogen receptorαand genes important in steroid hormone signalling, and immune function in pregnant and cyclic peripubertal and adult ewes on day 3 after oestrus. KEY RESULTS: Concentrations of progesterone, but not oestradiol, were decreased in the peripubertal ewe compared to the adult ewe. Oestrogen receptorαprotein expression was increased in the peripubertal ewe, but pathway analysis of gene expression revealed downregulation of the oestrogen signalling pathway compared to the adult ewe. Differential expression of several genes involved in immune function between the peripubertal and adult ewe was consistent with an unfavourable oviductal environment in the peripubertal ewe lamb. Oestradiol concentration was positively correlated with the expression of multiple genes involved in the regulation of immune function. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the immune environment of the oviduct, potentially linked to differential modulation by steroid hormones, may partially underly the poor fertilisation and early embryo survival observed in the peripubertal ewe. IMPLICATIONS: A unfavourable oviductal environment may play an important role in limiting reproductive success.


Assuntos
Tubas Uterinas , Progesterona , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Estro , Tubas Uterinas/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Ovinos
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1995, 2024 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38263218

RESUMO

This study proposed a quick and reliable thermography-based method for detection of healthy potato tubers from those with dry rot disease and also determination of the level of disease development. The dry rot development inside potato tubers was classified based on the Wiersema Criteria, grade 0 to 3. The tubers were heated at 60 and 90 °C, and then thermal images were taken 10, 25, 40, and 70 s after heating. The surface temperature of the tubers was measured to select the best treatment for thermography, and the treatment with the highest thermal difference in each class was selected. The results of variance analysis of tuber surface temperature showed that tuber surface temperature was significantly different due to the severity of disease development inside the tuber. Total of 25 thermal images were prepared for each class, and then Otsu's threshold method was employed to remove the background. Their histograms were extracted from the red, green, and blue surfaces, and, finally, six features were extracted from each histogram. Moreover, the co-occurrence matrix was extracted at four angles from the gray level images and five features were extracted from each co-occurrence matrix. Totally, each thermograph was described by 38 features. These features were used to implement the artificial neural networks and the support vector machine in order to classify and diagnose the severity of the disease. The results showed that the sensitivity of the models in the diagnosis of healthy tubers was 96 and 100%, respectively. The overall accuracy of the models in detecting the severity of tuber tissue destruction was 93 and 97%, respectively. The proposed methodology as an accurate, nondestructive, fast, and applicable system reduces the potato loss by rapid detection of the disease of the tubers.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Animais , Análise de Variância , Estro , Nível de Saúde , Aprendizado de Máquina
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 4, 2024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172906

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the microbial characteristics of yak uteri collected using intrauterine cotton swabs (CS) during different reproductive stages and the correlation of these microbial characteristics with reproductive status. METHODS: We used a macrogenomic approach to analyze the functional aspects of different microorganisms in samples collected during the pre-estrus, estrus, late estrus, and diestrus stages. RESULTS: The results revealed the presence of 1293 microbial genera and 3401 microbial species in the uteri of yaks at different reproductive stages. The dominant bacterial species varied across the different periods, with Micrococcus and Proteus being dominant during pre-estrus; Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Flavobacterium, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus during estrus; Acinetobacter, Bacillus and Proteus during late estrus; and Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, and Proteus during diestrus. DISCUSSION: The primary functions of these bacteria are enriched in various metabolic pathways, including carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, intracellular transport and secretion, post-translational protein modification, and drug resistance. These findings suggest that the microbial diversity in the uterus of yaks plays a crucial role in reproductive regulation and can help prevent reproductive tract-related diseases.


Assuntos
Estro , Útero , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Útero/metabolismo , Reprodução
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2767: 275-292, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37284942

RESUMO

Studying various animal models is important for comparative biology and to better understand evolutionary development. Furthermore, when aiming to translate findings to human development, it is crucial to select an appropriate animal model that closely resembles the specific aspect of development under study. The guinea pig is highlighted as a useful platform for reproductive studies due to similarities in in utero development and general physiology with the human. This chapter outlines the methods required for guinea pig mating and collection of embryos for in vitro culture and molecular characterization. Specifically, this chapter provides detailed guidance on monitoring the estrus cycle to determine the mating time, performing a vaginal flush and smear to confirm successful mating, performing euthanasia of the guinea pig, and flushing in vivo embryos. Once collected, the embryos can be utilized for numerous downstream applications. Here we will cover embryo culturing and processing embryos for immunofluorescence.


