Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 104.587
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15842, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982163

RESUMO

This work implemented a non-invasive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) monitoring approach to study how food components are metabolised by the gut microbiota in-vitro. The fermentability of a model food matrix rich in dietary fibre (oat bran), and a pure prebiotic (inulin), added to a minimal gut medium was compared by looking at global changes in the volatilome. The substrates were incubated with a stabilised human faecal inoculum over a 24-h period, and VOCs were monitored without interfering with biological processes. The fermentation was performed in nitrogen-filled vials, with controlled temperature, and tracked by automated headspace-solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. To understand the molecular patterns over time, we applied a multivariate longitudinal statistical framework: repeated measurements-ANOVA simultaneous component analysis. The methodology was able to discriminate the studied groups by looking at VOCs temporal profiles. The volatilome showed a time-dependency that was more distinct after 12 h. Short to medium-chain fatty acids showed increased peak intensities, mainly for oat bran and for inulin, but with different kinetics. At the same time, alcohols, aldehydes, and esters showed distinct trends with discriminatory power. The proposed approach can be applied to study the intertwined pathways of gut microbiota food components interaction in-vitro.


Assuntos
Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fermentação , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Inulina/metabolismo , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 682, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis remains a public health concern worldwide. It is responsible for more than 240 million cases in 78 countries, 40 million of whom are women of childbearing age. In the Senegal River basin, both Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are very prevalent in school-age children. However, there is a lack of information on the burden of schistosomiasis in pregnant women, which can cause complications in the pregnancy outcome. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of schistosomiasis in pregnant women. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at the health center of the Senegalese Sugar Company and at the hospital of Richard Toll between August and December 2021. The urine and stool samples collected were examined using microscopy techniques and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to detect the presence of S. haematobium and S. mansoni. The urines were previously tested using urine reagent strips to detect hematuria and proteinuria. Socio-demographical, clinical, and diagnostically data were recorded by the midwife and the gynaecologist. The data were analyzed using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Among the 298 women examined for the infection by microscopic, 65 (21.81%) were infected with urogenital schistosomiasis, 10 (3.36%) with intestinal schistosomiasis, and 4 (1.34%) were co-infected with both types of schistosomiasis. Out of the 288 samples tested by qPCR, 146 (48.99%) were positive for S. haematobium, 49 (35.51%) for S. mansoni and 22 (15.94%) for both species (co-infection). Pregnant women having microscopic haematuria and proteinuria were significantly more infected (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study has revealed a high prevalence of schistosomiasis in pregnant women in Senegal. The qPCR allowed us to detect more cases compared to the microscopy. There is a need to conduct more studies to understand the real burden of the disease and to set up a surveillance system to prevent pregnancy-related complications.


