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1.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102478, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626806

RESUMO

Madura cattle, which are native to Indonesia and mainly kept on Madura Island, East Java, are expected to contribute to improving the regional meat self-sufficiency. Eimeria spp. are the most pathogenic protozoans among gastrointestinal parasites in livestock but no molecular surveys of Eimeria spp. in Madura cattle have been conducted to date. In this study, a total of 183 fecal samples were collected from Madura cattle and 60 (32.8%) were positive for parasites of protozoans and nematodes by the sugar floatation method. Among the samples with parasites, Eimeria spp. oocysts were detected in 50 samples (27.3%) with an average OPG value of 1686.1. Eimeria spp. were successfully identified to the species level in 26 samples with Eimeria bovis being the most prevalent, followed by E. zuernii and E. aubrunensis. A total of 21 samples showed mixed infection of more than two species of Eimeria. E. bovis and E. zuernii have been recognized as having high virulency and, thus, these parasites are potential sources of severe coccidiosis and the cause of infections in other cattle. Although additional studies are warranted, these results can be helpful for improving the management and productivity of Madura cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/genética , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150356, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563901

RESUMO

With a focus on five sites in an impaired, densely populated area in the New Orleans area, we investigated the temporal and spatial variability of standard FIB and a marker of human-associated pollution (Bacteroides HF183). With all sites combined, only a weak positive correlation (r = 0.345; p = 0.001) was observed between E. coli and HF183. Also, specific conductivity (r = - 0.374; p < 0.0001) and dissolved oxygen (r = - 0.390; p < 0.0001) were observed to show a weak moderate correlation with E. coli. These correlations increased to moderately negative when HF183 was correlated with specific conductivity (r = - 0.448; p < 0.0001) and dissolved oxygen (r = - 0.455; p < 0.0001). E. coli contamination was generally highest at the sites in the canal that are situated in the most densely populated part of the watershed while HF183 was frequently detected across all sites. E. coli concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) when HF183 was present. HF183 was detected at significantly higher concentrations in samples that exceeded the EPA water quality standard (WQS) than those that did not (p < 0.05). Dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity were significantly lower when E. coli WQS was exceeded or when HF183 was present (p < 0.05). Rainfall impacted E. coli concentrations and HF183 differently at the study sites. While HF183 and E. coli concentrations levels were significantly higher (p < 0.05) if the days prior to sampling had been wet, the frequency of detection of HF183 was unimpacted, as comparable detection rates were recorded during wet and dry weather conditions. Without testing for HF183, it would have been assumed, based on testing for E. coli alone, that human fecal pollution was only associated with densely populated areas and rainfall events. E. coli alone may not be an effective indicator of sewage pollution at the study sites across all weather conditions and may need to be complemented with HF183 enumeration to optimize human fecal pollution identification and management at the watershed level.


Assuntos
Bacteroides , Escherichia coli , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Humanos , Incidência , Nova Orleans , Esgotos , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/análise
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 335-343, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807450

RESUMO

Much of biomedical oriented research is conducted with animal models. Over the years, rodents (primarily rats and mice) have emerged as the preferred species for basic biochemistry, cell biology, physiology and nutrition studies. In the past, dogs have been used for the evaluation of dietary protein quality and other aspects of animal nitrogen metabolism and physiology, cardiovascular and endocrine research. At an increasing rate, pigs have also been used as a model species in biomedical research. Pigs are readily available in various mature sizes and genotypic/phenotypic traits, and there are many anatomic, nutritional and physiologic similarities between human beings and pigs. Many notable reviews summarizing the role of pigs in biomedical studies have already been published and these are cited below. The present review focuses on characteristics that make pigs an excellent biomedical animal model in particular in obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular research. To procure an animal model for obesity, irrespective of species used, these animals must be fed a dense caloric diet (high fat) to achieve an experimental working model within a reasonable period. This review also focuses on a putative role of gastrointestinal microbiota in obesity as obese animals exhibit a shift in the distribution of gastrointestinal microbial phyla from lean animals. But to date such results have not pinpointed a treatable cause for obesity. Sometimes, the choice of sampling sites for microbial assessment in many reports can be questioned as the microbial content and phyla distribution in easily collected fecal samples may differ from those obtained directly from the small intestine and upper colon. While pigs are still utilized in many countries for medical surgery practice, this has been discontinued in US medical schools.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sus scrofa , Animais , Dieta , Fezes , Camundongos , Ratos , Suínos
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150269, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536871

