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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(40): e2305629120, 2023 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37748064

RESUMO

Women remain underrepresented in most math-intensive fields. [Breda and Napp, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 15435 (2019)] reported that girls' comparative advantage in reading over math (i.e., the intraindividual differences between girls' reading vs. math performance, compared to such differences for boys) could explain up to 80% of the gender gap in students' intentions to pursue math-intensive studies and careers, in conflict with findings from previous research. We conducted a conceptual replication and expanded upon Breda and Napp's study by using new global data (PISA2018, N = 466,165) and a recent US nationally representative longitudinal study (High School Longitudinal Study of 2009, N = 6,560). We coded students' intended majors and careers and their actual college majors. The difference between a student's math vs. reading performance explained only small proportions of the gender gap in students' intentions to pursue math-intensive fields (0.4 to 10.2%) and in their enrollment in math-intensive college majors (12.3%). Consistent with previous studies, our findings suggest girls' comparative advantage in reading explains a minority of the gender gap in math-related majors and occupational intentions and choices. Potential reasons for differences in the estimated effect sizes include differences in the operationalization of math-related choices, the operationalization of math and reading performance, and possibly the timing of measuring intentions and choices. Therefore, it seems premature to conclude that girls' comparative advantage in reading, rather than the cumulative effects of other structural and/or psychological factors, can largely explain the persistent gender gap in math-intensive educational and career choices.


Assuntos
Estudos de Linguagem , Aranhas , Masculino , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores Sexuais , Apoptose , Escolha da Profissão
2.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 32(5): 2254-2266, 2023 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37591219

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Latino/a children disproportionately experience academic vulnerabilities, including in reading. Caregiver-mediated interventions can be leveraged to support the bilingual language development of young Latino/a children to prevent these well-documented disparities in reading. However, in leveraging these programs, it is important to weigh Latino cultural values surrounding education, family connection, and learning alongside the barriers and inequities experienced by Latino families. In response to this need, this study used a community-partnered approach to (a) understand caregivers' needs related to the language and literacy development of their young children and (b) understand perspectives for how best to implement a culturally adapted and culturally responsive caregiver-mediated program. METHOD: A total of 101 caregivers completed a needs assessment of sociodemographic information, child development and needs, and family needs. Subsequently, nonprofit staff and caregivers completed semistructured interviews or focus groups about the development and implementation of a birth-to-5 program supporting early language development. RESULTS: Thirty-five percent of families reported having at least one child with delayed language. Furthermore, 60.3% of respondents reported desiring strategies to support their child's early reading. Deductive content analysis revealed that both staff and caregivers desired a birth-to-5, caregiver-mediated program. Staff described family-level characteristics to consider for an early language program, community strengths, specific inequities faced by Latino families, and suggestions about culturally responsive early language and literacy program content and structure. Caregivers described barriers and inequities that they have faced related to their children's learning and development and how a birth-to-5 program could be responsive to their needs and values. CONCLUSIONS: Staff and caregiver emphasized the resilience of Latino families and their strong values surrounding educational involvement. At the same time, participants also reported barriers and inequities rooted in systemic racism that have prevented families from being involved in certain aspects of the children's education. Together, these results revealed the importance of an early literacy program that is responsive to the structural inequities experienced by families.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Participação da Comunidade , Hispânico ou Latino , Estudos de Linguagem , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Alfabetização , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Escolaridade , Aprendizagem , Leitura , Multilinguismo , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Participação dos Interessados , Apoio Comunitário , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
3.
Cogn Process ; 24(3): 387-413, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37450232

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine whether Japanese participants condition spoken words' meanings to written pseudowords. In Survey 1, we selected spoken words associated with negative (α = .91) and positive (α = .79) features for Experiment 1 and passive (α = .90) and active (α = .80) features for Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated four written pseudowords' emotional valence using a 7-point semantic differential scale (1: negative; 7: positive) before and after conditioning spoken words with negative, neutral, or positive features to each pseudoword. In the conditioning phase, participants read each pseudoword, listened to a spoken word, and verbally repeated each spoken word. The results showed that a pseudoword was conditioned to spoken words with positive and negative features. In Experiment 2, participants evaluated four pseudowords' activeness using a 7-point semantic differential scale (1: passive; 7: active) before and after conditioning spoken words of passive, neutral, and active features to each written pseudoword. In the conditioning phase, the participants read each written pseudoword, listened to a spoken word, and repeated the spoken word. The results showed that the activeness evaluations were more increased for pseudowords conditioned to spoken words of active and neutral features after conditioning than before conditioning but were unchanged for a pseudoword conditioned to those with passive features before and after conditioning. Additonally, Survey 2's results showed that although the positiveness and activeness responses of the words used in Experiments 1 and 2 were controlled well, the lack of significant differences among positiveness responses of words may influence the evaluative conditioning in Experiment 2. That is, when participants condition passive (low arousal) words' activeness (arousal) ratings to those of pseudowords, words' positiveness (valence) ratings would be important in the evaluative conditioning. Our findings suggest that participants can condition spoken word meanings of preference and activeness to those of written pseudowords. It also indicates that linguistically evaluative conditioning's effects are robust in a non-alphabetic language.