Assuntos
Schistosoma haematobium , Schistosoma mansoni , Humanos , Feminino , Senegal/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Schistosoma haematobium/isolamento & purificação , Schistosoma haematobium/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/urina , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/urina , Fezes/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco
3.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 253, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbes play an important role in the growth and health of neonatal piglets. Probiotics can promote the healthy growth of neonatal piglets by regulating their gut microbes. The study investigated the effects of spraying Lactiplantibacillus plantarum P-8 (L. plantarum P-8) fermentation broth on the growth performance and gut microbes of neonatal piglets. RESULTS: The animals were randomly divided into probiotics groups (109 neonatal piglets) and control groups (113 neonatal piglets). The probiotics group was sprayed with L. plantarum P-8 fermented liquid from 3 day before the expected date of the sow to the 7-day-old of piglets, while the control group was sprayed with equal dose of PBS. Average daily gain (ADG), immune and antioxidant status and metagenome sequencing were used to assess the changes in growth performance and gut microbiota of neonatal piglets. The results showed that L. plantarum P-8 treatment significantly improved the average daily gain (P < 0.05) of neonatal piglets. L. plantarum P-8 increased the activities of CAT and SOD but reduced the levels of IL-2 and IL-6, effectively regulating the antioxidant capacity and immunity in neonatal piglets. L. plantarum P-8 adjusted the overall structure of gut microflora improving gut homeostasis to a certain extent, and significantly increased the relative abundance of gut beneficial bacteria such as L. mucosae and L. plantarum. CONCLUSION: Spraying L. plantarum P-8 can be a feasible and effective probiotic intervention not only improving the growth of neonatal piglets, regulating the antioxidant capacity and immunity of neonatal piglets, but also improving the gut homeostasis to a certain extent.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Animais , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/farmacologia , Suínos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus plantarum , Fermentação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fezes/microbiologia
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 305, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pigeon Rotavirus A (RVA) infection has been confirmed in pigeons in the last decade as a cause of Young Pigeon Disease (YPD). Although YPD has been known for many years to date, no studies have been conducted to track the spread of RVA infection in pigeons during the racing season. The presented research aims to determine the course of RVA infection during the flights of young racing pigeons in the summer season, in one of the districts in the Mazovian Voivodeship in Poland. RESULTS: Faecal samples of pigeons collected from transport baskets in vehicles transporting pigeons to the starting point were tested. The quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the genetic material of RVA. Samples taken during 6 flights were analysed. The study showed a percentage increase in infections up to the fourth flight of pigeons, and then their decrease. With Cq values below 20, breeders did not participate in the next flight and/or reported disease in the flock. With positive Cq values of 20 to 30, clinical signs of disease were not reported. Of the 76 breeders participating in the races, at least one positive result was found in 46 (60.5%). Including the occurrence of the disease during the racing season was reported by 11 breeders (14.4%). The main clinical signs in sick pigeons were vomiting, diarrhea and stowed crop. The tested pigeons were not vaccinated against RVA. CONCLUSIONS: During training and racing of pigeons, it is not possible to avoid exposing them to pathogens, including RVA, regardless of whether pigeons from different breeders are placed in the same baskets or are in separate baskets. However, after four flights the number of new cases of the disease decreases which indicates the development of immunity. The qRT-PCR test is useful in the diagnosis and differentiation of clinical (Cq below 20) and subclinical RVA infections in racing pigeons.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Columbidae , Fezes , Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Estações do Ano , Animais , Columbidae/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Polônia/epidemiologia
5.
Vet Res ; 55(1): 87, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982477

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis worldwide. Pigs are the natural host of HEV genotype 3 and the main reservoir of HEV. As the host range of HEV genotype 3 expands, the possibility that HEV from various species can be transmitted to humans via pigs is increasing. We investigated the potential cross-species transmission of HEV by infecting minipigs with swine HEV (swHEV), rabbit HEV (rbHEV), and human HEV (huHEV) and examining their histopathological characteristics and distribution in various organs. Fifteen specific-pathogen-free Yucatan minipigs were infected with swHEV, rbHEV, huHEV, or a mock control. In the present study, we analysed faecal shedding, viremia, and serological parameters over a seven-week period. Our results indicated that swHEV exhibited more robust shedding and viremia than non-swHEVs. Only swHEV affected the serological parameters, suggesting strain-specific differences. Histopathological examination revealed distinct patterns in the liver, pancreas, intestine, and lymphoid tissues after infection with each HEV strain. Notably, all three HEVs induced histopathological changes in the pancreas, supporting the association of HEVs with acute pancreatitis. Our results also identified skeletal muscle as a site of HEV antigen presence, suggesting a potential link to myositis. In conclusion, this study provides valuable insights into the infection dynamics of different HEV strains in minipigs, emphasizing the strain-specific variations in virological, serological, and histological parameters. The observed differences in infection kinetics and tissue tropism will contribute to our understanding of HEV pathogenesis and the potential for cross-species transmission.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E , Doenças dos Suínos , Porco Miniatura , Animais , Suínos , Hepatite E/veterinária , Hepatite E/virologia , Hepatite E/transmissão , Vírus da Hepatite E/fisiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Coelhos , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Humanos , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Viremia/veterinária , Viremia/virologia
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 296, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982488