RESUMO

Evaluating consumption estimates for lipophilic drugs in wastewater has proven to be a challenge. A common feature for these compounds is that they are excreted in faeces and in conjugated form in urine. Limited research with no obvious experimental evidence has been conducted to investigate the degree to which faecal-bound chemical markers contribute towards mass loads in wastewater. Cannabis chemical markers, known as phytocannabinoids, have been suggested in literature to fall into this category. In this study, cannabis users (n = 9) and non-cannabis users (n = 5) were recruited and provided faecal and urine samples after using the substance. The common chemical markers of cannabis consumption, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), were investigated. An extraction method was developed for the cannabis chemical markers in faecal matter and urine and analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Participant samples were used to establish adsorption and desorption dissolution kinetics models and to assess the equilibrium between faeces and water for these compounds. Equilibration between phases were found to be fast (<5 min). THC-COOH, which is the primary metabolite used in wastewater studies, partitioned ~40% in water while the less polar metabolite and CBD remained largely associated with the particulate fraction. Faecal loads of both cannabis users and non-users affected the total measured amounts of cannabinoids in the aqueous phase. The implications for wastewater monitoring of lipophilic substances are discussed.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias , Dronabinol , Fezes , Humanos , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Água
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 161-176, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807442

RESUMO

The past decade has seen an expansion of studies on the role of gut microbiome in piglet nutrition and health. With the help of culture-independent sequencing techniques, the colonization of gut microbiota and their implication in physiology are being investigated in depth. Immediately after birth, the microbes begin to colonize following an age-dependent trajectory, which can be modified by maternal environment, diet, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation. The early-life gut microbiome is relatively simple but enriched with huge metabolic potential to utilize milk oligosaccharides and affect the epithelial function. After weaning, the gut microbiome develops towards a gradual adaptation to the introduction of solid food, with an enhanced ability to metabolize amino acids, fibers, and bile acids. Here we summarize the compositional and functional difference of the gut microbiome in the keystone developing phases, with a specific focus on the use of different nutritional approaches based on the phase-specific gut microbiome.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animais , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Fezes , Intestinos , Suínos
6.
Food Chem ; 371: 131065, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560336

RESUMO

Citrus fruits are a good source of flavanones. The present study aimed to assess the effect of food matrix elements [dietary fibres (DFs)] on the flavanone profile of grapefruit peel (GFP) and on the gut microbiota during in vitro digestion and simulated colonic fermentation. The contents of low-molecular-weight metabolites (dihydrocaffeic acid and 3-phenylpropionic acid) were increased by pectin, konjac and chitosan in medium- and high-viscosity matrices. Compared with the GFP group, the counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Clostridium leptum were significantly increased in medium-viscosity food matrices (konjac and chitosan) (p < 0.05). Moreover, the acetic and propionic acid contents were significantly elevated in the GFP + DF groups after 12 h of fermentation (p < 0.05). GFP flavanones were retained by DF, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant potency composite (APC) index decreased during in vitro digestion. These findings indicate that medium-viscosity DFs (konjac and chitosan) could act as key food matrix elements for the retention of polyphenols.


