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1.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 33(2): 194-199, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38794979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Feeding intolerance (FI) is a common problem in late preterm infants (34 weeks ≤ gestational age < 37 weeks). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of phentolamine combined with B vitamins in treating FI in late preterm infants and to explore its effects on gastrointestinal symptoms, inflammation and complications. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We randomly assigned 118 late preterm infants with FI to a treatment group (n = 56) or a control group (n = 62). The treatment group received intravenous phentolamine and intramuscular B vitamins, whereas the control group received basic treatment only. We measured the time of disappearance of gastrointestinal symptoms, the time of basal at-tainment, the time of hospitalisation, the incidence of complications, the concentrations of inflammatory markers and the overall effective rate of treatment. RESULTS: The treatment group had a shorter duration of gastrointestinal symptoms than did the control group (p < 0.01). The treatment group also had lower concentrations of inflammatory markers and a higher overall effective rate than did the control group (p < 0.05). There was no difference between the two groups in the time of hospitalisation, basal attainment, weight re-covery and the incidence of complications (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Phentolamine and B vitamins can reduce gastrointestinal symptoms and inflammation in late preterm infants with FI but do not affect the occurrence of complications.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Fentolamina , Complexo Vitamínico B , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Feminino , Fentolamina/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico , Intolerância Alimentar , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Discov Med ; 36(182): 581-590, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phentolamine is an α-adrenergic receptor blocker that can be used to treat neonatal pneumonia, but its underlying mechanism is unclear. The purpose of this study is to probe the function of phentolamine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and cell death in an in vitro model of neonatal pneumonia. METHODS: Human MRC-5 cells were incubated with varying doses of phentolamine in vitro to evaluate cell viability. Subsequently, LPS was introduced to further investigate the combined effects of phentolamine and LPS on cell viability and apoptosis in MRC-5 cells. The effect of phentolamine/LPS treatment on the Neurotrophic Tyrosine Kinase Receptor A (TrkA)/Protein Kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway and the phosphorylation of pathway proteins in MRC-5 cells was further analyzed via western blot. Additionally, knockout of TrkA and Akt genes in MRC-5 cells was performed to explore the effects of phentolamine/LPS treatment on cell viability, apoptosis levels, and inflammatory factor levels in MRC-5 cells. RESULTS: Preincubation of MRC-5 cells with a low concentration of phentolamine (≤6 µg/mL) protected against LPS-induced cell inflammatory injury. Phentolamine promoted both TrkA and Akt phosphorylation and Akt activation induced by LPS in MRC-5 cells. The protective effect of phentolamine against LPS-induced apoptosis and inflammation was significantly reduced in response to TrkA or Akt gene knockdown in MRC-5 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Phentolamine may protect LPS-induced apoptosis and inflammation by activating the TrkA and Akt signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , Pneumonia , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/farmacologia , Fentolamina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Inflamação/metabolismo , Apoptose
4.
J Insect Physiol ; 152: 104597, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38072185

RESUMO

Insects' thermoregulatory processes depend on thermosensation and further processing of thermal information in the nervous system. It is commonly known that thermosensation involves thermoreceptors, including members of the TRP receptor family, but the involvement of neurotransmitters in thermoregulatory pathways remains unstudied. We conducted test to determine whether octopamine, a biogenic amine that acts as a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in insects, is involved in TRP-induced thermoregulatory responses in Periplaneta americana. We used capsaicin, an activator of the heat-sensitive TRP channel, Painless, to induce thermoregulatory response in cockroaches. Then, we evaluated the behavioural (thermal preferences and grooming), physiological (heart rate) and biochemical responses of insects to capsaicin, octopamine and phentolamine - octopaminergic receptor blocker. Capsaicin, similar to octopamine, increased cockroaches' grooming activity and heart rate. Moreover, octopamine level and protein kinase A (PKA) activity significantly increased after capsaicin treatment. Blocking octopaminergic receptors with phentolamine diminished cockroaches' response to capsaicin - thermoregulatory behaviour, grooming and heart rate were abolished. The results indicate that octopamine is a neurotransmitter secreted in insects after the activation of heat receptors.