Assuntos
População do Leste Asiático , Emoções , Idioma , Humanos , Percepção Auditiva , Emoções/fisiologia , Leitura , Redação , Fala , Estudos de Linguagem
4.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 43(2): [100289], Abr-Jun 2023. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-221021

RESUMO

Este estudio analiza la sensibilidad de los cuestionarios CDI breves para medir el efecto del grado de exposición a la lengua en el tamaño del léxico de niños bilingües en euskera o lengua vasca. Además, compara la capacidad predictiva de tres factores asociados a la cantidad de exposición a la lengua: el input relativo, el perfil lingüístico de los padres y la lengua de comunicación interparental. Los datos de 2.098 niños bilingües (8-49 meses) obtenidos con las versiones breves del CDI vasco (CDI-1vb, CDI-2vb y CDI-3 v) evidenciaron: a) la sensibilidad de los tres instrumentos para medir el efecto del grado de exposición en el léxico expresivo infantil; b) un efecto muy similar de los tres factores analizados, y c) un aumento gradual del tamaño del efecto, con la edad, que evoluciona desde la ausencia de efecto durante el primer año (8 a 15 meses), a un efecto pequeño durante el año siguiente (16-29 meses), para convertirse en grande entre los dos años y medio y los cuatro años (30-49 meses). Los resultados apuntan al perfil lingüístico de los padres y a la lengua de comunicación interparental como indicadores tan apropiados como el input, o incluso más, para medir la cantidad de exposición a la lengua de niños en edad preescolar, por lo que se recomienda la inclusión de estos dos factores en la evaluación del desarrollo léxico temprano bilingüe, muy especialmente, en el caso de lenguas minoritarias.(AU)


The current study analyses short Basque CDI questionnaires’ accuracy to measure the effect of the amount of exposure to the language on bilingual children's vocabulary size. Additionally, it compares the predictive ability of three variables related to the amount of exposure: relative input, language of parental communication and parents’ linguistic profile. Data of 2098 children (8–49 months) obtained with the short versions of the Basque CDI (CDI-1vb, CDI-2vb and CDI-3v) revealed (a) these three instruments’ sensibility to measure the effect of language exposure on children's expressive vocabulary, (b) a very similar effect size for the three variables, and (c) an increase in effect size with age: no effect at the age of 8–15 months, small at 16–29 months and large at the age of 30–49 months. Data suggests that parents’ linguistic profile and language of inter-parental communication are indicators equally suitable of preschool children's exposure to the language, or even more so, than input, and leads the authors to claim the inclusion of those factors in the assessment of young children's lexical development, especially in minority languages.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Multilinguismo , Linguística , Estudos de Linguagem , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Compreensão
5.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 43(2): [100292], Abr-Jun 2023. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-221022

RESUMO

La prematuridad tiene una alta tasa de incidencia en los países desarrollados, representando el 75% de la mortalidad perinatal. Aunque los avances prenatales y perinatales de las últimas décadas han permitido reducir su prevalencia, en consecuencia, se ha hecho evidente la presencia de morbilidades y comorbilidades en el desarrollo de estos infantes.El propósito de esta investigación, de carácter prospectivo y longitudinal, es analizar los componentes del lenguaje (morfología, sintaxis, semántica y pragmática) de 29 menores, nacidos prematuros extremos, en el Hospital Universitario La Paz de Madrid y que actualmente están en edad escolar obligatoria, para identificar la presencia de posibles dificultades en el lenguaje. Todos los participantes estaban matriculados en Educación Primaria y los componentes del lenguaje se evaluaron a través de la batería BLOC-Screening.Los resultados evidencian que existen comorbilidades en el componente morfológico en los siguientes elementos: formas irregulares de pasado, formas irregulares de futuro, reflexivos…; en el componente semántico (locativos, cuantificadores, modificadores de tiempo y sucesión…) y en sintaxis (voz pasiva, oraciones comparativas, oraciones subordinadas de causa y condición, y en las temporales [después/antes]…), obteniéndose mejores resultados en el componente pragmático, excepto en aquellas acciones que requieren expresar demandas y solicitar información específica.Por tanto, el perfil obtenido en lenguaje de los prematuros extremos sugiere la necesidad de intervención logopédica y conlleva la necesidad de hacer propuestas de intervención didáctica en la escuela que mejoren sus habilidades lingüísticas desde un enfoque comunicativo.(AU)


Prematurity has a high incidence rate in developed countries, accounting for 75% of perinatal mortality. Although pre- and perinatal advances in recent decades have reduced its prevalence, consequently, the presence of morbidities and comorbidities in the development of these infants has become evident.The purpose of this prospective and longitudinal research is to analyze the language components (morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics) of 29 minors, born extremely premature, at the Hospital Universitario La Paz in Madrid and who are currently of compulsory school age, in order to identify the presence of possible language difficulties. All the participants were enrolled in Primary Education and the language components were assessed using the BLOC-Screening battery.The results show that there are comorbidities in the morphological component in the following elements: irregular forms of the past, irregular forms of the future, reflexive…; in the semantic component (locatives, quantifiers, modifiers of time and succession…) and in syntax (passive voice, comparative clauses, subordinate clauses of cause and condition, and in the temporal ones [after/before]…), obtaining better results in the pragmatic component, except in those actions that require expressing demands and requesting specific information.Therefore, the profile obtained in the language of extremely premature infants suggests the need for speech therapy intervention and entails the need to make proposals for educational intervention at school that improve their language skills from a communicative approach.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Aprendizagem , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Estudos de Linguagem , Fonoaudiologia , Transtornos da Comunicação , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha
6.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 28: e2713, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420267

