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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2303: 93-109, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626373

RESUMO

Sulfate polysaccharides with unique structures of the chondroitin/dermatan and heparin/heparan families of sulfated glycosaminoglycans have been described in several species of ascidians (Chordata-Tunicata). These unique sulfated glycans have been isolated from the ascidians and characterized by biochemical and spectroscopic methods. The ascidian glycans can be extracted by different tissues or cells by proteolytic digestion followed by cetylpyridinium chloride/ethanol precipitation. The total glycans are then fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and/or Mono Q (HR 5/5) columns. Alternatively, precipitation with different ethanol concentrations can be employed. An initial analysis of the purified ascidian glycans is carried out by agarose gel electrophoresis on diaminopropane/acetate buffer, before or after digestion with specific glycosaminoglycan lyases or deaminative cleavage with nitrous acid. The disaccharides formed by exhaustive degradation of the glycans are purified by gel-filtration chromatography on a Superdex Peptide column and analyzed by HPLC on a strong ion-exchange Sax Spherisorb column. 1H- or 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in one or two dimensions is used to confirm the structure of the intact glycans.


Assuntos
Cordados , Urocordados , Animais , Sulfatos de Condroitina , Dermatan Sulfato , Etanol , Glicosaminoglicanos , Polissacarídeos , Sulfatos
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2343: 215-228, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473325

RESUMO

The Bouea macrophylla (B. macrophylla) tree is widely grown throughout South East Asia and has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various illnesses. This chapter presents a protocol for preparation of ethanol extracts of B. macrophylla leaves and evaluation of the potential antimicrobial and anticancer activities in vitro. The extract displayed antibacterial activity against nine out of the ten target microorganisms tested. In addition, the extract was capable of inhibiting the proliferation of HeLa and HCT116 cells, thus demonstrating some anticancer activity.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Anti-Infecciosos , Antineoplásicos , Extratos Vegetais , Anacardiaceae/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Etanol , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
3.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111947, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454935

RESUMO

The medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) produced from organic wastes can replace part fossil-fuel-based products to promote the sustainable development of economy and environment. However, the selection and collocation of feedstocks for MCFAs production are lack of reference basis. This study thereby aimed to investigate how the commonly used electron donor (ED) and substrate configuration affect MCFAs synthesis and then obtain the optimal substrate composition. It was found that the optimized ratios for ethanol/acetate, lactate/acetate, and ethanol/lactate/acetate were 3/1, 2/1, and 2/1/1, respectively, and the optimal substrate concentration was 400 mM C. Combining ethanol and lactate as co-EDs effectively concentrated substrate-carbon-flow (increased by 20-28% than sole ED) on MCFAs synthesis by promoting the elongation of butyrate and reutilization of by-products. As a result, the higher MCFAs yield of 646.22 mg COD/g COD and selectivity of 67.72% were obtained from co-EDs than those from sole ED. Moreover, the key functional bacteria enriched under different ED were also discrepant, which were Clostridium sensu stricto for ethanol, Corynebacterium for lactate, and Veillonella and Oscillibacter for ethanol-lactate, respectively. This study provided a basic but significant reference for the scale-up MCFAs production.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Microbiota , Acetatos , Etanol , Fermentação
4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 113: 179-189, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963527

RESUMO

Ethanol-type sludge fermentation has recently attracted much attention because it can enhance direct interspecies electron transfer and thus improve the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). In this paper, the enhancement of short-term ethanol-type fermentation of WAS via adding Saccharomyces was investigated. The experimental results show that the maximum ethanol production of 1030.8 ± 20.6 mg/L was achieved, with the optimum fermentation conditions of a pH of 5.1, temperature of 26.0 â„ƒ and time of 8.0 hr. Although the content of volatile fatty acid (VFA) increased within 10 hr, it is one order of magnitude lower than the content of ethanol, indicating that the VFA generation did not affect the efficient production of ethanol. The analyses of changes in the microbial community during the fermentation process demonstrate that the greatest Saccharomyces activity occurred in the first 8 hr and it can play an important role in ethanol production even at a very low relative abundance. Meanwhile, most typical acid-producing bacteria were inhibited, but the hydrogenotrophic methanogens (i.e., Methanobacterium) were enriched to a certain extent. Further statistical analyses reveal that the Rhodobacter, Thermomonas, Terrimonas and Saccharomyces are responsible for ethanol production during the fermentation. However, these findings not only provide a reference for the development of enhancing ethanol-type fermentation of sludge, but also are expected to provide a new way of thinking for the efficient bioenergy and resource recovery from sludge.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Etanol , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metano
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 344(Pt B): 126262, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728360

