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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7071, 2024 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528026

RESUMO

Etomidate is a sedative and hypnotic drug through intravenous administration that act on the central nervous system through GABA (Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid) receptors, which is widely used in anesthesia induction and maintenance and long-term sedation in severe patients. The study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of two etomidate fat emulsions after administration through the intravenous infusion pump in healthy Chinese subjects. A randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study was performed in 52 healthy subjects. The wash-out period was 7 days. Blood samples and pharmacodynamic index values were collected at the specified time points. Etomidate concentrations were measured using validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed using a non-compartment model method. Pharmacodynamic parameters were calculated using pharmacodynamic index values. The study also evaluated the safety of the etomidate. Both the pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamic parameters result of the test and reference formulation were very similar. The 90% confidence intervals (CI) of the geometric least-squares mean (GLSM) ratios of the test to reference formulation were 91.33-104.96% for the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), 97.21-102.03% for the area under the plasma concentration time curve from time 0 to the time of the last measurable concentration (AUC0-t), and 97.22-102.33% for the area under the plasma concentration time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞). Meanwhile, the 90% CI of the GLSM ratios of the test to reference formulation were 102.28-110.69% for the minimal BIS value (BISmin), 99.23-101.17% for the area under the BIS time curve from time 0-60 min after administration (BISAUC0-60 min), respectively. The 90% CI of these pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters all fall in the accepted bioequivalence range of 80.00-125.00%. No serious adverse events occurred during the study. This study has shown that the etomidate fat emulsion test and reference formulation had similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics in vivo. The two formulations exhibited good safety and well-tolerance.Clinical trials registration number: http://www.chinadrugtrials.org.cn/index.html . # CTR20191836.


Assuntos
Etomidato , Humanos , Etomidato/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Voluntários Saudáveis , Equivalência Terapêutica , Área Sob a Curva , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , China , Comprimidos
2.
Neurosci Lett ; 826: 137733, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492880

RESUMO

Etomidate (ET) is a widely used intravenous imidazole general anesthetic, which depresses the cerebellar neuronal activity by modulating various receptors activity and synaptic transmission. In this study, we investigated the effects of ET on the cerebellar climbing fiber-Purkinje cells (CF-PC) plasticity in vitro in mice using whole-cell recording technique and pharmacological methods. Our results demonstrated that CF tetanic stimulation produced a mGluR1-dependent long-term depression (LTD) of CF-PC excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), which was enhanced by bath application of ET (10 µM). Blockade of mGluR1 receptor with JNJ16259685, ET triggered the tetanic stimulation to induce a CF-PC LTD accompanied with an increase in paired-pulse ratio (PPR). The ET-triggered CF-PC LTD was abolished by extracellular administration of an N-methyl-(D)-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, D-APV, as well as by intracellular blockade of NMDA receptors activity with MK801. Furthermore, blocking cannabinoids 1 (CB1) receptor with AM251 or chelating intracellular Ca2+ with BAPTA, ET failed to trigger the CF-PC LTD. Moreover, the ET-triggered CF-PC LTD was abolished by inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA), but not by inhibition of protein kinase C inhibiter. The present results suggest that ET acts on postsynaptic NMDA receptor resulting in an enhancement of the cerebellar CF-PC LTD through CB1 receptor/PKA cascade in vitro in mice. These results provide new evidence and possible mechanism for ET anesthesia to affect motor learning and motor coordination by regulating cerebellar CF-PC LTD.