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a interlocução terapeuta-sujeito com afasia no processo de interpretação e organização de história em quadrinhos. Métodos Estudo transversal, de natureza qualitativa. Os dados coletados foram de situações enunciativas audiogravadas e apresentadas descritivamente por quadros de interlocução (A1-T1) e (A2-T2), registrando atividade com Histórias em Quadrinhos (HQ), realizada em encontro do Grupo Interdisciplinar de Convivência da instituição, do qual participaram sujeitos com e sem afasia. Analisou-se a interlocução entre duas terapeutas em formação (T1 e T2) e dois sujeitos com afasia (A1 e A2). Resultados As interlocuções entre A1-T1 e A2-T2, ocorridas durante o processo de organização das HQ, evidenciaram posicionamentos diferentes das terapeutas, no que tange ao ouvido e ao narrado. A1 foi reconhecida por T1 como sujeito de linguagem, à medida que a terapeuta promoveu a disjunção, ou seja, encaminhou A1 à condição de locutor; o mesmo fato não ocorreu com A2 e T2, pois o primeiro não foi reconhecido como sujeito de linguagem, já que T2 manteve-se em conjunção, não conferindo lugar de fala a A2. Conclusão A enunciação benvenistiana configura-se como recurso teórico-metodológico para análise e intervenção clínica junto a sujeitos com afasia. O contexto de convivência grupal impõe-se como lócus de cuidado e formativo para as diferentes áreas de atenção às pessoas com afasia, articulando, interdisciplinarmente, aspectos da enunciação à prática terapêutica.


ABSTRACT Purpose To analyze the therapist-subject with aphasia interlocution in the process of interpretation and organization of comics. Methods Cross-sectional study of a qualitative nature. The data are from audio-recorded enunciative situations and presented descriptively by interlocution charts (A1-T1) and (A2-T2), registering activity with Comics, held at a meeting of the Interdisciplinary Group of Coexistence (GIC) in which subjects with and without aphasia participate. The interlocution between two therapists in training (T1 and T2) and two subjects with aphasia (A1 and A2) is analyzed. Results: The interlocutions between A1-T1 and A2-T2, which occurred during the process of organization of the comic, show different positions of the therapists regarding the ear and the narrated. A1 is recognized by T1 as a subject of language as the therapist promotes disjunction, that is, it directs A1 to the condition of speaker; the same does not occur with A2 and T2, because the former is not recognized as a subject of language, since T2 remains in conjunction, not giving A2 speaking space. Conclusion Benvenistian enunciation is configured as a theoretical and methodological resource for analysis and clinical intervention with subjects with aphasia; the context of group coexistence imposes itself as a locus of care and training for the different areas of attention to people with aphasia, articulating, interdisciplinary, aspects of enunciation to therapeutic practice.


Assuntos
Humanos , Afasia/terapia , Distúrbios da Fala , Histórias em Quadrinhos como Assunto , Estudos de Linguagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles
7.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e254599, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1448941

RESUMO

Student protagonism is paramount in the knowledge construction process. In this paper, we discuss a didactic-pedagogical resource called licentîa hypomnema (LH), inspired in portfolios and learning diaries in which student-teachers record their understandings and reflections regarding pedagogical topics learned at University in a meta-learning process on learning about teaching. The initial context of the research was a Psychological Development and Teaching course, offered in the Teacher Education program at Universidade de Brasília (UnB). Two of the authors, then Literacy and Languages Teaching students, produced their LH and peer assessed each other during the course. In their annotations, the student-authors recorded two pedagogical situations related to the use of LH in their own teaching practices, causing an impact on their formative path. These materials consist of the data for analysis and discussion. Moreover, we discuss possible uses of reflexive writing in teacher education and other learning contexts. Producing a LH supports knowledge production and allows students to connect theory and practice, which consequently influences the student's teaching practice. Since LH is a didactic-pedagogical resource and not a close-ended tool, both the context and individuals who use it should be considered.(AU)