Assuntos
Baratas , Periplaneta , Animais , Periplaneta/fisiologia , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Octopamina/farmacologia , Octopamina/metabolismo , Fentolamina/farmacologia , Baratas/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo
5.
Am J Emerg Med ; 77: 233.e5-233.e7, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38155033

RESUMO

Naphazoline, a nonspecific alpha-adrenoceptor stimulant, is a potent vasoconstrictor used in nasal sprays, eye drops, and over-the-counter antiseptics. Naphazoline intoxication increases afterload by constricting the peripheral arteries, which can lead to complications including multiple organ failure. Although phentolamine, a nonselective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist, and nicardipine, a calcium channel blocker, are used for the treatment of naphazoline intoxication, no established administration protocols currently exist. We present the case of a 32-year-old male with depression who ingested 150 mL of an antiseptic containing 0.1% naphazoline (equivalent to 150 mg of naphazoline). Five hours after ingestion, the patient was admitted to hospital exhibiting signs of naphazoline intoxication, such as bradycardia (46 beats/min), blood pressure of 166/122 mmHg, and peripheral cyanosis. We used the FloTrac™/EV1000™ system (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA), a minimally invasive cardiac output monitoring system, to monitor systemic vascular resistance. The systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) was elevated (4457 dyne.s/cm5/m2; nomal range: 1970-2390 dyne.s/cm5/m2) upon admission and initial treatment with continuous intravenous infusion of phentolamine led to SVRI normalization within 2 h. With the goal of maintaining SVRI normalization, continuous infusion with nicardipine was then started. At 10 h after treatment initiation, the nicardipine dose peaked at 9 mg/h (1.9 µg/kg/min). Treatment was discontinued 8 h later, and the patient was discharged on the fourth day without sequelae. In conclusion, the use of a minimally invasive cardiac output monitoring system to track vascular resistance can effectively guide the dosing of phentolamine or nicardipine in the treatment of naphazoline intoxication.


Assuntos
Nafazolina , Nicardipino , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Fentolamina , Débito Cardíaco , Receptores Adrenérgicos
7.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 23(3): 101861, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37689448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present paper is to summarize the effectiveness of Phentolamine mesylate on the reversal of local anesthesia (LA). METHODOLOGY: Seven electronic databases were searched for randomized clinical trials in patients who received LA (population) and either received a Phentolamine injection (intervention) after LA compared to placebo or sham (control) to cause a return of normal sensation (outcome). Risk of bias assessment was performed using Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool 2.0. The hazard ratio (HR) was calculated as the event (time to return to the normal sensation) was a time-dependent event, as well as the weighted mean difference (WMD), was computed. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to assess the certainty of the evidence. RESULTS: Ten studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in this review. After pooling the results quantitatively, the value of the HR in the tongue was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.41-0.75, P<.001); in lower lip, the value was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.38-0.83, P = .004) and for upper lip, the value was 0.50 (95% CI: 0.31-0.80, P = .004). The WMD for the time to return for normal sensation was -47.71 min for the tongue (95% CI: -73.63 to -21.80 min, P<.001), -73.29 min for lower lip (95% CI: -88.41 to -58.16 min, P<.001) and -86.86 min for upper lip (95% CI: -101.16 to -72.57 min, P<.001). There is a high certainty of evidence that patients who have been administered local anesthesia may achieve faster recovery of normal sensation in tongue, and moderate certainty of evidence for return of normal sensation in lower lip and upper lip, if Phentolamine was administered after the local anesthesia. The adverse effects were reported in a few studies and were minor, not necessitating any medical intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Phentolamine might be a useful adjunct in patients who desire an earlier return of normal sensation and function after local anesthesia. Future research should be directed to study the cost-effectiveness or dental patient-reported outcomes of Phentolamine after local anesthetic injections.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local , Anestésicos Locais , Humanos , Fentolamina/farmacologia , Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 253(Pt 7): 127089, 2023 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37774815

RESUMO

Increasing attention to peptides as prospective therapeutics has created a renaissance in searching for new alternatives to the current peptide synthetic approaches as well as their modification. In this context, it is necessary to develop different approaches for peptide ligation. Using enzymes as a novel strategy and powerful tool for the peptide and protein ligation has recently received a lot of attention. We here designed a fully convergent chemo-enzymatic peptide synthesis (CEPS) process for the synthesis of aviptadil a 28-mer therapeutic peptide with potential therapeutic effects in various medical contexts specially in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) by coupling two peptide segments with four different peptiligase variants in aqueous environments. Our study reveals that peptiligase variants are capable of ligation reaction in 15 min. The overall time of ligation is shorter than those peptides with similar lengths and hinderance to aviptadil which reported for conventional synthesis by full solid-phase peptide synthesis. Yields ranged from 54 % to 76 %.