Assuntos
Etomidato , Camundongos , Animais , Etomidato/farmacologia , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Depressão Sináptica de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Células de Purkinje/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica , Anestésicos Intravenosos/farmacologia
3.
Crit Care ; 28(1): 48, 2024 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation is a high-risk intervention commonly performed in critically ill patients. Due to its favorable cardiovascular profile, ketamine is considered less likely to compromise clinical outcomes. This meta-analysis aimed to assess whether ketamine, compared with other agents, reduces mortality in critically ill patients undergoing intubation. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from inception until April 27, 2023, for randomized controlled trials and matched observational studies comparing ketamine with any control in critically ill patients as an induction agent. The primary outcome was mortality at the longest follow-up available, and the secondary outcomes included Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, ventilator-free days at day 28, vasopressor-free days at day 28, post-induction mean arterial pressure, and successful intubation on the first attempt. For the primary outcome, we used a Bayesian random-effects meta-analysis on the risk ratio (RR) scale with a weakly informative neutral prior corresponding to a mean estimate of no difference with 95% probability; the estimated effect size will fall between a relative risk of 0.25 and 4. The RR and 95% credible interval (CrI) were used to estimate the probability of mortality reduction (RR < 1). The secondary outcomes were assessed with a frequentist random-effects model. We registered this study in Open Science Framework ( https://osf.io/2vf79/ ). RESULTS: We included seven randomized trials and one propensity-matched study totaling 2978 patients. Etomidate was the comparator in all the identified studies. The probability that ketamine reduced mortality was 83.2% (376/1475 [25%] vs. 411/1503 [27%]; RR, 0.93; 95% CrI, 0.79-1.08), which was confirmed by a subgroup analysis excluding studies with a high risk of bias. No significant difference was observed in any secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: All of the included studies evaluated ketamine versus etomidate among critically ill adults requiring tracheal intubation. This meta-analysis showed a moderate probability that induction with ketamine is associated with a reduced risk of mortality.


Assuntos
Etomidato , Ketamina , Adulto , Humanos , Etomidato/efeitos adversos , Ketamina/farmacologia , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , Estado Terminal/terapia , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos
5.
J Med Microbiol ; 73(2)2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38385528

RESUMO

Introduction. Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are recognized for their development of resistance and biofilm formation. New therapeutic alternatives are necessary in this context.Hypothesis. Etomidate shows potential application in catheters against mixed biofilms of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA).Aim. The present study aimed to evaluate the activity of etomidate against mixed biofilms of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans and MRSA.Methodology. The action of etomidate against mature biofilms was verified through the evaluation of biomass and cell viability, and its ability to prevent biofilm formation in peripheral venous catheters was determined based on counts of colony forming units (c.f.u.) and confirmed by morphological analysis through scanning electron microscopy (SEM).Results. Etomidate generated a reduction (P<0.05) in biomass and cell viability starting from a concentration of 250 µg ml-1. In addition, it showed significant ability to prevent the formation of mixed biofilms in a peripheral venous catheter, as shown by a reduction in c.f.u. SEM revealed that treatment with etomidate caused substantial damage to the fungal cells.Conclusion. The results showed the potential of etomidate against polymicrobial biofilms of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans and MRSA.