O protagonismo de estudantes tem grande importância no processo de construção do conhecimento. Neste artigo, discutimos um recurso didático-pedagógico chamado licentîa hypomnema (LH), inspirado em portfólios e diários de aprendizagem, isto é, estudantes de licenciatura escrevem suas compreensões e reflexões acerca de assuntos pedagógicos vistos na universidade em um processo de meta-aprendizagem sobre aprender a ensinar. O contexto inicial da pesquisa foi um curso de Desenvolvimento Psicológico e Ensino, ministrado em cursos de Licenciatura da Universidade de Brasília (UnB). Duas das autoras eram estudantes do curso de Letras, elas produziram seus LH, realizando avaliação por pares entre si durante o curso. As estudantes-autoras trouxeram em seus registros duas situações pedagógicas relacionadas ao uso desse recurso em suas próprias práticas de ensino que causaram um impacto em suas trajetórias formativas. São esses relatos que compõem os dados para análise e discussão. Além disso, procuramos discutir possíveis desdobramentos para o uso do recurso da escrita reflexiva na formação docente e em outros contextos de aprendizagem. A produção do LH fornece suporte para a produção de conhecimento e permite ao aluno conectar teoria e prática, o que, consequentemente, reverbera na prática de ensino do aluno. O LH é um recurso didático-pedagógico e não uma ferramenta fechada, portanto, tanto o contexto quanto as pessoas que o utilizam devem ser considerados.(AU)


El protagonismo de los estudiantes tiene gran importancia en el proceso de construcción del conocimiento. En este trabajo, discutimos un recurso didáctico-pedagógico llamado licentîa hypomnema (LH), que se inspira en diarios de aprendizaje, es decir, estudiantes de profesorado escriben sus comprensiones y reflexiones sobre temas pedagógicos aprendidos en la universidad, produciendo un proceso de meta-aprendizaje sobre aprender a enseñar. El contexto inicial de la investigación fue un curso de Desarrollo Psicológico y Enseñanza, impartido en el programa de Formación de Profesores de la Universidade de Brasília (UnB). Dos de las autoras eran alumnas de la carrera de Letras que produjeron sus LH y realizaron una evaluación por pares mutua durante el curso. Las estudiantes autoras plantearon en su LH dos situaciones pedagógicas relacionadas con el uso de este recurso en sus propias prácticas de enseñanza, causando un impacto en su trayectoria formativa. Estos materiales constituyen los datos para el análisis y la discusión en esta investigación. Buscamos discutir posibles desdoblamientos para el uso del recurso de la escritura reflexiva en la formación docente y en otros contextos de aprendizaje. La producción de este recurso da soporte a la producción de conocimiento y permite al estudiante conectar teoría y práctica, lo que consecuentemente repercute en su práctica docente. El LH es un recurso didáctico-pedagógico y no una herramienta cerrada, por lo tanto, se debe considerar tanto el contexto como las personas que lo utilizan.(AU)


Assuntos
Diário , Docentes , Escrita Manual , Objetivos Organizacionais , Aptidão , Psicologia , Psicologia Educacional , Psicologia Social , Leitura , Ensino de Recuperação , Associação , Autocuidado , Mudança Social , Responsabilidade Social , Ciências Sociais , Fala , Conscientização , Pensamento , Redação , Atividades Cotidianas , Poder Psicológico , Competência Mental , Modelos Educacionais , Cognição , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Condicionamento Psicológico , Manifestações Neurocomportamentais , Disciplinas e Atividades Comportamentais , Criatividade , Evolução Cultural , Cultura , Autonomia Pessoal , Tomada de Decisões , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Compreensão , Avaliação Educacional , Escolaridade , Indexação e Redação de Resumos , Metodologia como Assunto , Planejamento , Existencialismo , Descoberta do Conhecimento , Comunicação para Apreensão de Informação , Atenção Plena , Tutoria , Autoaprendizagem como Assunto , Testes de Memória e Aprendizagem , Autogestão , Liberdade , Autoteste , Interação Social , Individualidade , Capacitação em Serviço , Inteligência , Conhecimento Psicológico de Resultados , Estudos de Linguagem , Liderança , Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Memória , Processos Mentais
8.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 31(3): 170-176, Oct 16, 2022. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-214730

RESUMO

This study examines the role of language encouragement and sports in boosting the physical and mental health of learners of Chinese as a second language. This paper utilized literature research, data analysis, and other approaches to investigate the factors brought about by athletics. The questionnaire results distributed to international students serve as the supporting argument. This research examines how physical exercise can improve students' physical and mental health based on the data analysis of a questionnaire survey. Kang's thesis offers some recommendations on how to assist students in enhancing their physical activity ability and intensity in middle schools, such as referring to the examination method; by adding the physical education examination to this module, guiding students will be a priority. There is an emphasis on sports. In addition, as the government and the school increase the direction of students and invest in sports facilities, students will have the time and space to participate in sports. Language encouragement and sports can effectively regulate international students' physical and mental health, boost the self-confidence of international college students, establish positive social ties, assist students in establishing a sense of mental health, and promote the healthy development of mental health.(AU)


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Estudantes , Idioma , Estudos de Linguagem , Saúde do Estudante , Esportes , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 42(2): 73-79, Abri - Jun 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-204861