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of pretreatment using an acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) mixture with and without H2SO4 (H+) as a catalyst on sugar recovery from Salix schwerinii biomass. The sugar recovery was susceptible to both the temperature and the catalyst. Moreover, the relatively higher concentration of ABE (H+ABE4) at 200 °C yielded glucose recovery of 85.5% from the pretreated solid, higher than the recovery under other conditions. This result was mainly attributed to the compositional changes in the biomass, as the xylan and lignin were removed in large quantities by ABE pretreatment at 200 °C. Correspondingly, xylose recovery of 53.8% and glucose recovery of 12.1% were obtained from the liquid in which more sugar degradation products were formed. Ultimately, a fermentation broth containing a low concentration of ABE was successfully employed for pretreatment and showed great potential in producing fermentable sugars from S. schwerinii for biobutanol production.


Assuntos
Acetona , Salix , Etanol , Solventes , Açúcares
7.
Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) ; 11(1): 1-9, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563102

RESUMO

Objective: Hand hygiene using either 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) or natural soap during hand rubbing, followed by alcohol-based 1% CHG sanitizer lotion in the operating room was compared to assess bacterial reduction, skin moisture, skin texture, and hand hygiene using qualitative questionnaires. Approach: A crossover study with 36 professional scrub nurses at two medical centers was performed to compare 4% CHG followed by alcohol-based 1% CHG sanitizer lotion, the Two-stage method with handwashing using natural soap followed by alcohol-based 1% CHG sanitizer lotion, and the Waterless method, after a period of 10 days of use. The study completely followed CONSORT, www.consort-statement.org. Results: There was no significant difference in bacterial reduction based on the bacterial colony-forming units between the two methods. The skin moisture and skin roughness scores were not significantly different between the two methods. The Waterless method was significantly better than the Two-stage method regarding "foaming," "quality," "longevity" (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0001, respectively), but "disappearance" was significantly better by the Two-stage method (p = 0.0095) during washing and rubbing. Immediately after washing and rubbing, the Waterless method was significantly better regarding "tightness" and "moisture," whereas the Two-stage method was significantly better regarding "stickiness" (p = 0.0114, p = <0.0001, and 0.0059, respectively) Innovation: The Waterless method using natural soap during handwashing followed by alcohol-based 1% CHG sanitizer lotion was as effective as the Two-stage method of 4% CHG followed by alcohol-based 1% CHG sanitizer lotion. Conclusion: Handwashing using natural soap is simple and superior to hand scrubbing in several aspects.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Higiene das Mãos , Salas Cirúrgicas , Pele/microbiologia , Sabões/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Estudos Cross-Over , Desinfecção/métodos , Emolientes , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
8.
FASEB J ; 36(1): e22061, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861075