Assuntos
Etomidato , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Candida albicans , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Etomidato/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
6.
Anesthesiology ; 140(4): 742-751, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among young people around the world. Prehospital care focuses on the prevention and treatment of secondary brain injury and commonly includes tracheal intubation after induction of general anesthesia. The choice of induction agent in this setting is controversial. This study therefore investigated the association between the chosen induction medication etomidate versus S(+)-ketamine and the 30-day mortality in patients with severe traumatic brain injury who received prehospital airway management in the Netherlands. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of the prospectively collected observational data of the Brain Injury: Prehospital Registry of Outcomes, Treatments and Epidemiology of Cerebral Trauma (BRAIN-PROTECT) cohort study. Patients with suspected severe traumatic brain injury who were transported to a participating trauma center and who received etomidate or S(+)-ketamine for prehospital induction of anesthesia for advanced airway management were included. Statistical analyses were performed with multivariable logistic regression and inverse probability of treatment weighting analysis. RESULTS: In total, 1,457 patients were eligible for analysis. No significant association between the administered induction medication and 30-day mortality was observed in unadjusted analyses (32.9% mortality for etomidate versus 33.8% mortality for S(+)-ketamine; P = 0.716; odds ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.32; P = 0.711), as well as after adjustment for potential confounders (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.73; P = 0.765; and risk difference 0.017; 95% CI, -0.051 to 0.084; P = 0.686). Likewise, in planned subgroup analyses for patients with confirmed traumatic brain injury and patients with isolated traumatic brain injury, no significant differences were found. Consistent results were found after multiple imputations of missing data. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis found no evidence for an association between the use of etomidate or S(+)-ketamine as an anesthetic agent for intubation in patients with traumatic brain injury and mortality after 30 days in the prehospital setting, suggesting that the choice of induction agent may not influence the patient mortality rate in this population.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Lesões Encefálicas , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Etomidato , Ketamina , Adolescente , Humanos , Lesões Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Coortes , Etomidato/uso terapêutico , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
7.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 97, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38273248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Etomidate has been advocated for anesthesia in older and critically ill patients because of its hemodynamic stability. Clinical studies have shown that dexmedetomidine has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties and improves postoperative cognitive dysfunction in older patients. The present study was to evaluate the effects of the combination of etomidate and dexmedetomidine with different anaesthesia time on postoperative cognitive function in older patients. METHODS: A total of 132 older patients undergoing ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy were randomly divided into EN group and ED group equally. Patients whose surgery time was less than or equal to 1 h in each group were allocated to short-time surgery group (EN1 group and ED1 group), and whose surgery time was more than 1h were allocated to long-term surgery group (EN2 group and ED2 group). The primary outcome was the score of the Mini-Mental State Examination. The secondary outcomes were State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores, Riker sedation agitation scores, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale scores, the memory span for Arabic numerals, the plasma concentrations of S-100 calcium-binding protein B and neuron specific enolase, the time to spontaneous respiration, recovery, and extubation. RESULTS: The MMSE scores at t2-3 were higher in ED1 and ED2 groups than in EN1 and EN2 groups (p<0.05). Compared with ED1 and ED2 groups, the ZSDS scores, the S-AI scores and the T-AI scores at t1-2 were higher in EN1 and EN2 groups (p<0.05), respectively. The recalled Arabic numbers at t1-3 were higher in ED2 group than in EN2 group (p<0.05). The plasma concentration of S-100ß at t1-2 in EN1 group and t1-3 in EN2 group were higher than that in ED1 and ED2 groups (p<0.05), respectively. Compared with ED1 and ED2 groups, the plasma concentrations of NSE were higher at t1-3 in EN1 group and t1-4 in EN2 group (p<0.05), respectively. CONCLUSION: The administration of dexmedetomidine could improve postoperative cognitive dysfunction, emergence agitation, depression and anxiety, attenuate the plasma concentrations of S-100ß and NSE in older patients undergoing total intravenous anaesthesia with etomidate. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registration number: ChiCTR1800015421, Date: 29/03/2018.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina , Etomidato , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias , Humanos , Idoso , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Etomidato/efeitos adversos , Subunidade beta da Proteína Ligante de Cálcio S100 , Anestesia Intravenosa , Cognição , Método Duplo-Cego
8.
Am Surg ; 90(4): 731-738, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37209120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemorrhaging trauma patients may be disproportionately affected by choice of induction agent during rapid sequence intubation (RSI). Etomidate, ketamine, and propofol are safe in the trauma population-at-large but have not been assessed in patients with ongoing hemorrhage. We hypothesize that in hemorrhaging patients with penetrating injury, propofol deleteriously affects peri-induction hypotension compared to etomidate and ketamine. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. Primary outcome was the effect of induction agent on peri-induction systolic blood pressure. Secondary outcomes were the incidence of peri-induction vasopressor use and quantity of peri-induction blood transfusion requirements. Linear multivariate regression modeling assessed the effect of induction agent on the variables of interest. RESULTS: 169 patients were included, 146 received propofol and 23 received etomidate or ketamine. Univariate analysis revealed no difference in peri-induction systolic blood pressure (P = .53), peri-induction vasopressor administration (P = .62), or transfusion requirements within the first hour after induction (PRBC P = .24, FFP P = .19, PLT P = .29). Choice of RSI agent did not independently predict peri-induction systolic blood pressure or blood product administration. Rather, only presenting shock index independently predicted peri-induction hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to directly assess the peri-induction effects of anesthetic induction agent choice in penetrating trauma patients undergoing emergent hemorrhage control surgery. Propofol does not appear to worsen peri-induction hypotension regardless of dose. Patient physiology is most predictive of peri-induction hypotension.