RESUMO

Los niños pequeños que consultan por ausencia del lenguaje suelen mostrar déficits en la construcción de mecanismos comunicativos preverbales sin que estos formen parte de trastornos más amplios del desarrollo. Objetivo: Analizar la presencia/ausencia de habilidades preverbales en niños con ausencia del lenguaje no autistas. Población: Se analizó una muestra de 77niños de 2 a 3años y 6meses que consultaron por ausencia del lenguaje, pertenecientes al servicio de Fonoaudiología del Hospital Universitario Austral y a la práctica privada. Material y método: Los integrantes de la muestra fueron evaluados audiológicamente para descartar la presencia de hipoacusia, se aplicó a los padres el cuestionario M-CHAT para descartar niños con riesgo medio y alto de autismo, y se tomaron parámetros madurativos generales obtenidos a través de la escala VABS, con lo cual se buscó identificar la presencia de retrasos específicos para la adquisición del lenguaje y alteraciones globales del desarrollo. Las habilidades preverbales observadas fueron el contacto visual, la atención conjunta, la capacidad de interacción, la imitación simple y el uso de gestos protoimperativos. Resultados: Los niños con retrasos globales del desarrollo exhibieron mayor compromiso en dichos mecanismos que los pacientes con retrasos puntuales del lenguaje. Los ítems que mostraron mayor nivel de afectación fueron el desarrollo de la imitación y el uso de gestos protoimperativos correspondientes a adquisiciones propias del último trimestre del primer año de vida y el primer trimestre del segundo.(AU)


Young children consulting due to an absence of language usually show deficits in the construction of preverbal communicative mechanisms, not necessarily a sign of broader developmental disorders.AimTo analyse the presence/absence of preverbal abilities in non-autistic children with language absence. Population: A subset of 77 2-3.5year-old children was analysed. These children attended consultation at the Speech-Language Pathology Service of the Hospital Universitario Austral and private consultation due to an absence of language. Materials and methodology: The population of children under study went through an audiological evaluation to rule out hearing loss. Their parents were asked to answer the M-CHAT Questionnaire to rule out children with high and medium risk of autism; and an assessment of the general development parameters was made with the Vineland, VABS scale, seeking to identify the presence of specific delays in language acquisition and global developmental disorders. The preverbal abilities studied were: visual contact, joint attention, the ability to interact, simple imitation, and the use of protoimperative gestures. Results: Children with global developmental delays showed more issues in the above mechanisms than the patients with specific language delays. The items that showed a higher level of impairment were the development of imitation and the use of protoimperative gestures related to development during the last quarter of the first year of life.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Idioma , Estudos de Linguagem , Transtornos da Linguagem , Aprendizagem Verbal , Aprendizagem , Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Fonoterapia , Audiologia
10.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 42(2): 80-89, Abri - Jun 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-204862

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivo: La conciencia prosódica acentual (CPa) es una habilidad metalingüística que se desarrolla en forma paralela a otras habilidades como la conciencia fonológica (CF). Los objetivos de este artículo son: determinar la CPa de niños con TDL en niños de segundo y cuarto grado de primaria; comprobar si las habilidades de CP acentual y CF se encuentran relacionadas entre sí y determinar si esas eventuales relaciones se presentan de igual forma en individuos de segundo y cuarto grado de educación primaria. Materiales y método: En el estudio participaron 131 niños, 76 de 2.° grado de educación primaria (EP) (26 TDL y 50 sin TDL) y 55 niños de 4.° grado de EP (22 TDL y 33 sin TDL). Se utilizaron 2pruebas de CP: test de acento léxico y test de acento métrico, y 2pruebas de CF. Resultados y conclusiones: Los resultados muestran que los niños con TDL presentan dificultades en la CPa independientemente del grado. Además, se corrobora la relación que existente entre la CPa y la CF.(AU)


Background and objectiv: Prosodic stress awareness is a metalinguistic ability that develops in parallel to other abilities such as phonological awareness (PhA). The objectives of this article are: to determine prosodic stress awareness the of children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) in second and fourth grade elementary school children, Prosodic stress awareness and PhA are related to each other and, to determine if those eventual relations are presented equally in individuals of second and fourth grade of primary education. Materials and method: 131 children participated in the study, 76 in the 2nd grade of primary school (PS) (26 DLD and 50 without DLD) and 55 children in the 4th grade of PS (22 DLD and 33 without DLD). Two prosodic stress awareness tests were used: lexical accent test and metric accent test, and 2tests of PhA. Results and conclusions: The results show that children with DLD present difficulties in prosodic stress awareness regardless of grade. In addition, the relationship between prosodic stress awareness and CF is corroborated.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos da Linguagem , Aprendizagem Verbal , Aprendizagem , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Idioma , Estudos de Linguagem , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Fonoaudiologia , Fonoterapia , Audiologia
12.
Edumecentro ; 13(1): 252-274, ene.-mar. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149244

