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1.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0270242, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584204

RESUMO

As estrogen level decreases with aging, the vaginal mucosa gets thinner, and collagen amount decreases. In addition, the population of Lactobacillus in the vagina declines, increasing the risk of atrophic vaginitis, bacterial vaginosis, and genitourinary symptoms in the postmenopausal women. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus-containing feminine hygiene products on vaginal microbiome and genitourinary symptoms in pre- and postmenopausal women. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial in 35 premenopausal and 35 postmenopausal healthy women. For 4 weeks, treatment 1 group (14 premenopausal and 16 postmenopausal women) used the Lactobacillus-containing feminine soap and cream, and treatment 2 group (15 premenopausal and 14 postmenopausal women) used Lactobacillus-containing feminine gel in addition to soap and cream. The remaining 6 premenopausal and 5 postmenopausal women served as controls without using any products. We then compared the changes in the vaginal microbiota, genitourinary symptoms, and other related biomarkers after completion of treatment. Vaginal pH and pathogenic flora were reduced in both treatment groups compared to control group, which was more significant in the treatment 2 group of postmenopausal women. Genitourinary symptoms significantly improved in 60% of premenopausal women in treatment 1 group and 81.3% of postmenopausal women in treatment 2 group, compared to control group (0%, p = 0.043 and p<0.01 respectively). Overactive bladder symptom scores were significantly improved after using the products in eleven out of twelve postmenopausal women suspected of having overactive bladder. The use of Lactobacillus-containing feminine products was associated with improved vaginal ecosystem and urogenital health compared to control group, especially in those women using feminine gel.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Pós-Menopausa , Projetos Piloto , Sabões , Vagina/microbiologia , Produtos de Higiene Feminina
4.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 31(2): 210-218, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491105

RESUMO

Background: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been detected in feminine hygiene products (FHPs), especially in tampons and sanitary pads. However, little is known about whether menstrual products can contribute to VOC exposure in women. Our objectives were to: (1) examine the variations of urinary VOC concentrations during menstrual cycles; (2) evaluate the relationships between the use of menstrual products and urinary VOC concentrations; and (3) link urinary VOC concentrations to those measured in menstrual products. Methods: We measured urinary concentrations of 98 target VOCs in 25 reproductive-aged women with 100 repeated measures collected between October 2018 and February 2019. First-morning-void urine samples were collected four times for each woman during one menstrual cycle. Urinary VOC concentrations were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Results: Of 98 target VOCs measured in the urine samples, 36 VOCs were detected. We did not see statistically significant variations in VOC concentrations across the menstrual cycle. After multivariable adjustment, tampon users had significantly higher concentrations of 2-butanone (ß = 1.58 log ng/g, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16-3.00, p = 0.03) and methyl isobutyl ketone (ß = 0.63 log ng/g, 95% CI: 0.03-1.22, p = 0.04), compared with pad users. Higher n-nonane, benzene, and toluene estimated from menstrual products were associated with higher urinary concentrations in women. Conclusion: The use of FHPs during menses might be a potential source of VOCs. A larger cohort study is warranted to confirm our results and evaluate clinical implications.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Produtos de Higiene Feminina , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual , Projetos Piloto
5.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 9(5): e00787, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609059

RESUMO

Lactobacilli are the predominant microorganisms of the healthy human vagina. A novel alternative for the prevention and treatment of female urogenital tract infections (UGTI) is the inclusion of these microorganisms as active pharmaceutical ingredients in probiotic formulas, and more recently in female hygienic products. Probiotics are defined as "live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host." A list of requirements must be considered during the development of probiotic product/formula for the female urogenital tract (UGT). This review aims to resume the requirements, probiotic characteristics, and clinical trial applied to determine the effect of probiotic and potentially probiotic strains on different woman's physiological and pathological conditions, and in preterm birth prevention. A revision of female hygienic products available in the world market is included, together with novel studies applying nanotechnology for Lactobacillus incorporation in hygienic products. Further studies and well-designed clinical trials are urgently required to complement the current knowledge and applications of probiotics in the female UGT. The use of probiotic formulas and products will improve and restore the ecological equilibrium of the UGT microbiome to prevent and treat UGTI in women under different conditions.


