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1.
Theriogenology ; 177: 195-205, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757242

RESUMO

We hypothesised that heifers and cows with positive genetic merit for fertility would have a follicular microenvironment that resulted in better quality oocytes. To test this, we compared cumulus cell-oocyte complexes (COC) and follicular fluid from preovulatory follicles of 36 Holstein-Friesian nulliparous heifers and 50 primiparous lactating cows with either positive (POS, +5%) or negative (NEG, -5%) fertility breeding values (FertBV). Established gene markers of oocyte quality were measured in individual cumulus cell masses and oocytes, and concentrations of amino acids, steroids, and metabolites were quantified in corresponding follicular fluid and plasma. The timing of visually detectable oestrus in NEG FertBV heifers was inconsistent with their stage of COC maturation. Retrospective analyses of oestrous activity data indicated that NEG FertBV heifers were sampled earlier. Their recovered COC were morphologically less mature and exhibited differential expression of genes that are associated with follicular maturation (lower levels of BMPR2) and protein processing (higher levels of HSP90B1). Despite consistent sampling times being achieved in the lactating cows, lower concentrations of serine, proline, methionine, isoleucine, and non-esterified fatty acids were present in follicular fluid from POS FertBV cows. This was associated with higher expression of gene biomarkers of good oocyte quality (VCAN, PDE8A) in COC recovered from POS FertBV cows. This study supports our hypothesis that the follicular microenvironment in lactating dairy cows with high genetic merit leads to COC with higher metabolic rates and oocytes of superior quality. Moreover, an additional stressor such as lactation is required for this difference to be pronounced.


Assuntos
Lactação , Folículo Ovariano , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Fertilidade , Líquido Folicular , Oócitos , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Theriogenology ; 177: 29-33, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656834

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of supplementing Lake extender with cysteamine (CYS) on rooster semen quality in cold storage and it's fertility performance. Semen samples were diluted with Lake extender supplemented with different concentrations of CYS (0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mM) and were cooled and stored at 5 °C for a period of 46 h. Motility, membrane functionality, viability, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondria membrane potential were evaluated at 0, 23 and 46 h of storage. Fertility was assessed at 23 h of storage. Although at the beginning time (0 h), parameters were not affected, 1 mM of CYS improved (P ≤ 0.05) total motility, progressive motility and mitochondria membrane potential during 23 and 46 h storage. Moreover, 1 and 2 mM CYS improved (P ≤ 0.05) membrane functionality and viability compared to other groups. Lipid peroxidation was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in samples diluted with 1 and 2 mM CYS compared to the others. Artificial insemination with 23-hrs cooled-stored semen produced the higher (P ≤ 0.05) fertility rate in groups received 1 and 2 mM CYS compared to the control group. In conclusion, addition of 1 and 2 mM CYS to the extender could be helpful to protect rooster semen against structural and functional damages of cooling storage process.


Assuntos
Preservação do Sêmen , Sêmen , Animais , Galinhas , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Cisteamina/farmacologia , Fertilidade , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides
3.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131567, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343920

RESUMO

Soil bacterial community (SBC) and fertility are pivotal for the evaluation of phytoremediation performance. Although affected by earthworms (E) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), little is known about the impacts of the E-AMF interaction on the variation of SBC and fertility in cadmium (Cd)-spiked soil. We elucidated these impacts in rhizosphere soil of Solanum nigrum L. Loss of nutrient availability, and SBC diversity was observed in Cd-polluted soil. AMF increased available phosphorous (AP), whereas E increased available potassium (AK). In soils with 60 and 120 mg/kg Cd, the contents of AK, AP, and soil organic matter (SOM) increased by 7.0-19.7%, 23.7-25.5%, and 11.5-17.4%, respectively; and the residual Cd after remediation decreased by 7.9-8.5% in soils treated with EAM compared to untreated soil. EAM-treated soil had higher alpha diversity estimators compared to uninoculated soil. The predominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, accounting for 72.5-84.0%. Redundancy analysis showed that total carbon (TC), SOM, pH, and C/N ratio were key factors determining SBC at the phylum level, explaining 26.9, 24.1, 15.1, and 14.8% of the total variance, respectively. These results suggested that EAM affected SBC composition by altering SOM, TC, and C/N ratio. The E-AMF cooperation ameliorates soil nutrients, SBC diversity, and composition, facilitating phytoextraction processes.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micorrizas , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Fertilidade , Fungos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
4.
Urologiia ; (5): 55-58, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743432