RESUMO

The population of South American camelids (SAC) has been steadily growing in Europe, where they are confronted with the regional endoparasite population of ruminants. As there are no anthelmintic drugs registered for use against nematode infections in SACs, anthelmintics (AH) available for ruminants or horses are usually applied. Reports indicating potential failures in administered AH are increasing. However, the generally low egg counts in SACs complicate the application of resistance tests in the field. The present study reports a follow-up study on SAC farms where anthelmintic resistance (AR) was suspected. The aims were (i) to repeat faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRTs) on potentially affected farms identified in a previous study with larger sample sizes, (ii) to verify suspected AR of Haemonchus contortus against benzimidazoles (BZ) by performing a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis using digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR), and (iii) to apply the mini-FLOTAC technique for more reliable results at low egg counts in line with current recommendations. Seven farms (9-46 animals each) were examined by coproscopy, larval differentiation and SNP analysis. A FECRT was performed on six of these farms with moxidectin (three farms), monepantel (two farms) and ivermectin (one farm). The FEC was calculated according to the current World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines with the clinical protocol (a newly introduced variant of FECRT which can be used for smaller sample sizes and lower egg counts on the cost of sensitivity) and an expected efficacy of 99%. A high level (> 90%) of BZ-resistance-associated SNPs on codon 200 of H. contortus was observed on all farms. With the FECRT, resistance was demonstrated for ivermectin (74% FECR), while it remained inconclusive for one farm for moxidectin treatment. Sustained efficacy was demonstrated for the remaining treatments. This study showed an advanced level of BZ resistance in H. contortus of SACs and the development of AR against macrocyclic lactones on some farms. Thus, constant monitoring of AH treatment and sustainable worm control methods both need to be applied.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Benzimidazóis , Camelídeos Americanos , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fezes , Hemoncose , Haemonchus , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Animais , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Haemonchus/genética , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Alelos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Lactonas/farmacologia , Alemanha , Macrolídeos/farmacologia
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1420389, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38983117

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiota assumes a pivotal role in modulating host metabolism, immune responses, overall health, and additional physiological dimensions. The structural and functional characteristics of the intestinal microbiota may cause alterations within the host's body to a certain extent. The composition of the gut microbiota is associated with environmental factors, dietary habits, and other pertinent conditions. The investigation into the gut microbiota of yaks remained relatively underexplored. An examination of yak gut microbiota holds promise in elucidating the complex relationship between microbial communities and the adaptive responses of the host to its environment. In this study, yak were selected from two distinct environmental conditions: those raised in sheds (NS, n=6) and grazed in Nimu County (NF, n=6). Fecal samples were collected from the yaks and subsequently processed for analysis through 16S rDNA and ITS sequencing methodologies. The results revealed that different feeding styles result in significant differences in the Alpha diversity of fungi in the gut of yaks, while the gut microbiota of captive yaks was relatively conserved. In addition, significant differences appeared in the abundance of microorganisms in different taxa, phylum Verrucomicrobiota was significantly enriched in group NF while Firmicutes was higher in group NS. At the genus level, Akkermansia, Paenibacillus, Roseburia, Dorea, UCG_012, Anaerovorax and Marvinbryantia were enriched in group NF while Desemzia, Olsenella, Kocuria, Ornithinimicrobium and Parvibacter were higher in group NS (P<0.05 or P<0.01). There was a significant difference in the function of gut microbiota between the two groups. The observed variations are likely influenced by differences in feeding methods and environmental conditions both inside and outside the pen. The findings of this investigation offer prospective insights into enhancing the yak breeding and expansion of the yak industry.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Animais , Bovinos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , China , Filogenia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Biodiversidade
8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(24): 3022-3035, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38983953