Assuntos
Citrus paradisi , Flavanonas , Microbiota , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Fezes/química , Fermentação
7.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118406, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710519

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious problem for public and animal health, and also for the environment. Monitoring and reporting the occurrence of AMR determinants and bacteria with the potential to disseminate is a priority for health surveillance programs around the world and critical to the One Health concept. Wildlife is a reservoir of AMR, and human activities can strongly influence their resistome. The main goal of this work was to study the resistome of wild boar faecal microbiome, one of the most important game species in Europe using metagenomic and culturing approaches. The most abundant genes identified by the high-throughput qPCR array encode mobile genetic elements, including integrons, which can promote the dissemination of AMR determinants. A diverse set of genes (n = 62) conferring resistance to several classes of antibiotics (ARGs), some of them included in the WHO list of critically important antimicrobials were also detected. The most abundant ARGs confer resistance to tetracyclines and aminoglycosides. The phenotypic resistance of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. were also investigated, and together supported the metagenomic results. As the wild boar is an omnivorous animal, it can be a disseminator of AMR bacteria and ARGs to livestock, humans, and the environment. This study supports that wild boar can be a key sentinel species in ecosystems surveillance and should be included in National Action Plans to fight AMR, adopting a One Health approach.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Sus scrofa , Animais , Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli , Fezes , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Suínos
8.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118364, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648838

RESUMO

The ARG profiles in pet feces, such as cat and dog feces, and their potential threat to environmental safety are still unclear. In this study, ARGs in 45 cat and 28 dog fecal samples were detected, and a diffusion experiment was performed to assess the risk of ARGs diffusion into the air. The results showed that the abundances of ARGs in cat feces and dog feces were high, and the abundance in dog feces (0.89 ± 0.17 copies/bacterial cell) was significantly higher than that in cat feces (0.46 ± 0.09 copies/bacterial cell) (P < 0.05). The bacterial community, especially Firmicutes and Desulfobacterota in cat feces, and Proteobacteria in dog feces, was the main factor affecting the variation in the ARG profiles, contributing to 31.6% and 32.4% of the variation in cat feces and dog feces, respectively. Physicochemical factors (especially NH4+-N) and age also indirectly affected the variation in the ARG profiles by affecting the bacterial community. In addition, the ARGs in cat feces and dog feces diffused into the air, but there was no evidence that this diffusion posed a threat to environmental safety and human health. These results can provide reference data for healthy animal breeding and the prevention and control of ARG pollution.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Genes Bacterianos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Gatos , Cães , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Fezes
9.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106221, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757042

RESUMO

We analyzed the peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets of cancer patients infected with intestinal parasites, with an aim to find out the relationship between the levels of different types of lymphocytes with the prognosis of patients. 201 cancer patients aged 18 and over were included. Stool samples of the patients were examined using native-lugol, trichrome, modified trichrome (Weber's Trichrome stain), and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Microsporidia and Cryptosporidium parvum were investigated at the genus and species levels using PCR. Lymphocyte subsets were determined by flow cytometry in blood samples. One or more parasite species were detected in 115 (56.7%) patients. The most common parasite species were Microsporidia, Blastocystis and Entamoeba coli, respectively. The frequency of parasites was high in patients with low lymphocyte percentage, CD3+ T cell and CD3+ CD4+ T (Th) cell levels in blood samples studied by flow cytometry. Microsporidia infection was significantly higher in patients with low lymphocyte percentage and Th cell levels. Similarly, C. parvum infection was found to be significantly higher in patients with low T lymphocyte percentage and Th cell level. Finally, Blastocystis infection was significantly higher in patients with low lymphocyte percentage and CD4/CD8 ratio higher than 1. The decrease in lymphocyte percentage, CD3+ T cell and Th cell count, and low CD4/CD8 ratio in cancer patients increase the frequency of intestinal parasitic infections. Based on these results, lymphocyte subsets may help identify cancer patients at high risk of opportunistic parasites. We suggest that opportunistic parasitic infections affecting the clinical course of the disease should be considered by clinicians during the follow-up and treatment of patients.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Fezes , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos , Prevalência
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149919, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525719