RESUMO

Corticosterone, the stress hormone, exacerbates alcohol-associated tissue injury, but the mechanism involved is unknown. We examined the role of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in corticosterone-mediated potentiation of alcohol-induced gut barrier dysfunction and systemic response. Hepatocyte-specific GR-deficient (GRΔHC ) and intestinal epithelial-specific GR-deficient (GRΔIEC ) mice were fed ethanol, combined with corticosterone treatment. Intestinal epithelial tight junction integrity, mucosal barrier function, microbiota dysbiosis, endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, liver damage, and neuroinflammation were assessed. Corticosterone potentiated ethanol-induced epithelial tight junction disruption, mucosal permeability, and inflammatory response in GRΔHC mouse colon; these effects of ethanol and corticosterone were absent in GRΔIEC mice. Gut microbiota compositions in ethanol-fed GRΔHC and GRΔIEC mice were similar to each other. However, corticosterone treatment in ethanol-fed mice shifted the microbiota composition to distinctly different directions in GRΔHC and GRΔIEC mice. Ethanol and corticosterone synergistically elevated the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli and reduced the abundance of Lactobacillus in GRΔHC mice but not in GRΔIEC mice. In GRΔHC mice, corticosterone potentiated ethanol-induced endotoxemia and systemic inflammation, but these effects were absent in GRΔIEC mice. Interestingly, ethanol-induced liver damage and its potentiation by corticosterone were observed in GRΔHC mice but not in GRΔIEC mice. GRΔIEC mice were also resistant to ethanol- and corticosterone-induced inflammatory response in the hypothalamus. These data indicate that the intestinal epithelial GR plays a central role in alcohol- and corticosterone-induced gut barrier dysfunction, microbiota dysbiosis, endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, liver damage, and neuroinflammation. This study identifies a novel target for potential therapeutic for alcohol-associated tissue injury.


Assuntos
Corticosterona/efeitos adversos , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Animais , Corticosterona/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Etanol/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Junções Íntimas/genética
9.
Exp Neurol ; 347: 113919, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752786

RESUMO

Despite several decades of research and prevention efforts, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) remain the most common preventable cause of neurodevelopmental disabilities worldwide. Animal and human studies have implicated fetal alcohol-induced alterations in epigenetic programming as a chief mechanism in FASD. Several studies have demonstrated fetal alcohol-related alterations in methylation and expression of imprinted genes in placental, brain, and embryonic tissue. Imprinted genes are epigenetically regulated in a parent-of-origin-specific manner, in which only the maternal or paternal allele is expressed, and the other allele is silenced. The chief functions of imprinted genes are in placental development, somatic growth, and neurobehavior-three domains characteristically affected in FASD. In this review, we summarize the growing body of literature characterizing prenatal alcohol-related alterations in imprinted gene methylation and/or expression and discuss potential mechanistic roles for these alterations in the teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. Future research is needed to examine potential physiologic mechanisms by which alterations in imprinted genes disrupt development in FASD, which may, in turn, elucidate novel targets for intervention. Furthermore, mechanistic alterations in imprinted gene expression and/or methylation in FASD may inform screening assays that identify individuals with FASD neurobehavioral deficits who may benefit from early interventions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/metabolismo , Impressão Genômica/fisiologia , Placenta/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Etanol/toxicidade , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/genética , Humanos , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Teratógenos/toxicidade
10.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 32(1): 010902, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955675

RESUMO

Introduction: In previous research projects and clinical settings, alcohol analysis in oral fluid (saliva) has been used as an alternative to breath or blood alcohol testing. In this study we examined whether it is possible to obtain clinically relevant data regarding alcohol consumption in individuals who recently consumed alcohol by analysing oral fluid samples when the recommended rinsing of the mouth is impossible before sample collection. Materials and methods: We conducted a study of 89 nightclub patrons in Norway. Before collecting oral fluid samples and performing breath alcohol testing, participants were required to drink a glass of water to remove residual alcohol from the mouth. Oral fluid samples were collected with the Quantisal oral fluid collection device and analysed using an enzymatic method for alcohol. The alcohol concentration in the neat (undiluted) oral fluid was then calculated. Breath alcohol testing was performed using Lion Alcolmeter 500 instruments. Results: No false-negative or false-positive results for alcohol were detected in the oral fluid when compared with those in the breath. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of 0.40 indicated a poor correlation between alcohol concentrations in the two sample types. Conclusions: The procedure for collecting oral fluid was suitable for the qualitative determination of alcohol intake but not for quantitative assessment. We recommend that oral fluid samples should not be used for estimating blood or breath alcohol concentrations in people who have recently consumed alcohol or non-alcoholic beverages, as recommended in the instructions for use.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais , Etanol , Bebidas , Líquidos Corporais/química , Testes Respiratórios , Humanos , Saliva/química
11.
Food Chem ; 369: 130769, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461509