RESUMO

Managing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is becoming increasingly complex and personalized, considering the advent of new advanced therapies with distinct mechanisms of action. Achieving mucosal healing (MH) is a pivotal therapeutic goal in IBD management and can prevent IBD progression and reduce flares, hospitalization, surgery, intestinal damage, and colorectal cancer. Employing proactive disease and therapy assessment is essential to achieve better control of intestinal inflammation, even if subclinical, to alter the natural course of IBD. Periodic monitoring of fecal calprotectin (FC) levels and interval endoscopic evaluations are cornerstones for evaluating response/remission to advanced therapies targeting IBD, assessing MH, and detecting subclinical recurrence. Here, we comment on the article by Ishida et al Moreover, this editorial aimed to review the role of FC and endoscopic scores in predicting MH in patients with IBD. Furthermore, we intend to present some evidence on the role of these markers in future targets, such as histological and transmural healing. Additional prospective multicenter studies with a stricter MH criterion, standardized endoscopic and histopathological analyses, and virtual chromoscopy, potentially including artificial intelligence and other biomarkers, are desired.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Fezes , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Mucosa Intestinal , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Fezes/química , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Cicatrização , Colonoscopia , Progressão da Doença , Recidiva , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/métodos
9.
Helicobacter ; 29(4): e13079, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38984661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection by bismuth quadruple therapy (BQT) is effective. However, the effect of BQT and subsequent fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) on the gut microbiota is less known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted at a tertiary hospital in China from January 2019 to October 2020, with the primary endpoints the effect of BQT on the gut microbiota and the effect of FMT on the gut microbiota after bismuth quadruple therapy eradication therapy. A 14-day BQT with amoxicillin and clarithromycin was administered to H. pylori-positive subjects, and after eradication therapy, patients received a one-time FMT or placebo treatment. We then collected stool samples to assess the effects of 14-day BQT and FMT on the gut microbiota. 16 s rDNA and metagenomic sequencing were used to analyze the structure and function of intestinal flora. We also used Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) to evaluate gastrointestinal symptom during treatment. RESULTS: A total of 30 patients were recruited and 15 were assigned to either FMT or placebo groups. After eradication therapy, alpha-diversity was decreased in both groups. At the phylum level, the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes decreased, while Proteobacteria increased. At the genus level, the abundance of beneficial bacteria decreased, while pathogenic bacteria increased. Eradication therapy reduced some resistance genes abundance while increased the resistance genes abundance linked to Escherichia coli. While they all returned to baseline by Week 10. Besides, the difference was observed in Week 10 by the diarrhea score between two groups. Compared to Week 2, the GSRS total score and diarrhea score decreased in Week 3 only in FMT group. CONCLUSIONS: The balance of intestinal flora in patients can be considerably impacted by BQT in the short term, but it has reverted back to baseline by Week 10. FMT can alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms even if there was no evidence it promoted restoration of intestinal flora.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bismuto , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Infecções por Helicobacter/terapia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Bismuto/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , China , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Idoso , Fezes/microbiologia
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(7): e2418129, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38967929

RESUMO

Importance: Probiotics are often considered in children to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, the underlying mechanistic effects and impact of probiotics on antibiotic-induced microbiota changes are not well understood. Objective: To investigate the effects of a multispecies probiotic on the gut microbiota composition in children receiving antibiotics. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized, quadruple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial from February 1, 2018, to May 31, 2021, including 350 children receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics in the inpatient and outpatient settings. Patients were followed up until 1 month after the intervention period. Fecal samples and data were analyzed between September 1, 2022, and February 28, 2023. Eligibility criteria included 3 months to 18 years of age and recruitment within 24 hours following initiation of broad-spectrum systemic antibiotics. In total, 646 eligible patients were approached and 350 participated in the trial. Intervention: Participants were randomly assigned to receive daily placebo or a multispecies probiotic formulation consisting of 8 strains from 5 different genera during antibiotic treatment and for 7 days afterward. Main Outcomes and Measures: Fecal stool samples were collected at 4 predefined times: (1) inclusion, (2) last day of antibiotic use, (3) last day of the study intervention, and (4) 1 month after intervention. Microbiota analysis was performed by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Results: A total of 350 children were randomized and collected stool samples from 88 were eligible for the microbiota analysis (54 boys and 34 girls; mean [SD] age, 47.09 [55.64] months). Alpha diversity did not significantly differ between groups at the first 3 times. Shannon diversity (mean [SD], 3.56 [0.75] vs 3.09 [1.00]; P = .02) and inverse Simpson diversity (mean [SD], 3.75 [95% CI, 1.66-5.82] vs -1.31 [95% CI, -3.17 to 0.53]; P = 1 × 10-4) indices were higher in the placebo group compared with the probiotic group 1 month after intervention. Beta diversity was not significantly different at any of the times. Three of 5 supplemented genera had higher relative abundance during probiotic supplementation, but this difference had disappeared after 1 month. Conclusions and Relevance: The studied probiotic mixture had minor and transient effects on the microbiota composition during and after antibiotic treatment. Further research is needed to understand their working mechanisms in manipulating the microbiome and preventing antibiotic-associated dysbiosis and adverse effects such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03334604.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Diarreia , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Humanos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Masculino , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/microbiologia , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/microbiologia , Adolescente , Lactente
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15508, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969657