RESUMO

Differences between air and ground temperatures are expected to narrow with the advance of the season in temperate regions (aka seasonal restriction in the availability of thermal microhabitats), which may activate behavioral and physiological responses of ectotherm species adapted to temperate climates. However, according to cost-benefit models of ectotherm thermoregulation, we hypothesize that these responses may also carry some costs. We quantified seasonal shifts in thermoregulatory precision, concentration of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites, and load of ectoparasites in a Mediterranean lizard, Psammodromus algirus. We also tested whether the proximity to a road, a putative source of chronic stress, can facilitate the glucocorticoid-mediated response of lizards to heat stress. As expected, differences between body and environmental temperatures narrowed during the reproductive season and lizards responded by increasing their thermoregulatory precision and the secretion of glucocorticoids, as indicated by metabolites in feces. Interestingly, lizards tended to have higher glucocorticoid concentration when captured far from the road. This might reflect either a putative impairment of the glucocorticoid-mediated response of the lizards to heat stress close to the road or the plastic capability of P. algirus to acclimate to sources of moderate chronic stress. In the latter direction, the increase of both glucocorticoid metabolites and thermoregulatory precision supported that this Mediterranean species responds to environmental thermal restrictions with adaptive behavioral and physiological mechanisms. However, this was also associated with an increase in its susceptibility to ectoparasites, which represents an added cost to the current cost-benefit models of ectotherm thermoregulation.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Fezes , Glucocorticoides , Resposta ao Choque Térmico
11.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131030, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144808

RESUMO

In current times of global change, several sources of stress such as contaminants and high temperatures may act synergistically. The extent to which organisms persist in stressful conditions will depend on the fitness consequences of multiple simultaneously acting stressors and the genetic basis of compensatory genetic responses. Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug used in livestock that is excreted in dung of treated cattle, causing severe negative consequences on non-target fauna. We evaluated the effect of a combination of heat stress and exposure to ivermectin in the yellow dung fly, Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae). In a first experiment we investigated the effects of high rearing temperature on susceptibility to ivermectin, and in a second experiment we assayed flies from a latitudinal gradient to assess potential effects of local thermal adaptation on ivermectin sensitivity. The combination of heat and ivermectin synergistically reduced offspring survival, revealing severe effects of the two stressors when combined. However, latitudinal populations did not systematically vary in how ivermectin affected offspring survival, body size, development time, cold and heat tolerance. We also found very low narrow-sense heritability of ivermectin sensitivity, suggesting evolutionary constraints for responses to the combination of these stressors beyond immediate maternal or plastic effects. If the revealed patterns hold also for other invertebrates, the combination of increasing climate warming and ivermectin stress may thus have severe consequences for biodiversity. More generally, our study underlines the need for quantitative genetic analyses in understanding wildlife responses to interacting stressors that act synergistically and threat biodiversity.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Ivermectina , Animais , Antiparasitários , Bovinos , Fezes , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Ivermectina/toxicidade
12.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113802, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638039