Assuntos
Proteínas , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo , Fentolamina , Combinação de Medicamentos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(13)2023 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37446027

RESUMO

This study aimed to elucidate the vasodilatory effects and cytotoxicity of various vasodilators used as antispasmodic agents during microsurgical anastomosis. Rat smooth muscle cells (RSMCs) and human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were used to investigate the physiological concentrations and cytotoxicity of various vasodilators (lidocaine, papaverine, nitroglycerin, phentolamine, and orciprenaline). Using a wire myograph system, we determined the vasodilatory effects of each drug in rat abdominal aortic sections at the concentration resulting in maximal vasodilation as well as at the surrounding concentrations 10 min after administration. Maximal vasodilation effect 10 min after administration was achieved at the following concentrations: lidocaine, 35 mM; papaverine, 0.18 mM; nitroglycerin, 0.022 mM; phentolamine, 0.11 mM; olprinone, 0.004 mM. The IC50 for lidocaine, papaverine, and nitroglycerin was measured in rat abdominal aortic sections, as well as in RSMCs after 30 min and in HCAECs after 10 min. Phentolamine and olprinone showed no cytotoxicity towards RSMCs or HCAECs. The concentrations of the various drugs required to achieve vasodilation were lower than the reported clinical concentrations. Lidocaine, papaverine, and nitroglycerin showed cytotoxicity, even at lower concentrations than those reported clinically. Phentolamine and olprinone show antispasmodic effects without cytotoxicity, making them useful candidates for local administration as antispasmodics.


Assuntos
Papaverina , Parassimpatolíticos , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Parassimpatolíticos/farmacologia , Papaverina/farmacologia , Nitroglicerina/farmacologia , Fentolamina/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais , Microcirurgia , Músculo Liso Vascular , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Vasodilatação , Miócitos de Músculo Liso , Lidocaína/farmacologia
10.
Anesth Prog ; 70(2): 58-64, 2023 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37379094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the involvement of α1- and ß2-adrenergic receptors in skeletal muscle blood flow changes during variations in ETCO2. METHODS: Forty Japanese White rabbits anesthetized with isoflurane were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 groups: phentolamine, metaproterenol, phenylephrine, butoxamine, and atropine. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), common carotid artery blood flow (CCBF), masseter muscle tissue blood flow (MBF), and quadriceps muscle tissue blood flow (QBF) were recorded and analyzed at 3 periods: (1) baseline, (2) during hypercapnia (phentolamine and metaproterenol groups) or hypocapnia (phenylephrine, butoxamine, and atropine groups), and (3) during or after receiving vasoactive agents. RESULTS: MBF and QBF decreased during hypercapnia. The decrease in MBF was smaller than that in QBF. SBP and CCBF increased, while HR decreased. Both MBF and QBF recovered to their baseline levels after phentolamine administration. MBF became greater than its baseline level, while QBF did not fully recover after metaproterenol administration. MBF and QBF increased during hypocapnia. The increase rate in MBF was larger than that in QBF. HR, SBP, and CCBF did not change. Both MBF and QBF decreased to ∼90% to 95% of their baseline levels after phenylephrine or butoxamine administration. Atropine showed no effects on MBF and QBF. CONCLUSION: These results suggest the skeletal muscle blood flow changes observed during hypercapnia and hypocapnia may mainly involve α1-adrenergic but not ß2-adrenergic receptor activity.