RESUMO

The gut microbiome of wild animals is subject to various environmental influences, including those associated with human-induced alterations to the environment. We investigated how the gut microbiota of a synurbic rodent species, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), change in cities of varying sizes, seeking the urban microbiota signature for this species. Fecal samples for analysis were collected from animals living in non-urbanized areas and green spaces of different-sized cities (Poland). Metagenomic 16S rRNA gene sequencing and further bioinformatics analyses were conducted. Significant differences in the composition of gut microbiomes among the studied populations were found. However, the observed changes were dependent on local habitat conditions, without strong evidence of a correlation with the size of the urbanized area. The results suggest that ecological detachment from a more natural, non-urban environment does not automatically lead to the development of an "urban microbiome" model in the studied rodent. The exposure to the natural environment in green spaces may serve as a catalyst for microbiome transformations, providing a previously underestimated contribution to the maintenance of native gut microbial communities in urban mammals.


Assuntos
Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Animais , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Cidades , Murinae/microbiologia , Ecossistema , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética
12.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 631, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wnt/ß-catenin signalling impairment accounts for 85% of colorectal cancers (CRCs), including sporadic and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) settings. An altered PI3K/mTOR pathway and gut microbiota also contribute to CRC carcinogenesis. We studied the interplay between the two pathways and the microbiota composition within each step of CRC carcinogenesis. METHODS: Proteins and target genes of both pathways were analysed by RT-qPCR and IHC in tissues from healthy faecal immunochemical test positive (FIT+, n = 17), FAP (n = 17) and CRC (n = 15) subjects. CRC-related mutations were analysed through NGS and Sanger. Oral, faecal and mucosal microbiota was profiled by 16 S rRNA-sequencing. RESULTS: We found simultaneous hyperactivation of Wnt/ß-catenin and PI3K/mTOR pathways in FAP-lesions compared to CRCs. Wnt/ß-catenin molecular markers positively correlated with Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 and negatively with Bacteroides in FAP faecal microbiota. Alistipes, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae were enriched in FAP stools and adenomas, the latter also showing an overabundance of Lachnoclostridium, which positively correlated with cMYC. In impaired-mTOR-mutated CRC tissues, p-S6R correlated with Fusobacterium and Dialister, the latter also confirmed in the faecal-ecosystem. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals an interplay between Wnt/ß-catenin and PI3K/mTOR, whose derangement correlates with specific microbiota signatures in FAP and CRC patients, and identifies new potential biomarkers and targets to improve CRC prevention, early adenoma detection and treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Neoplasias Colorretais , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Humanos , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Masculino , Feminino , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/microbiologia , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Idoso , Adulto , Mutação/genética , Microbiota
13.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 122, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a therapeutic intervention used to treat diseases associated with the gut microbiome. In the human gut microbiome, phages have been implicated in influencing human health, with successful engraftment of donor phages correlated with FMT treatment efficacy. The impact that gastrointestinal phages exert on human health has primarily been connected to their ability to modulate the bacterial communities in the gut. Nonetheless, how FMT affects recipients' phage populations, and in turn, how this influences the gut environment, is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of FMT on the phageome composition of participants within the Gut Bugs Trial (GBT), a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that investigated the efficacy of FMT in treating obesity and comorbidities in adolescents. Stool samples collected from donors at the time of treatment and recipients at four time points (i.e., baseline and 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 26 weeks post-intervention), underwent shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Phage sequences were identified and characterized in silico to examine evidence of phage engraftment and to assess the extent of FMT-induced alterations in the recipients' phageome composition. RESULTS: Donor phages engrafted stably in recipients following FMT, composing a significant proportion of their phageome for the entire course of the study (33.8 ± 1.2% in females and 33.9 ± 3.7% in males). Phage engraftment varied between donors and donor engraftment efficacy was positively correlated with their phageome alpha diversity. FMT caused a shift in recipients' phageome toward the donors' composition and increased phageome alpha diversity and variability over time. CONCLUSIONS: FMT significantly altered recipients' phage and, overall, microbial populations. The increase in microbial diversity and variability is consistent with a shift in microbial population dynamics. This proposes that phages play a critical role in modulating the gut environment and suggests novel approaches to understanding the efficacy of FMT in altering the recipient's microbiome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Gut Bugs Trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTR N12615001351505). Trial protocol: the trial protocol is available at https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/9/4/e026174 . Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade , Humanos , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Bacteriófagos/classificação , Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriófagos/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Adolescente , Masculino , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/virologia , Bactérias/genética , Metagenômica/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Skin Res Technol ; 30(7): e13822, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970783