RESUMO

The ability to detect human fecal pollution in water is of great importance when assessing the associated health risks. Many microbial source tracking (MST) markers have been proposed to determine the origin of fecal pollution, but their application remains challenging. A range of factors, not yet sufficiently analyzed, may affect MST markers in the environment, such as dilution and inactivation processes. In this work, a statistical framework based on Monte Carlo simulations and non-linear regression was used to develop a classification procedure for use in MST studies. The predictive model tested uses only two parameters: somatic coliphages (SOMCPH), as an index of general fecal pollution, and human host-specific bacteriophages that infect Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron strain GA17 (GA17PH). Taking into account bacteriophage dilution and differential inactivation, the threshold concentration of SOMCPH was calculated to be around 500 PFU/100 mL for a limit of detection of 10 PFU/100 mL. However, this threshold can be lowered by increasing the analyzed volume sample, which in turn lowers the limit of detection. The resulting model is sufficiently accurate for application in practical cases involving MST and could be easily used with markers other than those tested here.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron , Colífagos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Humanos , Água , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/análise
13.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 433, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota is thought to be involved in the occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease in remission with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms, but the specific distinct profile of these bacteria remains unclear. This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the fecal microbiota profiling in patients with these diseases. METHODS: Fecal samples from 97 subjects, including Crohn's disease patients in remission with IBS-type symptoms (CDR-IBS+) or without IBS-type symptoms (CDR-IBS-), ulcerative colitis patients in remission with IBS-type symptoms (UCR-IBS+) or without IBS-type symptoms (UCR-IBS-), IBS patients and healthy controls, were collected and applied 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. The V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA gene were amplified and sequenced by the Illumina MiSeq platform. The differences in the sample diversity index in groups were analyzed with R software. RESULTS: The richness of the intestinal microbiota in the CDR-IBS group was markedly lower than those in the control and IBS groups based on the analysis of observed species and the Chao index (P < 0.05). The observed species index in the CDR-IBS+ group was higher than that in the CDR-IBS- group (median index: 254.8 vs 203, P = 0.036). No difference was found in alpha diversity between UCR patients with IBS-type symptoms and those without related symptoms. At the genus level, the number of Faecalibacterium in CDR patients with IBS-type symptoms increased significantly, while Fusobacterium decreased versus those without such symptoms (mean relative abundance of Faecalibacterium: 20.35% vs 5.18%, P < 0.05; Fusobacterium: 1.51% vs 5.2%, P < 0.05). However, compared with the UCR-IBS- group, the number of Faecalibacterium in the UCR-IBS+ group decreased, while the number of Streptococcus increased, but there was no significant difference in the genus structure. The abundance and composition of the microbiota of IBS patients were not distinct from those of healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: The IBS-type symptoms in CD patients in remission may be related to an increase in Faecalibacterium and a decrease in Fusobacterium. The IBS-type symptoms in UC patients in remission cannot be explained by changes in the abundance and structure of the intestinal microbiota.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Microbiota , Estudos Transversais , Fezes , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/complicações
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 348, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herbal tea residue (HTR) is generally considered to be the waste of herbal tea beverage production while it still retains rich nutrients and active substances. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of fermentation technology on improving the quality of HTRs, and focus on the fermented HTR-induced alleviation of summer heat stress in fattening cattle. RESULTS: In this study, the waste HTR was fermented and then fed to a total of 45 fattening cattle that were divided into 3 groups (fermented HTR replaced 0, 15, 30% of the forage component of the diet), and the feeding experiment was lasted for 40 days. The physiological indexes, growth performance and fecal microbiota of fattening cattle were evaluated and results showed that fermented HTR could effectively reduce the respiratory rate and rectal temperature of fattening cattle under heat stress, increase the daily feed intake and daily gain, and improve the antioxidant content and blood immune index. In addition, we studied the fecal microbiota composition of 6 fattening cattle in control and 30% HTR substitution groups and found fermented HTR significantly changed the composition of fecal microbiota and increased microbial diversity, and correlation analysis suggested that the bacteria were closely related to fecal SCFA levels of fattening cattle under heat stress. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, fermented HTR replaced 30% of the forage component of the diet that can change the intestine microorganisms, maintain health and alleviate the heat stress of fattening cattle.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Dieta/veterinária , Indústria Alimentícia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resíduos Industriais , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fermentação , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/terapia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
15.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(3): 445-450, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730306