RESUMO

A colorimetric indicator cube for use in smart packaging was designed and fabricated to detect ethanol produced by microbial fermentation in preserved baby mangoes. The presence and level of ethanol was indicated by color variations of the indicator cube, which consists of porous melamine foam (MF) that entraps an indicator solution of potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid. Within the packaging, the cube sits behind a gas-permeable membrane. The morphological structure of MF was studied by digital microscope and X-ray fluorescence analysis. In the optimal condition, the indicator cube exhibited distinct color changes from yellow to brown, green and blue over an ethanol concentration range from 0.25% to 5.0%. Color changes were clearly visible to the naked eye. The repeatability of the ethanol indicator cube was good and storage stability was maintained for up to 19 and 74 days at room and refrigeration temperatures, respectively. The smart packaging was applied to detect ethanol in preserved baby mangoes at different storage times.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Mangifera , Etanol , Embalagem de Produtos , Refrigeração
12.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107110, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use varies throughout the year and often peaks on weekends or during celebrations (e.g., New Year's). There is not a perfect correlation between alcohol use and negative consequences, and the extent to which one particularly risky consequence-an alcohol-related blackout-is more common during certain times of the year is unknown. Identifying when blackouts occur may help identify which periods are associated with more risk and be critical in designing public health campaigns. Thus, we examined Twitter data to ascertain whether alcohol-related blackouts occur more during certain holidays/celebrations than typical weekends and whether they differed in timing from general alcohol-related Tweets. METHODS: We used a Twitter-sponsored platform to access unique Tweets written in the United States referencing blackouts (e.g., "blackout") and alcohol generally (e.g., "drunk"). RESULTS: The final dataset included 3.5 million blackout Tweets and 591 million alcohol Tweets (written between 2009 and 2020). Both blackout and alcohol Tweets were written in the late evening, on weekends, and during certain holidays (New Years, St. Patrick's). However, relative to typical weekends, only blackout Tweets were more common during Thanksgiving and only general alcohol-related Tweets were more common during Cinco de Mayo. CONCLUSION: While blackout and alcohol-related Tweets were similar in time of day (peaking in the evening) and day of week (peaking on weekends), they differed during certain celebrations/holidays, suggesting that while alcohol use may be more common during some celebrations, others are more associated with serious harms.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica , Alcoolismo , Amnésia Anterógrada , Mídias Sociais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Etanol , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107120, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-gaming, or drinking before going out, is common among young adults and associated with heavier drinking and negative consequences. However, findings have been mixed as to whether a unique, day-level association between pre-gaming and negative consequences exists independent of alcohol intake. It is also unknown whether young adults experience more positive consequences of alcohol use on days they engage in pre-gaming. This study tested day-level associations between pre-gaming and positive and negative consequences, controlling for same-day alcohol intake, as well as whether these associations were moderated by person- and day-level variables. METHODS: Participants were 148 young adult heavy drinkers (Mage = 20.30, SDage = 1.45, 57.4% female) who reported past-month simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use. For up to 14 consecutive days, participants completed electronic surveys asking about their drinking behaviors and consequences the previous day. RESULTS: Prior to adjusting for alcohol intake, Poisson multilevel models showed that participants reported more negative and positive consequences on days they pre-gamed and those who reported pre-gaming more often throughout the study also experienced more negative and positive consequences overall. After controlling for alcohol intake, a positive, day-level association between pre-gaming and positive consequences remained. There was no evidence of moderation of study associations by person- or day-level variables. CONCLUSION: The unique association between pre-gaming and positive consequences may help explain why pre-gaming is linked with heavy drinking and other risky behaviors as positive consequences have been shown to reinforce such behaviors. Findings suggest pre-gaming may be a useful intervention point for alcohol reduction programs.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica , Fumar Maconha , Uso da Maconha , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Etanol , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107118, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583272