Assuntos
Estro , Reprodução , Humanos , Feminino , Cobaias , Animais , Vagina , Blastocisto , Imunofluorescência
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 107(3): 1592-1602, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37944813

RESUMO

The objective of this observational study was to evaluate estrous expression at the first estrus occurring between 7 to 30 d in milk (DIM), as detected by an automated activity monitor (AAM), and its association with genomic daughter pregnancy rate (GDPR) and genomic expected milk production (GEM) in lactating dairy cows. A total of 4,119 lactations from 2,602 Holstein cows were included. Cows were enrolled as first lactation (n = 1,168), second lactation (n = 1,525) and third and greater lactation (n = 1,426). Hair samples were collected from the tail switch, and cows were genotyped using an SNP platform (Clarifide, Zoetis, São Paulo, SP, Brazil). Postpartum cows were examined daily by the farm personnel from calving until 10 DIM. Calving was classified as assisted (forced calf extraction) and unassisted (normal calving). Retained fetal membranes (RFM), hyperketonemia (KET), and left displaced abomasum (LDA) were also recorded. Mean GDPR (± SD) was -0.29 ± 1.4, and the intensity and duration of the first estrus event was 15.9 ± 13.1 x-factor (intensity unit measurement) and 11.1 ± 3.8 h, respectively. Cows that had greater GDPR had greater intensity and longer duration of estrus at the alert, independent of parity. Overall resumption of estrous expression, between 7 to 30 DIM, was 41.2% (1,695/4,119), where 58.8% (2,424/4,119) did not have an estrus event, 31.0% (1,274/4,119) of cows had one event of estrus, and 10.2% (421/4,119) of cows had 2 or more events of estrus early postpartum. Mean DIM (± SD) at first estrus event, detected by the AAM, was 19.4 ± 4.4 d. Days in milk at first event for cows with one event was 20.7 ± 1.6 d and 15.9 ± 3.1 d for cows with 2 or more events of estrus. First lactation cows were more likely to have an estrus event early postpartum when compared with second and third and greater lactation cows (45.2 ± 1.4% [530/1168] vs. 41.6 ± 1.3% [636/1525] vs. 37.2 ± 1.3% [529/1426], respectively). There was an interaction of parity and GDPR on the proportion of cows demonstrating an early postpartum estrus. There was no difference in the proportion of cows with an early postpartum estrus between those with assisted or unassisted calving, RFM, or LDA. However, cows that had KET were less likely to have an alert early postpartum when compared with cows that did not have KET. Mean genomic expected milk production (± SD) was 256.8 ± 600.1 kg. There was no interaction between GEM and parity on estrous expression (i.e., intensity and duration). There was no interaction between GEM and GDPR on the proportion of estrus early postpartum.


Assuntos
Lactação , Leite , Feminino , Gravidez , Bovinos , Animais , Núcleo Familiar , Taxa de Gravidez , Brasil , Genômica , Estro
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 256(Pt 1): 128324, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38007026

RESUMO

A comprehensive understanding of the complex regulatory mechanisms governing estrus and ovulation across multiple tissues in mammals is imperative to improve the reproductive performance of livestock and mitigate ovulation-related disorders in humans. To comprehensively elucidate the regulatory landscape, we analyzed the transcriptome of protein-coding genes and long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) in 58 samples (including the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, vagina, and vulva) derived from European Large White gilts and Chinese Mi gilts during estrus and diestrus. We constructed an intricate regulatory network encompassing 358 hub genes across the five examined tissues. Furthermore, our investigation identified 85 differentially expressed lincRNAs that are predicted to target 230 genes associated with critical functions including behavior, receptors, and apoptosis. Importantly, we found that vital components of estrus and ovulation events involve "Apoptosis" pathway in the hypothalamus, "Autophagy" in the ovary, as well as "Hypoxia" and "Angiogenesis" in the vagina and vulva. We have identified several differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs), such as SPI1 and HES2, which regulate these pathways. SPI1 may suppress transcription in the autophagy pathway, promoting apoptosis and inhibiting the proliferation of ovarian granulosa cells. Our study provides the most comprehensive transcriptional profiling information related to estrus and ovulation events.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Suínos , Feminino , Animais , Transcriptoma/genética , Diestro/fisiologia , Estro/genética , Sus scrofa/genética
20.
J Reprod Dev ; 70(1): 49-54, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38008463

RESUMO

Pre-ovulatory follicles are cooler than the neighboring reproductive organs in cows. Thus, measuring the temperature of reproductive organs could be a useful method for predicting estrus and ovulation in cows, and the establishment of a non-invasive technique is required. In this study, we used infrared thermography (IRT) to measure ocular surface temperature as a potential surrogate for reproductive organ temperature. Five Japanese Black cows with synchronized estrus were subjected to temperature measurements in five regions of the ocular surface, including the nasal conjunctiva, nasal limbus, center cornea, temporal limbus, and temporal conjunctiva, twice a day (0800 h and 1600 h) during the experimental period. The temperatures in the five regions significantly declined in cows from estrus to ovulation. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to use IRT to show a temperature decrease in the ocular surface along with estrus to ovulation in Japanese Black cows.


Assuntos
Ovulação , Termografia , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Temperatura , Termografia/veterinária , Termografia/métodos , Temperatura Corporal , Estro , Sincronização do Estro
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