Assuntos
Produtos de Higiene Feminina/microbiologia , Lactobacillus , Microbiota , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Vagina/microbiologia , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/terapia , Portador Sadio/terapia , Cesárea , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/microbiologia , Humanos , Nanotecnologia , Nascimento Prematuro/microbiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estreptocócicas/terapia , Streptococcus agalactiae , Vaginite por Trichomonas/terapia , Sistema Urinário/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/terapia
7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(9): 1660-1668, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genital powder use is more common among African-American women; however, studies of genital powder use and ovarian cancer risk have been conducted predominantly in White populations, and histotype-specific analyses among African-American populations are limited. METHODS: We used data from five studies in the Ovarian Cancer in Women of African Ancestry consortium. Participants included 620 African-American cases, 1,146 African-American controls, 2,800 White cases, and 6,735 White controls who answered questions on genital powder use prior to 2014. The association between genital powder use and ovarian cancer risk by race was estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of ever genital powder use for cases was 35.8% among African-American women and 29.5% among White women. Ever use of genital powder was associated with higher odds of ovarian cancer among African-American women [OR = 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.97-1.53] and White women (OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.19-1.57). In African-American women, the positive association with risk was more pronounced among high-grade serous tumors (OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.01-1.71) than with all other histotypes (OR = 1.05; 95% CI = 0.75-1.47). In White women, a significant association was observed irrespective of histotype (OR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.12-1.56 and OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.15-1.66, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: While genital powder use was more prevalent among African-American women, the associations between genital powder use and ovarian cancer risk were similar across race and did not materially vary by histotype. IMPACT: This is one of the largest studies to date to compare the associations between genital powder use and ovarian cancer risk, overall and by histotype, between African-American and White women.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/etnologia , Produtos de Higiene Feminina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Talco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Pós/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Prim Care ; 48(1): 117-129, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516417

RESUMO

Women's health is largely influenced by cultural beliefs, local traditions, and access to care across the world. Immigrant and refugee women experience health in varied ways; prior experiences with health care and beliefs about health should be explored with women on their arrival to the United States. Topics that should be discussed include menstrual practices, contraception and beliefs about family planning, prior screening for preventable diseases, pregnancies and experiences with childbirth, sexual assault and trauma, and history of traditional practices, including female genital mutilation (dependent on area of origin).


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/organização & administração , Medicina Preventiva/organização & administração , Refugiados , Saúde da Mulher , Circuncisão Feminina/etnologia , Anticoncepção/métodos , Competência Cultural , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Feminino , Produtos de Higiene Feminina , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos
9.
Clin Ter ; 171(1): e30-e36, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346323

RESUMO

Midwives are multifaceted healthcare professionals whose competence spectrum includes a large variety of knowledge and skills going from antenatal care to education and research. The aim of this review is to suggest the future challenges midwives are going to face in the upcoming decade of this Century. COVID-19 and other infections will reasonably impact healthcare workers all over the world. Midwives are frontline healthcare professionals who are constantly at risk of contagion as their job implies close contact with women, physical support and hand touch. Also, menstruation waste plays a large role in the pollution of waters, severely impacting hygiene in the developing countries and fueling climate change. Appropriate disposal of used menstrual material is still insufficient in many countries of the world especially because of lack of sanitary education on girls. As educators, midwives will be more involved into preventing inappropriate disposal of menstrual hygiene devices by educating girls around the world about the green alternatives to the commercial ones. Despite the evidences about the fertility decrement that occurs with aging, women keep postponing reproduction and increasing their chance being childless or suffering complications related to the advanced maternal age. Teen pregnancies are as well an important issue for midwives who will be called to face more age-related issues and use a tailored case to case approach, enhancing their family planning skills. Another crucial role of midwifery regards the information about the risk of drinking alcohol during gestation. Alcohol assumption during pregnancy is responsible for serious damage to the fetus causing a wide range of pathological conditions related to Fetal Alcoholic Spectrum Disorder, leading cause of mental retardation in children of western countries. On the whole, midwives have demonstrated their willingness to expand their practice through continuing professional development, and through specialist and advanced roles especially in preventive and educational positions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , COVID-19 , Educação em Saúde , Idade Materna , Tocologia , Adolescente , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Mudança Climática , Feminino , Produtos de Higiene Feminina , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gravidez na Adolescência , Papel Profissional , Eliminação de Resíduos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 15(1): 1845924, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203319