Assuntos
Hipercapnia , Hipocapnia , Animais , Coelhos , Fentolamina/farmacologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta , Butoxamina , Pressão Sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Metaproterenol , Derivados da Atropina , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional
11.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 23(1): 150, 2023 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37138223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a noteworthy complication of deliberate hypotensive anesthesia. The aim of this work was to compare the effect of deliberate hypotensive anesthesia using nitroglycerine versus phentolamine on event-related potentials and cognitive function in patients undergoing septoplasty surgery. METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted on 80 patients indicated for septoplasty under general anesthesia; 40 patients received intra-operative Nitroglycerine and 40 patients received intra-operative Phentolamine. Cognitive assessment (using Paired Associate Learning test (PALT) and Benton Visual Retention test (BVRT)) and P300 recording were done for all included patients pre-operatively and one week postoperatively. RESULTS: The scores of PALT and Benton BVRT significantly declined one week following surgery in both Nitroglycerine and Phentolamine groups. There was no statistically significant difference between Nitroglycerine and Phentolamine groups in the postoperative decline in either PALT or BVRT (P-value = 0.342, 0.662 respectively). The values of P300 latency showed a significant delay one week following surgery in both Nitroglycerine and Phentolamine groups (P-value ≤ 0.001, 0.001), but in Nitroglycerine group, the delay is significantly higher than in Phentolamine group (P-value = 0.003). The values of P300 amplitude significantly decreased one week following surgery in both Nitroglycerine and Phentolamine groups (P-value ≤ 0.001, 0.001), but there was no statistically significant difference between Nitroglycerine and Phentolamine groups (P-value = 0.099). CONCLUSION: Phentolamine is preferred over nitroglycerin in deliberate hypotensive anesthesia because it has less harmful effect on cognitive function than nitroglycerin.


Assuntos
Cognição , Nitroglicerina , Humanos , Nitroglicerina/farmacologia , Fentolamina/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Anestesia Geral , Potenciais Evocados
12.
Enferm Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 34(4): 218-226, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36935306

RESUMO

Peripheral administration of norepinephrine is restricted due to the association of extravasation with tissue necrosis. METHOD: Scoping review with the objective of describing the adverse effects related to the administration of norepinephrine through short peripheral venous access and the characteristics of drug administration in patients hospitalized in ICU, surgery, and emergency services. RESULTS: 12 studies with heterogeneous characteristics by size and type of population were included. The proportion of complications associated with peripheral norepinephrine administration was less than 12% in observational studies and it was less than 2% in those that used doses less than 0.13µg/kg/min, and concentrations less than 22.3µg/mL. The main associated complication was extravasation and there were no cases of tissue necrosis at the venipuncture site, some extravasation cases were treated with phentolamine, terbutaline or topical nitroglycerin. The drug administration time ranged between 1 and 528hours with a weighted mean of 2.78h. CONCLUSION: The main adverse effect was extravasation, no additional complications occurred, phentolamine and terbutaline seem to be useful, and its availability is a necessity. It is essential for the nursing staff to carry out a close assessment and comprehensive care in patients receiving norepinephrine by peripheral route.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Norepinefrina , Humanos , Norepinefrina/efeitos adversos , Fentolamina , Terbutalina , Necrose/induzido quimicamente
13.
Pharmacol Res ; 190: 106730, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36925091

RESUMO

We reported previously that α1-adrenoceptor (α1-AR) ligands inhibit chemokine receptor (CR) heteromerization partners of α1B/D-AR. The underlying mechanisms are unknown and in vivo evidence for such effects is missing. Utilizing CCR2 and α1B-AR as prototypical partners, we observed in recombinant systems and THP-1 cells that α1B-AR enhanced whereas its absence inhibited Gαi signaling of CCR2. Phenylephrine and phentolamine reduced the CCR2:α1B-AR heteromerization propensity and inhibited Gαi signaling of CCR2. Phenylephrine cross-recruited ß-arrestin-2 to CCR2, and reduced expression of α1B/D-AR, CR partners (CCR1/2, CXCR4) and corresponding heteromers. Phentolamine reduced CR:α1B/D-AR heteromers without affecting ß-arrestin-2 recruitment or receptor expression. Phenylephrine/phentolamine prevented leukocyte infiltration mediated via CR heteromerization partners in a murine air pouch model. Our findings document that α1-AR ligands inhibit leukocyte migration mediated by CR heteromerization partners in vivo and suggest interference with α1B-AR:CR heteromerization as a mechanism by which CR partners are inhibited. These findings provide new insights into the pharmacology of GPCR heteromers and indicate that an agonist and antagonist at one GPCR can act as antagonists at heteromerization partners of their target receptors.