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In present, the diagnosis of psoriasis is mainly based on the patient's typical clinical manifestations, dermoscopy and skin biopsy, and unlike other immune diseases, psoriasis lacks specific indicators in the blood. Therefore, we are required to search novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of psoriasis. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the composition and the differences of intestinal fungal communities composition between psoriasis patients and healthy individuals in order to find the intestinal fungal communities associated with the diagnosis of psoriasis. We built a machine learning model and identified potential microbial markers for the diagnosis of psoriasis. RESULTS: The results of AUROC (area under ROC) showed that Aspergillus puulaauensis (AUROC = 0.779), Kazachstania africana (AUROC = 0.750) and Torulaspora delbrueckii (AUROC = 0.745) had high predictive ability (AUROC > 0.7) for predicting psoriasis, While Fusarium keratoplasticum (AUROC = 0.670) was relatively lower (AUROC < 0.7). CONCLUSION: The strategy based on the prediction of intestinal fungal communities provides a new idea for the diagnosis of psoriasis and is expected to become an auxiliary diagnostic method for psoriasis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metagenômica , Micobioma , Psoríase , Humanos , Psoríase/microbiologia , Psoríase/sangue , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Biomarcadores/sangue , Metagenômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aprendizado de Máquina , Fezes/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem , Aspergillus
15.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(9): 261, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38972914

RESUMO

The fecal microbiota of two healthy adults was cultivated in a medium containing commercial fructooligosaccharides [FOS; 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3), and 1F-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4)]. Initially, the proportions of lactobacilli in the two feces samples were only 0.42% and 0.17%; however, they significantly increased to 7.2% and 4.8%, respectively, after cultivation on FOS. Most FOS-utilizing isolates could utilize only GF2; however, Lacticaseibacillus paracasei strain Lp02 could fully consume GF3 and GF4 too. The FOS operon (fosRABCDXE) was present in Lc. paracasei Lp02 and another Lc. paracasei strain, KCTC 3510T, but fosE was only partially present in the non-FOS-degrading strain KCTC 3510T. In addition, the top six upregulated genes in the presence of FOS were fosABCDXE, particularly fosE. FosE is a ß-fructosidase that hydrolyzes both sucrose and all three FOS. Finally, a genome-based analysis suggested that fosE is mainly observed in Lc. paracasei, and only 13.5% (61/452) of their reported genomes were confirmed to include it. In conclusion, FosE allows the utilization of FOS, including GF3 and GF4 as well as GF2, by some Lc. paracasei strains, suggesting that this species plays a pivotal role in FOS utilization in the human gut.