Assuntos
Etomidato , Hipotensão , Ketamina , Propofol , Ferida Cirúrgica , Ferimentos Penetrantes , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hemodinâmica , Hemorragia
9.
JBI Evid Synth ; 22(1): 66-89, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37560913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this umbrella review was to examine various pharmacologic interventions for their potential to reduce etomidate-induced myoclonus. A secondary objective was to compare the relative effectiveness of those medications in reducing the incidence of myoclonus when etomidate is utilized for the induction of general anesthesia. INTRODUCTION: Etomidate is the drug of choice when inducing general anesthesia in hemodynamically unstable patients. However, its use is limited among the general surgical population due to its ability to cause adrenal suppression, vomiting, and myoclonus. Myoclonus can lead to damage of muscle fibers, myalgias, and patient discomfort, and can also be detrimental in patients with low cardiac reserve. Several systematic reviews have reported on the effectiveness of various intravenous medications in reducing mild, moderate, and severe myoclonus; however, a more thorough examination of their influence was lacking. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review included systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials involving the use of pharmacologic interventions to reduce etomidate-induced myoclonus. Reviews in English and conducted after 1965 were considered for inclusion. METHODS: A comprehensive search of 11 databases was conducted to identify published and unpublished reviews up to March 2022. Critical appraisal was conducted by 2 independent reviewers using the standardized JBI appraisal tool. Quantitative findings were summarized according to the dose, timing of administration, and relative risk using a data matrix, and were synthesized in tabular format with supporting narrative text. Results were organized by severity of myoclonus (overall, mild, moderate, and severe) and by type of intervention. RESULTS: Eight systematic reviews were included in this umbrella review, which included 48 relevant studies, after removal of duplicates (3909 participants included in the primary studies). Five of the systematic reviews examined the effectiveness of various types of opioids in the prevention of myoclonus, and 3 systematic reviews examined the effectiveness of non-opioid interventions, such as lidocaine, midazolam, and dexmedetomidine. Seven reviews searched at least 4 databases for pertinent studies and specifically indicated that blinded reviewers appraised the articles. All reviews used a published and validated appraisal instrument. The overall quality of all included reviews was judged to be moderate to high. The absolute risk reduction indicating the effectiveness of the prophylactic medications ranged from 47% to 81% for mild, 52% to 92% for moderate, and 61% to 96% for severe myoclonus. Opioids demonstrated the most consistent and substantial effect on the reduction in myoclonus. CONCLUSIONS: All pharmacologic interventions identified in this review demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of myoclonus. Future studies and reviews should focus on elucidating the particular dose range and timing that is most effective. Anesthesia providers should consider a pre-treatment dose of one of the medications described in this umbrella review as a means to reduce myoclonus and the untoward effects of that condition.


Assuntos
Etomidato , Mioclonia , Humanos , Etomidato/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Mioclonia/induzido quimicamente , Mioclonia/epidemiologia , Mioclonia/prevenção & controle , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Lidocaína/efeitos adversos
17.
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods ; 125: 107490, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141867

RESUMO

Etomidate (ETO) is a highly-efficient drug that can induce anesthesia with increasing doses, thus subject to strict regulation. However, an accurate and efficient method for ETO intake detection is currently lacking. Therefore, this study developed a straightforward sample preparation method using LC-MS/MS to analyze ETO and its primary metabolite, etomidate acid (ETA), in urine, liver, and kidney samples. Snap frozen pig liver and kidney samples were ground into a fine powder. Then, all the biological samples, including human urine, pig liver and kidney tissues, were deproteinized using acetonitrile and filtered for analysis. The separation was achieved in 9.01 min with gradient elution. The calibration curves ranged from 0.5 to 50 ng/mL for ETO in urine and 0.5 to 50 ng/g in liver and kidney, while the curves ranged from 1 to 100 ng/mL for ETA in urine and 1 to 100 ng/g in liver and kidney. The correlation coefficients (R2) were greater than 0.9957. The Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) for ETO were 0.2 and 0.5 ng/mL in urine samples and 0.2 and 0.5 ng/g in liver and kidney samples, respectively. For ETA, the LOD and LOQ were 0.5 and 1 ng/mL in urine samples and 0.5 and 1 ng/g in liver and kidney samples. This method was assessed by validation parameters, including selectivity, intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy, recovery, matrix effect, dilution integrity and stability. It was successfully applied to a practical case, revealing ETO and ETA concentrations in urine of 1.01 and 5.58 µg/mL, in liver samples of 12.30 and 1.13 µg/g, and in kidney samples of 6.95 and 4.23 µg/g. This suggests that the method is suitable for routine forensic detection of illicit ETO abuse.