Assuntos
Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1 , Receptores Adrenérgicos , Camundongos , Animais , Ligantes , Fentolamina , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , beta-Arrestina 2/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/metabolismo
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(10): e32977, 2023 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36897675

RESUMO

Adrenaline auto-injectors are the first line treatment for anaphylaxis in the community setting. Both anaphylaxis and auto-injector carriage are increasing in prevalence. Adrenaline auto-injector injuries are common and most often involve the hand or digits. Such injuries carry a risk of ischemic necrosis due to profound vasoconstriction, especially if there is undying vascular pathology such as Raynaud's disease. The effects can be readily reversed with local infiltration of phentolamine. A survey was circulated to 40 clinicians working in the emergency and hand surgery departments of a major urban center. Knowledge of adrenaline duration of action and its reversal (agent, dose and location in the hospital) was assessed. All clinicians working within the two departments were eligible for participation. Only 25% of clinicians surveyed were aware of the duration of action of adrenaline. Half were aware of the correct reversal agent and only 20% knew the correct dose. Only one person was aware of phentolamine's location within the hospital. There is relatively poor clinician knowledge surrounding adrenaline reversal and a lack of easily accessible information available about dosing and drug location within the hospital. Given the time dependent nature of adrenaline auto-injector injuries Emergency Departments should consider stocking phentolamine in an emergency drugs fridge within the department along with a dosing guide. This is likely to greatly reduce time from presentation to treatment and thus the chances of digital ischemia progressing to necrosis.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Epinefrina , Humanos , Anafilaxia/tratamento farmacológico , Fentolamina/uso terapêutico , Mãos/cirurgia , Injeções Intramusculares , Necrose
15.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 43(6): 947-961, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36703575

RESUMO

Exposure to hypoxic-ischaemia (HI) is consistently followed by a delayed fall in cerebral perfusion. In preterm fetal sheep this is associated with impaired cerebral oxygenation, consistent with mismatch between perfusion and metabolism. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that alpha-adrenergic inhibition after HI would improve cerebral perfusion, and so attenuate mismatch and reduce neural injury. Chronically instrumented preterm (0.7 gestation) fetal sheep received sham-HI (n = 10) or HI induced by complete umbilical cord occlusion for 25 minutes. From 15 minutes to 8 hours after HI, fetuses received either an intravenous infusion of a non-selective alpha-adrenergic antagonist, phentolamine (10 mg bolus, 10 mg/h infusion, n = 10), or saline (n = 10). Fetal brains were processed for histology 72 hours post-HI. Phentolamine infusion was associated with increased epileptiform transient activity and a greater fall in cerebral oxygenation in the early post-HI recovery phase. Histologically, phentolamine was associated with greater loss of oligodendrocytes and hippocampal neurons. In summary, contrary to our hypothesis, alpha-adrenergic inhibition increased epileptiform transient activity with an exaggerated fall in cerebral oxygenation, and increased neural injury, suggesting that alpha-adrenergic receptor activation after HI is an important endogenous neuroprotective mechanism.


Assuntos
Hipóxia Fetal , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica , Feminino , Humanos , Animais , Ovinos , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa/metabolismo , Fentolamina/farmacologia , Hipóxia/patologia , Isquemia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Adrenérgicos , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/patologia
16.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 324(1): H100-H108, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36459447

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates that cerebrovascular compliance contributes to the dynamic regulation of cerebral blood flow but the mechanisms regulating cerebrovascular compliance in humans are unknown. This retrospective study investigated the impact of neural, endothelial, and myogenic mechanisms on the regulation of vascular compliance in the cerebral vascular bed compared with the forearm vascular bed. An index of vascular compliance (Ci) was assessed using a Windkessel model applied to blood pressure waveforms (finger photoplethysmography) and corresponding middle cerebral artery blood velocity or brachial artery blood velocity waveforms (Doppler ultrasound). Data were analyzed during a 5-min baseline period (10 waveforms) under control conditions and during distinct sympathetic blockade (experiment 1, phentolamine; 10 adults), cholinergic blockade (experiment 2, glycopyrrolate; 9 adults), and myogenic blockade (experiment 3, nicardipine; 14 adults). In experiment 1, phentolamine increased Ci similarly in the cerebral vascular bed (131 ± 135%) and forearm vascular bed (93 ± 75%; P = 0.45). In experiment 2, glycopyrrolate increased cerebrovascular Ci (72 ± 61%) and forearm vascular Ci (74 ± 64%) to a similar extent (P = 0.88). In experiment 3, nicardipine increased Ci but to a greater extent in the cerebral vascular bed (88 ± 88%) than forearm vascular bed (20 ± 45%; P = 0.01). Therefore, adrenergic, cholinergic, and myogenic mechanisms contribute to the regulation of cerebrovascular and forearm vascular compliance. However, myogenic mechanisms appear to exert more specific control over vascular compliance in the brain relative to the forearm.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Vascular compliance represents an important determinant in the dynamics and regulation of blood flow through a vascular bed. However, the mechanisms that regulate vascular compliance remain poorly understood. This study examined the impact of neural, endothelial, and myogenic mechanisms on cerebrovascular compliance compared with forearm vascular compliance. Distinct pharmacological blockade of α-adrenergic, endothelial muscarinic, and myogenic inputs altered cerebrovascular and forearm vascular compliance. These results further our understanding of vascular control and blood flow regulation in the brain.