Assuntos
Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lacticaseibacillus paracasei , Oligossacarídeos , beta-Frutofuranosidase , Humanos , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Lacticaseibacillus paracasei/metabolismo , Lacticaseibacillus paracasei/genética , beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo , beta-Frutofuranosidase/genética , Adulto , Óperon , Trissacarídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo
16.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(8): 993-999, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38973542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic pathologies characterized by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors, as well as aberrant immune responses. This study aimed to investigate inflammation markers' seasonality and association with disease exacerbation episodes in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. METHODS: 284 patients were classified based on clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological criteria. Systemic inflammation was evaluated using C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and chitotriosidase, while fecal calprotectin was measured to assess intestinal inflammation. Serum vitamin D levels and the seasonality of an activity score that combines several clinical and biological parameters were also evaluated. RESULTS: The peak number of patients reporting endoscopic activity occurred in autumn for Crohn's disease (82%) and spring for ulcerative colitis (95%). Regarding histological activity, spring saw the highest number of patients for both diseases (72% for Crohn's disease; 87% for ulcerative colitis). Most of the inflammatory markers exhibited lower values during winter. Systemic inflammatory markers follow a slightly different trend than fecal calprotectin and differ in the two pathologies. The maximum values of intestinal inflammation were observed in autumn for Crohn's disease (784 µg/g) and in spring for ulcerative colitis (1269 µg/g). Serum vitamin D concentrations were consistently low throughout the year. Statistical analysis revealed differences between the seasons for CRP and ESR (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The evolution of flares and inflammatory markers in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis displayed distinct seasonal patterns. Systemic inflammation did not consistently parallel intestinal inflammation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa , Colite Ulcerativa , Doença de Crohn , Fezes , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário , Estações do Ano , Vitamina D , Humanos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Colite Ulcerativa/sangue , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/sangue , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Masculino , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/sangue , Adulto , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Hexosaminidases
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(8): 707, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970695