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the morphological and functional characteristics of spermatozoa and DNA stability in patients with normal seed parameters and with an ITZ exceeding the threshold value. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 85 males were studied for semen quality parameters. The morphological anomalies of head, middle piece, and tail of spermatozoa were estimated and presented in illustrations. Due to results elaborated the index of teratozoospermia was calculated. Then the Comet assay was performed. RESULTS: It has been found that spermatozoa from patients with high teratozoospermia index possessed decreased motility as compared to ones from patients with low index of teratozoospermia. It was not found any difference in concentration of spermatozoa between groups of males which possess low and high index of teratozoospermia. The spontaneous frequency of DNA damage estimated by means of single cell gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining in spermatozoa from healthy donors did not exceed 3,1+/-0,6. The frequency of DNA damages in sperm of patients with abnormal index of teratozoospermia exceeded 39,6+/-7,4% (p<0,01). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that minor morphological changes in spermatozoa do not affect their motility, while significant morphological abnormalities with ITZ exceeding threshold values are closely associated with impaired DNA stability and dramatically reduce the quality of patients seed. SUMMARY: In the initial assessment of patient fertility the attention should be focused on a comprehensive study of sperm DNA morphology and stability.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Teratozoospermia , Fertilidade , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen , Espermatozoides , Doadores de Tecidos
5.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(11): 721-736, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758949

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The impact of lameness on fertility in dairy cows has already been investigated, however predominantely in Holstein cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of lameness during the dry period, between calving and first service and between calving and conception (days open) on selected fertility traits in Austrian Fleckvieh cows. Locomotion scoring of dairy cows was performed during the course of routine performance testing in 2014 and 2015. Using the observed maximum locomotion score (MLSC) during pre- and postcalving periods, the cows were classified into three groups: cows never lame (MLSC 1), cows that showed MLSC 2, and cows with MLSC ≥3 during these defined periods. Data sets of 3,998 lactations of 3,058 Austrian Fleckvieh cows from 97 dairy herds could be evaluated. In several statistical models the fixed effects of MLSC (1, 2, ≥ 3), farm, year and season of calving, parity*age class at calving, and early fertility disorders were considered for analysis of the traits days from calving to first insemination, interval from first to last insemination, days from calving to conception and calving interval (CI), as well as the non-return-rate90 (NRR90). Mean lameness prevalence during the dry period was 19,43 %, and reached 27,70 % in the period between calving and conception. Lameness (MLSC ≥ 3) during the dry period significantly (P = 0,030) prolonged the period between calving and conception, and lameness (MLSC ≥ 3) during the period from calving to first service had a significantly detrimental effect on the periods calving to first insemination, days open and CI (P < 0,001). Further, highly significant associations (P < 0,001) in cows showing MLSC ≥ 2 during the period between calving and conception on all fertility traits were determined. Apart from lameness, farm, year and season of calving, parity*-age class at calving, early fertility disorders and, partly, the interaction of the latter two effects significantly (P.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Coxeadura Animal , Animais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Feminino , Lactação , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Paridade , Gravidez
6.
J Helminthol ; 95: e66, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784987

RESUMO

Host-parasite coevolution may result in life-history changes in hosts that can limit the detrimental effects of parasitism. Fecundity compensation is one such life-history response, occurring when hosts increase their current reproductive output to make up for expected losses in future reproduction due to parasitic infection. However, the potential trade-offs between this increase in quantity and the quality of offspring have been relatively unexplored. This study uses the trematode, Schistosoma mansoni, and its snail intermediate host, Biomphalaria glabrata, to better understand how this host life-history response, fecundity compensation, impacts host reproduction. Measures of host reproductive output as well as offspring hatching success and survival were collected to assess the reproductive consequences of infection. Infected snails exhibited fecundity compensation by increasing the number of eggs laid and the overall probability of laying eggs compared to uninfected snails. Parental infection status did not play a significant role in hatching or offspring survival to maturity. Offspring from a later reproductive bout demonstrated a higher hatching success rate. Overall, the lack of an apparent trade-off between quantity and quality of offspring suggests that infected parental snails invest more resources towards reproduction not only to increase reproductive output, but also to maintain the fitness of their offspring, possibly at the expense of their own longevity.