Assuntos
Etomidato , Humanos , Animais , Suínos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fígado , Rim , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 22964, 2023 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38151554

RESUMO

There is a rising number in complications associated with more cardiac electrical devices implanted (CIED). Infection and lead dysfunction are reasons to perform transvenous lead extraction. An ideal anaesthetic approach has not been described yet. Most centres use general anaesthesia, but there is a lack in studies looking into deep sedation (DS) as an anaesthetic approach. We report our retrospective experience for a large number of procedures performed with deep sedation as a primary approach. Extraction procedures performed between 2011 and 2018 in our electrophysiology laboratory have been included retrospectively. We began by applying a bolus injection of piritramide followed by midazolam as primary medication and would add etomidate if necessary. For extraction of leads a stepwise approach with careful traction, locking stylets, dilator sheaths, mechanical rotating sheaths and if needed snares and baskets has been used. A total of 780 leads in 463 patients (age 69.9 ± 12.3, 31.3% female) were extracted. Deep sedation was successful in 97.8% of patients. Piritramide was used as the main analgesic medication (98.5%) and midazolam as the main sedative (94.2%). Additional etomidate was administered in 15.1% of cases. In 2.2% of patients a conversion to general anaesthesia was required as adequate level of DS was not achieved before starting the procedure. Sedation related complications occurred in 1.1% (n = 5) of patients without sequalae. Deep sedation with piritramide, midazolam and if needed additional etomidate is a safe and feasible strategy for transvenous lead extraction.


Assuntos
Anestésicos , Sedação Profunda , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Etomidato , Marca-Passo Artificial , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Midazolam/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pirinitramida , Sedação Profunda/efeitos adversos , Sedação Profunda/métodos , Remoção de Dispositivo/efeitos adversos , Remoção de Dispositivo/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos
20.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 17: 2943-2953, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37789968

RESUMO

Background: Remimazolam tosilate (RT) is a novel ultrashort-acting γ-aminobutyric acid subtype A (GABAA) agonist, with several advantages including rapid induction and recovery, stable haemodynamics, and mild respiratory inhibition. However, studies have not been conducted to explore the haemodynamic effects of RT in elderly hypertensive subjects undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Therefore, we sought to compare the effects of anaesthesia induction using different doses of RT and etomidate on the haemodynamics of this group of patients. Methods: Patients were recruited into this single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind trial from October 2022 to June 2023. A total of 150 hypertensive elderly undergoing non-cardiac surgery were randomly assigned into 0.2 mg/kg RT group (Group RL), 0.3 mg/kg RT group (Group RH) and 0.3 mg/kg etomidate group (Group E). The primary outcome of the study was haemodynamic changes (mean arterial pressure fluctuation value -∆MAP and heart rate fluctuation value -∆HR) observed during anaesthesia induction. Secondary outcomes included incidence of adverse cardiovascular events and adverse drug reactions (injection pain and myoclonus), cumulative doses of vasoactive drugs and vital signs at different time points. Results: Patients in Group E and Group RL had significantly lower haemodynamic fluctuations (∆MAP), lower incidence of hypotension and cumulative dose of ephedrine than subjects in Group RH. Patients in groups RL and RH had significantly lower incidence of injection pain and myoclonus compared with patients in group E. The results showed no statistically significant differences in ∆HR, hypertension, bradycardia, tachycardia, and time to loss of eye-opening reflex and start of intubation, and vital signs at different time points among the three groups. Conclusion: Use of low-dose RT (0.2 mg/kg) for induction of non-cardiac surgical anaesthesia in elderly hypertensive patients is more effective in maintaining haemodynamic stability and has fewer adverse effects compared with etomidate.


Assuntos
Etomidato , Hipertensão , Mioclonia , Propofol , Humanos , Idoso , Etomidato/efeitos adversos , Mioclonia/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Prospectivos , Hemodinâmica , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Anestesia Geral , Dor/induzido quimicamente
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