RESUMO

Microplastics (MP) are omnipresent in a wide range of environments, constituting a potential threat for aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Effects in consumers range from physical injuries to pathological reactions. Due to potential bioaccumulation of MP, predators are of particular concern for MP induced health effects. The Eurasian otter is an apex predator in (semi-)aquatic habitats feeding primarily on fish. Furthermore, the species is classified as "near threatened" on the IUCN Red List. Thus, the Eurasian otter is of conservation concern and may serve as a bioindicator for MP pollution. Feces can be used to detect pollutants, including MP. Initial studies confirmed the presence of MP in otter feces (= spraints). However, as specific, validated protocols targeting at an efficient and standardized extraction of MP from otter spraints are missing, experimental results reported from different groups are challenging to compare. Therefore, we (i) present steps towards a standardized protocol for the extraction of MP from otter feces, (ii) give recommendations for field sample collection of otter spraints, and (iii) provide a user-friendly step-by-step workflow for MP extraction and analysis. Applying this framework to field samples from five study sites along the River Inn (n = 50), we detected MP of different sizes and shapes (ranging from microfibers to road abrasion and tire wear) in all otter spraint samples.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Microplásticos , Lontras , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Fezes/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Microplásticos/análise
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 297, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Listeriosis is a global health threat to both animals and humans, especially in developing countries. This study was designed to isolate Listeria monocytogenes from faeces; environmental samples; and cow, sheep and goat milk, as well as human stool, to study its molecular characteristics and antibiotic sensitivity in the New Valley and Beheira Governorates, Egypt. The isolation and identification of L. monocytogenes were carried out using traditional culture and biochemical methods, followed by antibiography, genus confirmation of some isolates and detection and sequencing of InlB genes via PCR. RESULTS: Out of 2097 examined samples, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes was 13.4% in animals; the prevalence was 9.2%, 2.4%, 25.4%, 4%, 42.4%, and 6.4% in cattle faeces, cattle milk, sheep faeces, sheep milk, goat faeces, and goat milk, respectively. However, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes was 8.3% in human samples. Both animal and human isolates showed 100% resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and the isolates showed the highest sensitivity to flumequine (100%), amikacin (99.2%), gentamicin (97.6%), and levofloxacin (94.6%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was detected in 86.9% of the tested isolates. The 16 S rRNA and inlB genes were detected in 100% of the randomly selected L. monocytogenes isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of three isolates based on the inlB gene showed 100% identity between faecal, milk and human stool isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Faeces and milk are major sources of listeriosis, and the high degree of genetic similarity between animal and human isolates suggests the possibility of zoonotic circulation. The high prevalence of MDR L. monocytogenes in both animal and human samples could negatively impact the success of prevention and treatments for animal and human diseases, thereby imposing serious risks to public health.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Fezes , Cabras , Listeria monocytogenes , Listeriose , Leite , Animais , Egito/epidemiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Prevalência , Ovinos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Fezes/microbiologia , Listeriose/veterinária , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Listeriose/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 300, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is an important zoonotic microorganism that can cause animal and human infections, however information about the prevalence status in wild birds of this pathogenic bacterium is currently limited. RESULT: In this study, 57 strains of C. perfringens were isolated from 328 fecal samples of wild birds. All the isolates were identified as type A and 70.18% of the isolates carried the cpb2 gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that and 22.80% of the isolates were classified as multidrug-resistant strains. The MLST analysis of the 57 isolates from wild birds was categorized into 55 different sequence types (STs) and clustered into eight clonal complexes (CCs) with an average of 20.1 alleles and the Simpson Diversity index (Ds) of 0.9812, and revealed a high level of genetic diversity within the C. perfringens populations. Interestingly, the isolates from swan goose were clustered in the same CC while isolates from other bird species were more scattered suggesting that a potential difference in genetic diversity among the C. perfringens populations associated with different bird species. CONCLUSION: C. perfringens exhibits a wide range of host adaptations, varying degrees of antimicrobial resistance, and a high degree of genetic diversity in wild birds. Understanding the prevalence, toxin type, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic diversity of C. perfringens in wildlife populations is essential for developing effective strategies for disease control and management.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Aves , Infecções por Clostridium , Clostridium perfringens , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Variação Genética , Clostridium perfringens/genética , Clostridium perfringens/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium perfringens/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aves/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária
20.
Gut Microbes ; 16(1): 2375483, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38972056

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer has a dismal prognosis, as it is often diagnosed at stage IV of the disease and is characterized by metastatic spread. Gut microbiota and its metabolites have been suggested to influence the metastatic spread by modulating the host immune system or by promoting angiogenesis. To date, the gut microbial profiles of metastatic and non-metastatic patients need to be explored. Taking advantage of the 16S metagenomic sequencing and the PEnalized LOgistic Regression Analysis (PELORA) we identified clusters of bacteria with differential abundances between metastatic and non-metastatic patients. An overall increase in Gram-negative bacteria in metastatic patients compared to non-metastatic ones was identified using this method. Furthermore, to gain more insight into how gut microbes can predict metastases, a machine learning approach (iterative Random Forest) was performed. Iterative Random Forest analysis revealed which microorganisms were characterized by a different level of relative abundance between metastatic and non-metastatic patients and established a functional relationship between the relative abundance and the probability of having metastases. At the species level, the following bacteria were found to have the highest discriminatory power: Anaerostipes hadrus, Coprobacter secundus, Clostridium sp. 619, Roseburia inulinivorans, Porphyromonas and Odoribacter at the genus level, and Rhodospirillaceae, Clostridiaceae and Peptococcaceae at the family level. Finally, these data were intertwined with those from a metabolomics analysis on fecal samples of patients with or without metastasis to better understand the role of gut microbiota in the metastatic process. Artificial intelligence has been applied in different areas of the medical field. Translating its application in the field of gut microbiota analysis may help fully exploit the potential information contained in such a large amount of data aiming to open up new supportive areas of intervention in the management of cancer.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Aprendizado de Máquina , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/microbiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Feminino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fezes/microbiologia , Idoso , Metagenômica
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...