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: una dificultad lingüística recurrente en los textos escritos de los profesionales de la salud radica en la incorrecta utilización del gerundio debido a la influencia del idioma inglés en el español, las malas traducciones, el desconocimiento lingüístico y las concepciones erróneas ―dogmáticas― arraigadas. Objetivo: fundamentar el empleo acertado del gerundio español en la redacción científica, como importante y necesaria estructura del idioma español. Métodos: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, se consultaron 32 textos ―tesis de grado, artículos originales y de revisión-. Después de la lectura preliminar, se seleccionaron 20, teniendo en cuenta la actualización de la bibliografía y su pertinencia con el objetivo propuesto. Resultados: según el análisis, el gerundio puede ser utilizado correctamente en las más disímiles situaciones. Las multiplicidades de funciones otorgadas a esta forma no personal verbal por inexpertos en el idioma han lastrado sus funciones y han generado temor entre los que desconocen sus bondades y posibilidades. Los autores consideran que la superación lingüística en el conocimiento morfosintáctico del idioma es casi nula en un contexto universitario donde la prioridad es el dominio de las ciencias médicas, unido al desinterés de algunos profesionales del sector por no considerar el lenguaje como la mejor herramienta para su proyección intelectual y como aspecto inherente a su imagen profesional. Conclusiones: se constató que las generalidades de los autores consultados coinciden en que el gerundio puede utilizarse en todos los estilos de redacción, incluyendo el científico, siempre que se emplee en correspondencia con las normas lingüísticas.


ABSTRACT Introduction: a recurrent linguistic difficulty in the written texts of health professionals lies in the incorrect use of the gerund due to the influence of the English language in Spanish, bad translations, linguistic ignorance and ingrained ―dogmatic― misconceptions. Objective: to base the correct use of the Spanish gerund in scientific writing, as an important and necessary structure of the Spanish language. Methods: a bibliographic review was carried out, 32 texts were consulted ― degree theses, original articles and review articles. After preliminary reading, 20 were selected, taking into account the updating of the bibliography and its relevance to the proposed objective. Results: according to the analysis, the gerund can be correctly used in the most dissimilar situations. The multiplicities of functions granted to this non-personal verbal form by inexperienced in the language have weighed down its functions and have generated fear among those who are unaware of its benefits and possibilities. The authors consider that linguistic improvement in the morphosyntactic knowledge of the language is almost nil in a university context where the priority is the domain of medical sciences, together with the lack of interest of some professionals in the branch for not considering language as the best tool for its intellectual projection and as an inherent aspect of their professional image. Conclusions: it was found that the generality of the consulted authors agree that the gerund can be used in all writing styles, including the scientific one, as long as it is used in correspondence with the linguistic norms.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Educação Médica , Idioma , Estudos de Linguagem
13.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 41(1): 4-16, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202271

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los niños y niñas con trastorno del desarrollo del lenguaje (TDL) además de las dificultades del lenguaje, también pueden tener afectados otros aspectos cognitivos como la atención y la memoria. Los estudios de estos aspectos supralingüísticos han abierto un debate en la comunidad científica y profesional para cambiar la denominación de trastorno «específico» a «trastorno del desarrollo del lenguaje». Existe un consenso sobre los déficits en la memoria fonológica, aunque hay resultados contradictorios en relación a la memoria visual y la atención. En el presente estudio evaluamos algunos aspectos de la memoria y la atención, así como el nivel de vocabulario en un grupo con TDL y un grupo con DT para conocer diferencias e interacción entre estas variables. MÉTODO: Participaron 39 niños/as con TDL y 39 niños/as con DT (de 5 a 12 años) bilingües del catalán y español, emparejados por edad y sexo. Se administraron baterías de evaluación de memoria visual (inmediata/demorada), repetición de pseudopalabras, atención selectiva sostenida y un reporte familiar para evaluar inatención e hiperactividad. Aplicamos análisis lineales generalizados para comparar el rendimiento entre grupos y correlaciones con el vocabulario. RESULTADOS: El grupo con TDL mostró un rendimiento inferior en todas las tareas de atención y memoria. El rendimiento de estas correlacionó positivamente con el nivel de vocabulario. El reporte familiar mostró que el número de niño/as con TDL con rasgos de inatención fue más elevado que en el grupo con DT. CONCLUSIONES: El diagnóstico, la intervención y la investigación del TDL tienen que considerar que las dificultades de esta población van más allá del lenguaje, y que se relacionan con déficits múltiples y variados en el desarrollo neuropsicológico


INTRODUCTION: Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) have cognitive deficit aspects such as attention and memory in addition to language difficulties. Studies of these supra-linguistic aspects have opened a debate in the scientific and professional community on changing the name of "specific" disorder to "developmental language disorder". There is consensus about phonological memory deficits in this population but there are conflicting results in relation to visual memory and attention. In the present study we evaluated some aspects of memory and attention capacities, as well as vocabulary knowledge in a group of children with and without DLD to find differences and interaction between these variables. METHOD: 39 bilingual Catalan-Spanish children with DLD and 39 typical developing (TD) children (from 5 to 12 years old), matched by age and sex participated in the study. Both groups were evaluated with a test battery of visual memory (immediate/delayed), non-word repetition task, sustained selective attention. A family report was used to assess inattention and hyperactivity. Linear mixed model analyses were used to compare performance between groups and correlations with vocabulary were applied. RESULTS: The group of children with DLD showed a lower performance in all attention and memory tasks. The performance of the tasks correlated positively with the level of vocabulary. The family report showed that the number of children with DLD with inattention features was higher than the number of children in the TD group. CONCLUSIONS: DLD diagnosis, intervention and research have to consider that the difficulties of this population go beyond language, and that they are related to multiple and varied deficits in neuropsychological development