RESUMO

Helicobacter species have been reported in animals, some of which are of zoonotic importance. This study aimed to detect Helicobacter species among human and animal samples using conventional PCR assays and to identify their zoonotic potentials. Helicobacter species was identified in human and animal samples by genus-specific PCR assays and phylogenetic analysis of partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The results revealed that Helicobacter species DNA was detected in 13 of 29 (44.83%) of the human samples. H. pylori was identified in 2 (15.38%), and H. bovis was detected in 4 (30.77%), whereas 7 (53.85%) were unidentified. H. bovis and H. heilmannii were prevalent among the animal samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed bootstrapping of sequences with H. cinaedi in camel, H. rappini in sheep and humans, and Wollinella succinogenes in humans. In conclusion, the occurrence of non-H. pylori infections among human and animal samples suggested zoonotic potentials.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/veterinária , Helicobacter/genética , Helicobacter/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Fezes/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Helicobacter/classificação , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Hospitais Veterinários , Humanos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Saliva/microbiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
16.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(3): 323-333, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730310

RESUMO

Diarrhea caused by parasitic agents is common in neonatal calves and leads to significant economic losses in cattle farms worldwide. Cryptosporidium spp. is one of the most frequently detected parasitic agents causing diarrhea in neonatal calves. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. on a dairy farm which a has major diarrhea problem. Samples were collected from calves, cows, drinking bowls, and two different artesian water sources, as well as from the environment. All fecal samples were investigated using Kinyoun acid-fast stained slides and real-time PCR targeting the Cryptosporidium spp. COWP gene. In addition, species identification was performed by nested PCR targeting the Cryptosporidium spp. COWP gene and sequencing. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 11 calves (30.55%; 11/36) by real-time PCR and the cows were negative. Among real-time PCR positive samples, only five were also found positive by microscopy. Moreover, Cryptosporidium spp. was found in one of the two artesian water sources and five environmental samples by real-time PCR. Among these positive samples, eight were sequenced. According to the RFLP pattern, BLAST and, phylogenetic analyses, all sequenced samples were Cryptosporidium parvum. These findings show the importance of C. parvum as a cause of calf diarrhea on dairy farms.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolamento & purificação , Água/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833562

RESUMO

Current assays for Clostridioides difficile in nonhospital settings are outsourced and time-intensive, resulting in both delayed diagnosis and quarantining of infected individuals. We designed a more rapid point-of-care assay featuring a "turn-on" bioluminescent readout of a C. difficile-specific protease, PPEP-1. NanoLuc, a bright and stable luciferase, was "caged" with a PPEP-1-responsive peptide tail that inhibited luminescence. Upon proteolytic cleavage, the peptide was released and NanoLuc activity was restored, providing a visible readout. The bioluminescent sensor detected PPEP-1 concentrations as low as 10 nM. Sensor uncaging was achieved within minutes, and signal was captured using a digital camera. Importantly, the sensor was also functional at ambient temperature and compatible with fecal material, suggesting that it can be readily deployed in a variety of settings.