RESUMO

Background: In low- and middle-income countries, women and girls experience menstrual hygiene management-related health and social challenges such as urinary tract infections, social stigma, and school and workplace absenteeism. Purpose: In this study, we sought to explore how adolescent girls in rural Thirumalaikodi, Tamil Nadu, India experience menarche and menstruation, how their experiences connect to the sociocultural context, and what strategies they use to manage menstruation. This study also informed the adaptation and development of a school-based water, sanitation, and hygiene intervention. Methods: We conducted ten semi-structured qualitative interviews with adolescent girls in ninth standard from June-July 2018. Data were analysed using a thematic network approach. Results: Findings revealed that menarche inaugurates biological transitions of puberty and cultural codes that shape gender norms. Gender norms in turn generate, maintain, and reproduce stigmatizing attitudes, beliefs, and practices that influenced the development of coping mechanisms at home and at school. Resulting adaptations to the intervention consisted of two activities (school lesson and an extracurricular activity) that address knowledge gaps and myths. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the importance of qualitative research in unpacking adolescent girls' experiences with menarche and menstruation. Study findings also show how formative research can contribute to the adaptation and development of a contextually and culturally-relevant water, sanitation, and hygiene intervention.


Assuntos
Menarca/psicologia , Menstruação/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Produtos de Higiene Feminina , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Higiene/educação , Higiene/normas , Índia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estigma Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Abastecimento de Água/normas
11.
Environ Int ; 144: 105740, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866732

RESUMO

Feminine hygiene products (FHPs) are used on highly permeable and sensitive vaginal and vulvar tissues by many women. These products contain a variety of chemicals, and few regulations require disclosure of their ingredients. The objectives of this study are to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may be present in these products and to evaluate the potential for exposure and health risk associated with product use. We collected 79 commercially available FHPs, including washes, tampons, menstrual pads, wipes, sprays, powders and moisturizers, and analyzed their composition using purge and trap sampling, thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Exposures and risks were modeled using reasonable upper bound exposure scenarios. The highest VOC concentrations (as total target VOCs) were found in washes, sprays and powders, with median concentrations from 25,000 to 34,000 ng/g. Benzene (maximum: 3,604 ng/g) was detected in 83% of the collected products, and 1,4-dioxane (maximum: 24,354 ng/g) in 50% of the products. VOC composition depended on the FHP type, manufacturer and brand. Products labeled as "organic," "natural," or "for sensitive skin" did not necessarily have lower VOC concentrations. For most FHPs, calculated risks were low; however, menstrual pads had hazard ratios of up to 11, sprays and powders had hazard ratios of up to 2.2 and excess cancer risks of up to 2.1 × 10-6, and washes had excess cancer risks of up to 3.3 × 10-6. Our data suggest that all tested FHPs contained some toxic VOCs, and that risks of using some products should be addressed. We recommend the elimination of toxic ingredients and the disclosure of all chemicals that are used in these products.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Produtos de Higiene Feminina , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 248: 116763, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919559