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem , Compreensão , Memória de Curto Prazo , Atenção , Estudos de Linguagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Linguística , Função Executiva , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico
14.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 41(1): 17-28, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202272

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio es analizar, a nivel expresivo y receptivo, las dificultades morfosintácticas en niños y niñas con trastorno del desarrollo del lenguaje (TDL) a través de tres subpruebas del CELF-4: estructura de palabras, estructura de oraciones y formulación de oraciones. MÉTODO: Participaron 25 niños/as con TDL y 25 niños/as con desarrollo típico, de entre 5 y 8 años de edad, bilingües del catalán y español, emparejados por edad y sexo. La subprueba estructura de palabras evaluó la producción de palabras, concretamente flexiones nominales y verbales, palabras derivadas, comparaciones y el uso de pronombres. A nivel receptivo se evaluó la comprensión de estructuras sintácticas a través de la subprueba estructura de oraciones, en la cual tuvieron que elegir imágenes que ilustraban el significado de la oración. Finalmente, la producción de oraciones se evaluó con la subprueba de formulación de oraciones, indicando a los participantes la palabra con la debían crear una oración. Se analizaron los resultados obtenidos comparando los tipos de palabras que produjeron en la tarea de estructura de palabras y según el tipo de oración que incluían las pruebas de estructura de oraciones y formulación de oraciones dependiendo del ítem. De este modo se han podido describir las dificultades morfosintácticas de forma más específica. RESULTADOS: Los resultados muestran que los participantes con TDL tienen dificultades gramaticales especialmente en los verbos y oraciones morfosintácticamente más complejas. También se constató que la comprensión de oraciones está más preservada que la producción. CONCLUSIONES: La evaluación según los tipos de marcas morfológicas y los tipos de oraciones es importante para poder hacer una mejor adaptación de las reeducaciones a las necesidades de los niños/as con TDL


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to analyse the morphosyntactic difficulties (expressive and receptive skills) of children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD). Three subtests of the CELF-4 were assessed. Firstly expressive language was assessed using the subtest estructura de palabras (word production) and formulación de oraciones (sentence production), secondly receptive language was assessed with the subtest estructura de oraciones (sentence comprehension). METHOD: 25 children with DLD and 25 children with typical development took part of the study, they were 5-8 years old, bilingual Catalan-Spanish, sex and age-matched. The word production subtest assessed the word production, specifically the ability to establish nominal and verbal inflexions, word derivations, comparisons and pronouns. Receptive language was assessed through the sentence comprehension test, considering the syntactic structure comprehension by the selection of the image that showed the oral sentence heard. The sentence production was assessed by giving to the participants a word that they had to use to create a sentence. The results obtained were also analysed to item level considering the type of word and sentence complexity, in order to describe more specifically the morphosyntactic difficulties shown. RESULTS: the results showed that children with DLD had more grammatical difficulties than the typical development group, especially with verbs and in complex sentences. In addition, comprehension was found less impaired than production. CONCLUSIONS: Assessing the morphological cues and different types of sentences is important for boys and girls with DLD in order to establish better interventions to cover their needs


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Linguística , Semântica , Testes de Linguagem , Compreensão , Avaliação da Deficiência , Estudos de Linguagem/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
J Pediatr ; 232: 31-37.e2, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of moderate and late preterm birth (320/7-366/7 weeks) to long-term educational outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: We hypothesized that moderate and late preterm birth would be associated with adverse outcomes in elementary school. To test this, we linked vital statistics patient discharge data from the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development including birth outcomes, to the 2015-2016 school year administrative data of a large, urban school district (n = 72 316). We compared the relative risk of moderate and late preterm and term infants for later adverse neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes in kindergarten through the 12th grade. RESULTS: After adjusting for socioeconomic status, compared with term birth, moderate and late preterm birth was associated with an increased risk of low performance in mathematics and English language arts, chronic absenteeism, and suspension. These risks emerged in kindergarten through grade 2 and remained in grades 3-5, but seemed to wash out in later grades, with the exception of suspension, which remained through grades 9-12. CONCLUSIONS: Confirming our hypothesis, moderate and late preterm birth was associated with adverse educational outcomes in late elementary school, indicating that it is a significant risk factor that school districts could leverage when targeting early intervention. Future studies will need to test these relations in geographically and socioeconomically diverse school districts, include a wider variety of outcomes, and consider how early interventions moderate associations between birth outcomes and educational outcomes.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Nascimento Prematuro , Absenteísmo , Adolescente , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos de Linguagem , Masculino , Matemática
16.
J Learn Disabil ; 54(3): 187-202, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462963

RESUMO

In this multi-year study, we taught English/Language Arts teachers of students with learning disabilities in middle school to incorporate 15 min of daily vocabulary activities with students in their intact special education English/Language Arts classes. During Year 1, teachers taught 48 words to their sixth grade students, who learned and retained the words significantly better than the students in business-as-usual (BAU) control classes. In the current study, we report the second year results, as the sixth grade students entered seventh grade. Students (n = 42) in treatment classes again learned 48 new vocabulary words significantly better than similar students in BAU (n = 21) special education classes. In seventh grade, students also outperformed BAU students on maintenance of these age-appropriate words (p < .001) and on a standardized measure of vocabulary (p = .04).