Assuntos
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridioides , Biomarcadores , Fezes , Humanos
18.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45: In press, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a rare but severe illness associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. A dysregulated immune response is recognized as the main pathogenic mechanism. Previous studies demonstrated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in faeces of almost one-third of patients with COVID-19, while data are currently missing about MIS-C. OBJECTIVES: to evaluate faecal sample positivity to SARS-CoV-2 in MIS-C and to compare the positivity rate between MIS-C and COVID-19 hospitalised children.  DESIGN: observational descriptive study with prospective patient enrollment. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the SARS-CoV-2 positivity was evaluated in stool samples obtained in a prospective series of 63 paediatric patients admitted to Regina Margherita Children's Hospital (Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria - Città della Salute e della Scienza, Turin, Northern Italy) with diagnosis of MIS-C (N. 31) or COVID-19 (N. 32), during the first year of pandemic emergency. The real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), was performed using a validated kit measuring 3 target SARS-CoV-2 genes: E gene, N gene, and ORF1ab gene MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: SARS-CoV-2 stool positivity and concomitant gastrointestinal symptoms. RESULTS: overall, 16/63 (25%) stool samples revealed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA. In patients with COVID-19, faecal samples were collected 8 days as median (IQR 7) after the presumed viral exposure and were positive in 12/31 (39%; 95%CI 23.2-56.2); among children with MIS-C, stools were collected 27.5 days as median (IQR 26.25) after presumed contact and the positivity rate was 12.5% (95%CI 4.4-27.0) (4/32). More than 80% of the children with MIS-C presented gastrointestinal symptoms, but the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with positive stools for SARS-CoV-2 RNA is not higher than patients tested negative (p=0.092). CONCLUSIONS: MIS-C patients frequently experienced gastrointestinal symptoms, confirming the intestinal involvement in MIS-C already described in the literature. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA in faecal samples is confirmed in more than 10% of MIS-C patients and stool positivity was also detected many days after presumed first contact with the virus. This data suggests the possibility of tracing SARS-COV-2 also in faeces for a better description of its circulation and spread in the environment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complicações , Criança , Fezes , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 351, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increasing dosages of a commercial product composed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (YAM), with active metabolites, which are beta glucans, nucleotides, organic acids, polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins and minerals (Original XPCtm, Diamond V, IOWA, USA) added to a commercially available dry cat food. Apparent digestibility of dietary nutrients, fecal microbiota, fecal fermentation products and immunological parameters were evaluated. Twenty-seven healthy cats of mixed sexes, with a mean body weight of 4.19 ± 0.83 kg and a mean age of 9.44 ± 5.35 years were distributed by age in an unbalanced randomized block design, consisting of three experimental treatments: CD (control diet), YAM 0.3 (control diet with 0.3% yeast with active metabolites) and YAM 0.6 (control diet with 0.6% yeast with active metabolites). RESULTS: The inclusion of the additive elevated the apparent digestibility of crude fiber (p = 0.013) and ash (p < 0.001) without interfering feed consumption, fecal production and fecal characteristics. Regarding fermentation products present in the feces, prebiotic inclusion increased lactic acid concentration (p = 0.004) while reducing isovaleric acid (p = 0.014), only in the treatment YAM 0.3. No differences were noticed on biogenic amines (BA), fecal pH, ammonia concentration, total and individuals short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and total and individuals branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) (except isovaleric acid in YAM 0.3). As regards to fecal microbiota, prebiotic inclusion has resulted in the reduction of Clostridium perfringens (p = 0.023). No differences were found in the immunological parameters evaluated. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that the additive, at the levels of inclusion assessed shows prebiotic potential and it has effects on fecal fermentation products and microbiota without interfering on crude protein and dry matter digestibility. More studies evaluating grater inclusion levels of the prebiotic are necessary to determine optimal concentration.


Assuntos
Gatos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Parede Celular , Digestão , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Prebióticos
20.
Arch Razi Inst ; 76(3): 521-528, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824745

RESUMO

Bifidobacteriaceae family are gut microbiota that exhibit probiotic or health promoting effects on the host. Several studies have suggested that gut microbiota are quantitatively and qualitatively altered in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The present study aimed to assess the members of Bifidobacteriaceae family in fecal samples of patients with CKD and ESRD and compare them with non-CKD/ESRD patients to find any changes in their counts and diversions in these patients. Twenty fresh fecal samples from patients with CKD/ESRD and twenty from non-CKD/ESRD patients were examined. Whole DNA was extracted from fecal samples and the gut microbiota composition was analyzed by next generation sequencing (NGS). A total of 651 strains were identified from 40 fecal samples, 8 (1.23%) strains of which were identified as family Bifidobacteriaceae. The most abundant species in both control and disease groups were Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, and the least abundant species in the disease group was Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. There was no significant difference in the abundance of various species between the disease and control groups (p < 0.05). This study confirms that the members of the Bifidobacteriaceae family are not altered in patients with CKD/ESRD.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Insuficiência Renal , Animais , Bifidobacterium , Fezes , Insuficiência Renal/veterinária
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