Assuntos
Antebraço , Nicardipino , Adulto , Humanos , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Fentolamina/farmacologia , Glicopirrolato/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pressão Sanguínea , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Adrenérgicos , Colinérgicos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional
17.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 189: 105290, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549826

RESUMO

In the last decades, the entomotoxicity of JBU and its derived peptides became an object of study, due mainly to the ubiquitous interaction of these compounds with different species of insects and their potential as natural insecticides. In this work, we investigated the neurotoxic effects of JBU in Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches by dissecting pharmacologically the monoaminergic pathways involved. Selective pharmacological modulators for monoaminergic pathways in in vivo and ex vivo experimental models were employed. Thus, the analysis of N. cinerea neurolocomotory behavior demonstrated that JBU (1.5 and 3 µg/g) induces a significant decrease in the exploratory activity. In these assays, pretreatment of animals with phentolamine, SCH23390 or reserpine, interfered significantly with the response of JBU. Using in vivo abductor metathoracic preparations JBU (1.5 µg/g) induced progressive neuromuscular blockade, in 120 min recordings. In this set of experiments, the previous treatment of the animals with phentolamine, SCH23390 or reserpine, completely inhibited JBU-induced neuromuscular blockade. The recordings of spontaneous compound neural action potentials in N. cinerea legs showed that JBU, only in the smallest dose, significantly decreased the number of potentials in 60 min recordings. When the animals were pretreated with phentolamine, SCH23390, or reserpine, but not with mianserin, there was a significant prevention of the JBU-inhibitory responses on the action potentials firing. Meanwhile, the treatment of the animals with mianserin did not affect JBU's inhibitory activity. The data presented in this work strongly suggest that the neurotoxic response of JBU in N. cinerea involves a cross talking between OCTOPAMIN-ergic and DOPAMIN-ergic nerve systems, but not the SEROTONIN-ergic neurotransmission. Further molecular biology studies with expression of insect receptors associated with voltage clamp techniques will help to discriminate the selectivity of JBU over the monoaminergic transmission.