Assuntos
Idioma , Vocabulário , Educação Especial , Humanos , Estudos de Linguagem , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ensino
17.
Conexões (Campinas, Online) ; 19: e021017, 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343767

RESUMO

Trata-se de um dossiê cujo objetivo é discutir a relação entre a EF, o corpo e a linguagem. Reúne artigos escritos por colegas da Espanha, do Chile e do Brasil. Analisa a temática desde perspectivas teóricas e metodológicas diversas, todas elas empenhadas em garantir centralidade ao corpo no processo de elaboração do conhecimento e na própria linguagem.


This special issue discusses the relation between Physical Education, body and language. It embraces papers by researchers from Spain, Chile and Brazil, which analyze this theme from different theoretical and methodological approaches, all of them interested in underlining the main role of the body on the processes of making of knowledge and language.


Se tratade un dosier cuyoobjetivo es discutir la relación entre la Educación Física, el cuerpo y el lenguaje. Reúne artículos escritos por colegas de España, Chile y Brasil. Analiza la temática desde perspectivas teóricasy metodológicas diversas, todas ellas dedicadas a garantizar centralidad al cuerpo en el proceso de elaboración del conocimiento y en el propiolenguaje.


Assuntos
Educação Física e Treinamento , Papel (figurativo) , Educação , Corpo Humano , Conhecimento , Estudos de Linguagem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971971

RESUMO

Fine particulate air pollution is harmful to children in myriad ways. While evidence is mounting that chronic exposures are associated with reduced academic proficiency, no research has examined the frequency of peak exposures. It is also unknown if pollution exposures influence academic proficiency to the same degree in all schools or if the level of children's social disadvantage in schools modifies the effects, such that some schools' academic proficiency levels are more sensitive to exposures. We address these gaps by examining the percentage of third grade students who tested below the grade level in math and English language arts (ELA) in Salt Lake County, Utah primary schools (n = 156), where fine particulate pollution is a serious health threat. More frequent peak exposures were associated with reduced math and ELA proficiency, as was greater school disadvantage. High frequency peak exposures were more strongly linked to lower math proficiency in more advantaged schools. Findings highlight the need for policies to reduce the number of days with peak air pollution.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Criança , Humanos , Estudos de Linguagem , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
19.
Agora (Rio J.) ; 23(2): 71-80, maio-ago. 2020.
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos, LILACS | ID: biblio-1130812

RESUMO

RESUMO: Historicamente marcada por uma polissemia problemática e uma nítida dificuldade de apreensão, a ironia se constitui em uma noção polimorfa para diversas áreas do conhecimento — característica que se redobra na psicanálise, na qual os raros trabalhos dedicados à ironia ignoram este estado de coisas: para Freud, uma técnica de chiste; para Reik, a rejeição de um mundo presente frustrante; para Assoun, a retórica do inconsciente. Este trabalho visa circunscrever as principais abordagens da ironia, revendo criticamente a literatura qualificada e delimitando suas múltiplas definições e problemáticas de modo a fornecer subsídios para sua abordagem pela psicanálise.


Abstract: Irony is a polymorphous notion, historically known for its polysemy and for posing an undeniable difficulty to its apprehension. This characteristic is redoubled in psychoanalysis, field in which the rare works dedicated to irony take one definition amongst many others. For Freud, irony is taken as a joke technique; for Reik, the rejection of a frustrating world; for Assoun, the rhetoric of Unconscious itself. This work aims to circumscribe the main approaches of irony, critically reviewing the specialized literature, highlighting the major questions and definitions of irony in order to provide elements to its approach in psychoanalysis.


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Estudos de Linguagem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234699, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544210

RESUMO

Bilingualism was implemented in the Community of Madrid (Spain) more than ten years ago, through the incorporation of the English language in the teaching methods of certain schools. Since that time, various research projects have been carried out, with the objective of comparing the academic performance of students in bilingual schools with those in non-bilingual schools. The present paper makes use of primary education data from the Department of Education and Research for the Community of Madrid in an effort to analyze whether or not bilingualism results in the relative improvement of educational outcomes achieved in primary schools in the Region of Madrid, in Spain. More specifically, the data used is from sixth grade classrooms, given that, generally speaking, in this grade all schools give a standardized test which measures academic performance in Math, Science and Technology, Spanish Language Arts and English Language Arts. Our assessment makes use of a multinomial logit model, and includes the most common variables found in the research on the determination of educational outcomes (variables related to whether or not schools are bilingual, which is the main focus of this paper), as well as other less common variables considered to be relevant. These include absenteeism, satisfaction levels among families and students, and the percentage of students in second chance programs. The results show that bilingualism does not lower children performance in the subjects taught in English or in the subjects taught in Spanish. Academic performance in Mathematics, Science and Technology, and Spanish Language Arts is similar with respect to those schools which are not bilingual. However, results in English are significantly higher in bilingual schools when compared to non-bilingual schools.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/normas , Sucesso Acadêmico , Multilinguismo , Criança , Humanos , Estudos de Linguagem/normas , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Espanha , Estudantes
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