RESUMO

The main intent of this investigation was to retain the strength and superabsorbency of natural and non-toxic biodegradable polymers using an innovative combination of cross-linkers for application as the absorbent core of sanitary napkins. For this, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) and starch were blend to form membranes by phase inversion and lyophilisation, using an optimized cross-linker combination of sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) and aluminium sulphate (AlS). Optimal cross-linking of NaCMC and starch hampered membrane dissolution and disintegration, yielding a microtextured surface morphology. The membranes were biodegradable and yet possessed the requisite flexibility and mechanical strength for the proposed application, without compromise of superabsorbency. Lyophilised membranes possessed higher immediate water and blood sorption with ∼50% water retention capabilities when compared to the phase inversion technology. The results suggest that the developed membranes can be a cost-effective degradable alternative to the commercial polyacrylate-based nonbiodegradable sanitary products.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/química , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Polifosfatos/química , Amido/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Reagentes de Ligações Cruzadas/química , Feminino , Produtos de Higiene Feminina , Humanos , Membranas Artificiais
14.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e035914, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727738

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The importance of menstrual health has been historically neglected, mostly due to taboos and misconceptions around menstruation and androcentrism within health knowledge and health systems around the world. There has also been a lack of attention on 'period poverty', which refers to the financial, social, cultural and political barriers to access menstrual products and education. The main aim of this research is to explore menstrual health and experiences of period poverty among young people who menstruate (YPM). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a convergent mixed-methods study, which will combine a quantitative transversal study to identify the prevalence of period poverty among YPM (11-16 years old), and a qualitative study that will focus on exploring menstruation-related experiences of YPM and other groups (young people who do not menstruate (YNM); primary healthcare professionals; educators and policy-makers). The study will be conducted in the Barcelona metropolitan area between 2020 and 2021. Eighteen schools and 871 YPM will be recruited for the quantitative study. Sixty-five YPM will participate in the qualitative study. Forty-five YNM and 12 professionals will also be recruited to take part in the qualitative study. Socioeconomic and cultural diversity will be main vectors for recruitment, to ensure the findings are representative to the social and cultural context. Descriptive statistics will be performed for each variable to identify asymmetric distributions and differences among groups will be evaluated. Thematic analysis will be used for qualitative data analyses ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Several ethical issues have been considered, especially as this study includes the participation of underage participants. The study has received ethical approval by the IDIAPJGol Research Ethics Committee (19/178 P). Research findings will be disseminated to key audiences, such as YPM, YNM, parents/legal tutors, health professionals, educators, youth (and other relevant) organisations, general community members, stakeholders and policy-makers, and academia.


Assuntos
Produtos de Higiene Feminina , Educação em Saúde , Menstruação , Pessoal Administrativo , Adolescente , Criança , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Menstruação/etnologia , Política , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Professores Escolares , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Clin Obstet Gynecol ; 63(3): 479-485, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282354

RESUMO

Vulvovaginitis is a common gynecologic complaint in prepubertal girls. It typically presents with complaints of vulvovaginal itching, burning, irritation, discharge, or skin changes. Prepubertal females have anatomic, physiological, and behavioral factors that most often contribute to the development of symptoms. Careful attention to history and associated complaints will direct evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment. Most cases are nonspecific in origin and treatment includes counseling to patients and parents on hygiene and voiding techniques. Antibiotic treatment for specific pathogens may be indicated. Other less common causes include foreign bodies and lichen sclerosus.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Exame Ginecológico/métodos , Higiene/educação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Desenvolvimento Sexual/fisiologia , Vulvovaginite , Criança , Feminino , Produtos de Higiene Feminina , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Micção/fisiologia , Vulvovaginite/metabolismo , Vulvovaginite/microbiologia , Vulvovaginite/fisiopatologia , Vulvovaginite/terapia
16.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 71(2): 163-177, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126324