Assuntos
Baratas , Urease , Animais , Urease/farmacologia , Fentolamina/farmacologia , Mianserina/farmacologia , Reserpina/farmacologia
18.
Comb Chem High Throughput Screen ; 26(6): 1196-1203, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35975856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 emerged in late 2019 and caused COVID-19. Patients treated with Zyesami were found to have a 3-fold decrease in respiratory failure and improved clinical outcomes. It was reported that Zyesami inhibits RNA replication of SARS-CoV-2, including several non-structural proteins essential in viral RNA replication. SARS-CoV-2 is a distinctive virus that requires nsp10 and nsp16 for its methyltransferases activity which is crucial for RNA stability and protein synthesis. OBJECTIVE: We aimed the in silico determination of inhibitory consequences of Zyesami on the SARS-CoV-2 nsp10/nsp16 complex. Targeting SARS-CoV-2 nsp10/ nsp16 protein complex may be used to develop a drug against COVID-19. METHODS: I-TASSER was used for secondary structure prediction of Zyesami. CABS-dock was used to model Zyesami with SARS-CoV-2 nsp16 interaction. The docked complex was visualized using PyMol. The quality of the docking model was checked by using ProQdock. RESULTS: The 3D structure of SARS-CoV 2, nsp10/nsp16 showed that essential interactions exist between nsp10 and nsp16. Significant contact areas of Zyesami exist across amino acid residues of nsp10; Asn40-Thr47, Val57-Pro59, Gly69-Ser72, Cys77-Pro84, Lys93-Tyr96. In addition, polar contacts between nsp16 and Zyesami are Asn299-Ser440, Val297-Asn443, Gly149-Tyr437, Gln159-Lys430, Asn178- Arg429, Ser146-Arg429, Ser146-Arg429, Lys147-Arg429, Asr221-Thr422, Lys183-Asp423, Lys183-Asp423, and Gln219-Asp423 the residues are shown of nsp16 and Zyesami respectively. CONCLUSION: The structural bioinformatics analyses have indicated the potential binding specificity of Zyesami and nsp16. Data predict how the initial binding of Zyesami with nsp10 and nsp16 may occur. Moreover, this binding could significantly inhibit the 2 -O-MTase activity of the SARSCoV nsp10/16 complex.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Fentolamina , Combinação de Medicamentos
19.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 416, 2022 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for contrast induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) patients undergoing coronary catheterization. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of phentolamine in prevention of CI-AKI in CKD and CCS patients undergoing percutaneous coronary catheterization for diagnostic angiography ± stenting. METHODS: Participants with CKD and CCS planned for percutaneous coronary catheterization were included, while participants with normal kidney functions were excluded. A consecutive sample of 107 participants (mean age 58.62 ± 8.96 years, 64.5% males) was selected, underwent diagnostic coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention, and received either conventional CI-AKI prevention strategy (group 1) or periprocedural phentolamine and conventional CI-AKI prevention strategy (group 2). RESULTS: The percentages of study participants who had CI-AKI were 82.9% for group 1 and 17.1% for group 2, respectively. The incidence rate of CI-AKI was significantly lower in group 2 versus group 1 (p <  0.001). The urine output (ml/kg) and the urine output (ml/hour) within 72 hours post procedure was significantly higher in group 2 versus group 1 (t(105) = - 0.69, p <  0.001, t(105) = - 52.46, p < 0.001, respectively), the peak change in serum creatinine and the percentage of change relative to the baseline serum creatinine at 72 hours post procedure was significantly lower in group 2 versus group 1 (t(102) = 0.2, p 0.018, t(102) = 23.54, p < 0.001, respectively), and the incidence rate of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events within 90 days post procedure was significantly lower in group 2 versus group 1 (t(102) = 1.168, P < 0.001), respectively. There was a statistically significant association of periprocedural phentolamine infusion with prevention of CI-AKI (OR = 0.041, 95% CI 0.0149-0.1128, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the potential role of phentolamine for protection of the kidney in CKD patients planned for coronary catheterization. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trial Registry Number: PACTR202209493847741. Date of Trial Registration: 22/09/2022.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Fentolamina , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos Piloto , Creatinina , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Risco , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos
20.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 238, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To observe the effect and mechanism of alpha-adrenergic receptor inhibitor phentolamine (PTL) in a rabbit model of acute pulmonary embolism (APE) combined with shock. METHODS: Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into sham operation group (S group, n = 8), model group (M group, n = 8) and PTL group (n = 8), the model of APE combined with shock was established. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), peripheral mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulmonary circulation time were evaluated. The expression levels of α1 receptor, α2 receptor and their downstream molecules in pulmonary embolism (PE) and non-pulmonary embolism (non-PE) regions lung tissues were detected and compared, respectively. RESULTS: In M group, α receptor-related signaling pathways were significantly activated in both PE and non-PE areas as expressed by up-regulated α1, α2 receptor and phospholipase C (PLC); the expression level of phosphorylated protein kinase A (p-PKA) was significantly down-regulated; myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) levels were up-regulated. PTL treatment significantly improved pulmonary as well as systemic circulation failure: decreased MPAP, restored blood flow in non-PE area, shortened pulmonary circulation time, increased MAP, and restored the circulation failure. PTL induced significantly down-regulated expression of α1 receptor and its downstream molecule PLC in both PE and non-PE area, the expression level of α2 receptor was also down-regulated, the expression level of p-PKA was significantly up-regulated. PTL treatment can inhibit both α1 and α2 receptor-related signaling pathways in whole lung tissues, and inhibit Ca2+ signaling pathways. The expression level of MLCK and α-SMA were significantly down-regulated. Compared with PE area, the changes of expression levels of α receptor and its downstream molecules were more significant in the non-PE region. CONCLUSION: In this model of APE combined with shock, the sympathetic nerve activity was enhanced in the whole lung, α1 and α2 receptor and their downstream signaling activation might mediate blood flow failure in the whole lung. PTL treatment can effectively restore pulmonary blood flow in non-PE area and improve pulmonary as well as systemic circulation failure possibly through down-regulating α1 and α2 receptor and their downstream signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Embolia Pulmonar , Choque , Animais , Coelhos , Fentolamina/farmacologia , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa
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