RESUMO

Simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use (SAM) such that their effects overlap has emerged as a behavior that is riskier than using either substance separately. It has been associated with high-risk binge drinking and driving while intoxicated during young adulthood, and it has been demonstrated to cause greater physical and mental impairment than use of alcohol or marijuana separately. To identify intervention and prevention targets specific to SAM, we examined the relationships between alcohol- and marijuana-specific beliefs and attitudes (risk factors) and self-reported SAM compared to non-simultaneous co-use (CAM) and alcohol use only in the past 30 days in a sample of young adults (n = 1,023, mean age = 23.17; SD = 0.43). Of those who reported drinking alcohol in the past 30 days, 20.7% reported SAM, 12.6% reported CAM, and 66.6% reported using only alcohol. Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that some marijuana-specific risk factors (e.g., belief that it is not at all wrong for someone their age to use marijuana) differentiated SAM or CAM from alcohol use only, but alcohol-specific risk factors generally did not. However, the perceptions that parents approved of their using marijuana or frequently drinking heavily were associated with a greater likelihood of SAM compared to CAM (OR ranged from 2.25 to 3.53). Findings point to the salience of individuals' attitudes and beliefs around marijuana use and their perception of parental approval of heavy drinking and marijuana use as potential targets for prevention programs targeting risk reduction among young adults.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Fumar Maconha , Uso da Maconha , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Etanol , Humanos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126071, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606923

RESUMO

One of the potential bioresources for bioethanol production is Napier grass, considering its high cellulose and hemicellulose content. However, the cost of pretreatment hinders the bioethanol produced from being economical. This study examines the effect of hydrothermal process with dilute acid on extruded Napier grass, followed by enzymatic saccharification prior to simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SScF). Extrusion facilitated lignin removal by 30.2 % prior to dilute acid steam explosion. Optimum pretreatment condition was obtained by using 3% sulfuric acid, and 30-min retention time of steam explosion at 190 °C. Ethanol yield of 0.26 g ethanol/g biomass (60.5% fermentation efficiency) was attained by short-term liquefaction and fermentation using a cellulose-hydrolyzing and xylose-assimilating Saccharomyces cerevisiae NBRC1440/B-EC3-X ΔPHO13, despite the presence of inhibitors. This proposed method not only reduced over-degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, but also eliminated detoxification process and reduced cellulase loading.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Xilose , Celulose/metabolismo , Etanol , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Lignina/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfúricos
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126153, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673190

RESUMO

Bioethanol is a major biofuel in industry and mainly produced from corn starch with the dry-mill process. However, one of the remaining challenges is how to economically and efficiently exploit the wasted co-products to further improve ethanol production and generate more valuable chemicals. Here, an integrative approach was developed to efficiently utilize the waste cake for ethanol production, accompanied by protein extraction for feed additives. A high-quality protein feed was produced by the ethanol-alkali extraction method (extraction rate up to 46.91%). Notably, by applying two-step chemoenzymatic strategy, the supernatant and solid recycling yield up to 4.1-, 3.8-, and 154-fold improvements of ethanol, glucose, and xylose production, respectively, comparing to non-pretreatment. Moreover, mass balance analysis found this approach significantly contributed 1.74-4.42% (5.96-15.11 kg/ton dry corn) increase of total ethanol production. The gained knowledge about process design holds the potential transferability for other sustainable biowaste management and bioethanol industry.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Etanol , Fermentação , Resíduos/análise , Xilose
17.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 207: 114426, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689062