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo: realizar una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura para evaluar la aceptabilidad y seguridad de la copa menstrual como producto de higiene genital femenina. Materiales y métodos: se realizó búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, PopLine y Google Scholar, desde 1966 hasta julio de 2019. Se utilizaron los términos: "Menstrual" AND "Cup" OR "Copa" AND "Menstrual". Se incluyeron estudios cuantitativos, cualitativos y mixtos, series y reportes de caso publicados en inglés y español que hubieran evaluado la copa menstrual en mujeres en edad reproductiva. Los estudios fueron selecciona- dos y los datos fueron extraídos por dos evaluadores de manera independiente. Como resultado primario se evaluó la aceptabilidad y seguridad. La síntesis de información se presenta de manera narrativa. Resultados: se encontraron 737 títulos para revisión inicial. Finalmente, se incluyeron 38 estudios. La copa menstrual tiene una aceptabilidad que varía entre el 35 y el 90 %. Del 10 al 45 % la encontraron difícil de usar. Fue descrita como más cómoda comparada con el tampón y la toalla higiénica de fabricación industrial. La continuidad de su uso está entre el 48 y el 94 %. En cuanto a la seguridad se presentó un caso de síndrome de choque tóxico, uno de atrapamiento mecánico, uno de alergia al producto y mayor riesgo de expulsión en usuarias del dispositivo intrauterino. Conclusión: la copa menstrual es una alternativa cómoda, segura y eficiente para la higiene mens- trual. Se requieren más estudios controlados alea- torizados y cohortes prospectivas a largo plazo para determinar el riesgo de complicaciones por una exagerada colonización bacteriana o menstruación retrógrada.


ABSTRACT Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the literature and assess the acceptability and safety of the menstrual cup as a feminine hygiene product. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, PopLine and Google Scholar databases for publications be- tween 1966 and July 2019. The terms ("Menstrual" AND "Cup") OR ("Copa" AND "Menstrual") were used. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed studies were included, as well as case series and case reports published in English and Spanish assessing the menstrual cup in women in childbearing age. The studies were selected and the data extracted by two reviewers working independently. Acceptability and safety were assessed as the primary result. The summary of the information is presented in narrative form. Results: Overall, 737 titles were found for initial review and, in the end, 38 studies were included in this work. The acceptability of the menstrual cup ranges between 35 % and 90 %. Between 10 to 45 % of women found it difficult to use. It was described as more comfortable when compared to tampons and pads. Continued use of the cup ranges between 48 and 94 %. In terms of safety, there was one case of toxic shock syndrome, one case of mechanical entrapment, and another case of allergy; and a higher risk of expulsion was found among intrauterine device users. Conclusion: The menstrual cup appears to be a comfortable, safe and efficient option for menstrual hygiene. Further randomized controlled studies and long-term prospective cohort studies are needed in order to determine the risk of complications due to excess bacterial colonization or retrograde menstruation.


Assuntos
Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Produtos de Higiene Feminina , Ciclo Menstrual
17.
Environ Int ; 136: 105465, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945693

RESUMO

Feminine hygiene products, a category of daily necessities, can be a source of exposure to plasticizers and antimicrobial agents in women. Nevertheless, studies on the occurrence of chemicals in feminine hygiene products have received little attention. In this study, 24 endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), comprising nine phthalates, six parabens, eight bisphenols, and triclocarban (TCC) were measured in seven categories of feminine hygiene products (i.e., pads, panty liners, tampons, wipes, bactericidal creams and solutions, and deodorant sprays and powders; N = 77) collected in the Albany area of New York State in the United States. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DIBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), methyl paraben (MeP), and ethyl paraben (EtP) were found in all pad, panty liner, and tampon samples. Panty liners contained the highest concentrations of DMP (median: 249 ng/g), DEP (386 ng/g), DBP (393 ng/g), and DIBP (299 ng/g) and tampons contained the highest concentrations of DEHP (267 ng/g). MeP, EtP, and propyl paraben (PrP) were the major parabens found in feminine hygiene products. Bactericidal creams and solutions contained median concentrations of MeP, EtP and PrP at 2840, 734, and 278 ng/g, respectively. The estimated exposure doses of phthalates, parabens, and bisphenols through the dermal absorption pathway from the use of pads, panty liners, and tampons were significant. In comparison with the exposure doses reported previously from other sources and pathways, the significance of feminine hygiene products as sources of EDC exposure was delineated. The dermal absorption doses from the use of feminine hygiene products, under different exposure scenarios, were 0.19-27.9% and 0.01-6.2% of the total exposure doses of phthalates and bisphenols, respectively. This is the first study to report the occurrence of phthalates, parabens, bisphenols, and TCC in feminine hygiene products from the United States.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Exposição Ambiental , Produtos de Higiene Feminina , Parabenos , Ácidos Ftálicos , Carbanilidas/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Feminino , Produtos de Higiene Feminina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , New York , Parabenos/toxicidade , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Estados Unidos
19.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 29(1): 65-73, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532304