RESUMO

Alcoholism is a severe threat to public health, and there are no adequate treatments for alcoholic liver disease. The aim of this study was to identify bioactive peptides derived from natural proteins that prevent acute alcohol-induced liver injury. We identified a peptide with the sequence Gly-Leu-hydroxyproline-Gly-Glu-Arg (GLpGER) from the hydrolysate of crucian carp swim bladder using size-exclusion chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography. The in vitro EC50 value of GLpGER to activate alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was 137.9 ± 9 µM. Molecular docking experiments indicated that the mechanism by which GLpGER activates ADH may be related to the formation of stable complexes with ADH active pockets through hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Oral administration of GLpGER one hour before acute alcohol ingestion significantly increased alcohol metabolism, manifesting as reduced incidence of the loss of righting reflex, increased alcohol tolerance time, shortened sobering time, and decreased blood alcohol concentration level. GLpGER restored liver ADH activity, maintained the typical morphology of hepatocytes, and reduced serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. These findings suggest that GLpGER might reduce acute alcohol-induced liver injury and may have the potential to be developed as an anti-inebriation ingredient.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Álcool Desidrogenase , Animais , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Etanol , Fígado , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos , Bexiga Urinária
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 361: 109463, 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742143

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the phenolic compounds contained in propolis and to evaluate the effect of propolis and its extracts on the antifungal activity, pH, color, and sensory analysis of creamy cheese with thyme (thyme labneh). Ethanolic and water extracts of propolis were evaluated to determine its phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity. Phenolic compounds in propolis were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antifungal activities, color, pH, and sensory evaluation of propolis and its extracts (water and ethanolic) were investigated at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%. The results showed 11 phenolic compounds in the propolis extract. Our findings revealed a significant difference in phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of propolis when compared with the water extract (P < 0.05). Microbial counts in thyme labneh treated with propolis powder and its extracts (ethanolic and water) showed significant differences compared with the control at all concentrations (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%). Propolis powder and ethanolic extracts at concentrations of 1% and 1.5% were limited the rapid growth of mold and yeast, so the results showed no significant difference between 14 and 21 days for these samples. In addition, the 1.5% water extract did not show a significant difference (P > 0.05) between Days 14 and 21. The sensory panel did not detect a significant difference in any sensory attribute in the thyme labneh treated with propolis extracts. This study identified the significant antioxidant and antimicrobial effectiveness of using propolis in dairy products, suggesting its potential as a natural preservative.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Própole , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etanol , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Própole/farmacologia
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 175-184, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To improve the aroma of kiwi wine through the utilization of Wickerhamomyces anomalus, kiwi juice was fermented using a selected W. anomalus strain in pure culture and mixed fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was inoculated simultaneously and sequentially. The physicochemical indices, volatile compounds and aroma properties of the kiwi wines were assessed. RESULTS: The study suggested that the ethanol, color indices and organic acids of the wines were closely related to the method of inoculation. Compared with the pure S. cerevisiae fermentation, the mixed fermentations produced more varieties and concentrations of volatiles. The sequential fermentations increased the concentrations of esters and terpenes, improving the flower and sweet fruit notes of the wines. The simultaneous inoculation enhanced the contents of esters and aldehydes, intensifying the flower, sweet and sour fruit of the wines. Partial least-squares regression analysis showed that esters and terpenes contributed greatly to the flower and sweet fruit aroma, whereas aldehydes were the major contributors to the sour note. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, the mixed fermentations not only enriched the types and concentrations of volatiles, but also had better sensory properties. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Actinidia/microbiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Actinidia/metabolismo , Etanol/análise , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Paladar , Vinho/microbiologia
20.
Food Chem ; 366: 130526, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274705

RESUMO

An in-house method, employing magnetic stirring-assisted aqueous extraction combined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, for determination of ethanol in different foods and beverages was validated according to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard. Validation parameters, including selectivity, method limits of detection (approx. 0.006 mg/g) and quantification (approx. 0.02 mg/g), linearity (R2 of >0.999), trueness (relative biases of <3%), accuracy (recoveries of 96-105%), and precision (relative standard deviations of <5%), were satisfactory. The proposed method was as accurate and precise as and more sensitive than the AOAC method 2016.12, with estimated relative expanded uncertainties of around 8% for all samples. The validated method was successfully applied for determination of ethanol in 108 commercially processed foods and beverages, and it could be used for halal verification. Accordingly, this study provided a reliable method for routine quantitative analysis of ethanol in processed foods and beverages to ensure their halal integrity prior to halal certification.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Etanol , Bebidas/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Água
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