RESUMO

Background: Feminine hygiene products (FHPs) are personal care products widely used by women. A few studies have detected some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in FHPs, but no previous epidemiological studies have linked use of these products to human exposure to VOCs using biomarkers. Therefore, we evaluated whether the use of FHPs was associated with VOC exposures among reproductive-aged women in the United States. Materials and Methods: Data on 2432 women aged 20-49 years from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004 were utilized. Self-reported use of feminine products (tampons, sanitary napkins, vaginal douches, sprays, powders, wipes/towelettes, and other products) was obtained from questionnaires. Survey-weighted linear regression models were used to estimate percent changes in VOC whole blood concentrations and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Black women had significantly more use of vaginal douching and significantly higher whole blood concentrations of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB) (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for confounders, we observed a dose-response relationship between the frequency of vaginal douching in the past 6 months and 1,4-DCB concentrations. Compared with never users, women with occasional use (≤1 time/month) of vaginal douching had 18% (95% CI: -12% to 59%) higher concentrations, and those with frequent use (≥2 time/month) had 81% (95% CI: 2% to 221%) higher concentrations of 1,4-DCB (p for trend = 0.04). Use of feminine powder in the past month was significantly associated with 36% (95% CI: 0.4% to 83%) higher concentrations of ethylbenzene. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that differences in whole blood VOC concentrations might be explained by feminine hygiene practices. The presence of environmental chemicals in FHPs warrants further examination.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos de Higiene Feminina/efeitos adversos , Ducha Vaginal/efeitos adversos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/sangue , Adulto , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Produtos de Higiene Feminina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Ducha Vaginal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(2): 930-937, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859481

RESUMO

Phthalates have been associated with reproductive toxicity and precocious puberty in females, but the occurrence of these toxicants in feminine hygiene products is rarely reported. In this study, eight phthalates were determined in 120 feminine hygiene products (56 feminine care products and 64 sanitary napkins) collected from China. Phthalates were found in 86% and 98% of feminine care products and sanitary napkins, respectively, with the total concentrations varying between not detectable and 813 µg/g (median: 0.26 µg/g) and 0.25 and 8.76 µg/g (1.43 µg/g), respectively. Diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate were the major compounds, accounting for >60% of the total concentrations. The plastic materials used on the top and bottom layers and the hot melt adhesive used during the manufacturing process are the potential sources of phthalates in sanitary napkins. The range of daily exposure doses of phthalates in women from the use of feminine care products and sanitary napkins was <0.001-0.156 µg/kg-bw/day and <0.001-0.731 µg/kg-bw/day, respectively. Sanitary napkins contributed to 8.2% of the total exposure, and the levels of exposure to several phthalates from sanitary napkins were much higher than those reported from indoor dust ingestion but were lower than those of dietary intakes. Our study confirmed a new source of women's exposure to phthalates, sanitary napkins.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Ácidos Ftálicos , China , Dibutilftalato , Poeira , Feminino , Produtos de Higiene Feminina , Humanos
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