Assuntos
Biomphalaria , Animais , Fertilidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Reprodução , Schistosoma mansoni , Caramujos
7.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(Suppl 7)(11): S70-S77, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High rates of population growth negatively influence the social and economic development of a country. This study aimed to determine the women's desire to limiting child birth in future (fertility intention) and its determinants among Pakistani women of reproductive age resident of Karachi. METHODS: A community-based, multistage cross-sectional study was carried out among residents of the squatter settlements in Karachi. The were 4,485 married residents, and currently non-pregnant females of 18 to 49 years old. Framework adapted has been based on "Pullum 1980" to operationalize the outcome of determining the desire to limiting childbearing and the factors related with controlling the family size. Multivariable logistic regression using SPSS 13.0 was used. RESULTS: The survey comprised of a total sample of 4485 females who participated and acquiring a median (interquartile range) age of 30 (25 to 35) years. Whereas, the living children count was found to be [median: 3 children; (IQR: 2 to 4)]. From the total, 2109 (47%) wanted to limit the future child birth. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that women who did not want to limit child birth significantly (p-value <0.05) belonged to age groups 18 to 27 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=0.25), and 28 - 37 years (aOR=0.39) compared to the women aged > 37 years (referent category), who belonged to poor wealth category (aOR=0.41), were ever contraceptive users (aOR=0.49), were currently not a contraceptive user (aOR=0.53), not educated (aOR=0.34), and having sons less than the daughters (aOR=0.74). Conversely, females with perceived family structure of ≤two children ideally (aOR=2.62), were autonomous (aOR=1.25) and who had equal daughters and sons (aOR=1.13) rather than more number of sons, had more probability to limiting child birth at a statistically significance (p-value) of less than 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The survey highlights the strategic independent determinants and there is a need of devising behaviour modification modalities accordingly to expedite the use of contraceptive methods and to encourage fertility decline among women.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Casamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Estudos Transversais , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
8.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(4): 124, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822012

RESUMO

Both Medawar and Hamilton contributed key ideas to the modern evolutionary theory of ageing. In particular, they both suggested that, in populations with overlapping generations, the force with which selection acts on traits declines with the age at which traits are expressed. This decline would eventually cause ageing to evolve. However, the biological literature diverges on the relationship between Medawar's analysis of the force of selection and Hamilton's. Some authors appear to believe that Hamilton perfected Medawar's insightful, yet ultimately erroneous analysis of this force, while others see Hamilton's analysis as a coherent development of, or the obvious complement to Medawar's. Here, the relationship between the two analyses is revisited. Two things are argued for. First, most of Medawar's alleged errors that Hamilton would had rectified seem not to be there. The origin of these perceived errors appears to be in a misinterpretation of Medawar's writings. Second, the mathematics of Medawar and that of Hamilton show a significant overlap. However, different meanings are attached to the same mathematical expression. Medawar put forth an expression for the selective force on age-specific fitness. Hamilton proposed a full spectrum of selective forces each operating on age-specific fitness components, i.e. mortality and fertility. One of Hamilton's expressions, possibly his most important, is of the same form as Medawar's expression. But Hamilton's selective forces on age-specific fitness components do not add up to yield Medawar's selective force on age-specific fitness. It is concluded that Hamilton's analysis should be considered neither as a correction to Medawar's analysis nor as its obvious complement.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fertilidade , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética
9.
Am Nat ; 198(6): 734-749, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762564

RESUMO

AbstractIndirect effects arise when one species influences how another species interacts with a third. Pollinator-mediated indirect effects are widespread in many plant communities and are often not restricted to plant species pairs. An analytical framework does not exist yet that allows for the evaluation of indirect effects through shared pollinators in a community context as well as their consequences for plant fitness. We used network indices describing pollinator sharing to assess the extent to which plant species affect and are affected by others in a pollination network from a species-rich dune community. For 23 plant species, we explore how these indices relate to plant fecundity (seeds/flower) over two years. We further linked plant traits and indices to uncover functional aspects of pollinator-mediated indirect interactions. Species frequently visited by shared pollinators showed higher fecundity and exhibited traits that increase pollinator attraction and generalization. Conversely, species whose shared pollinators frequently visited other plants had lower fecundity and more specialized traits. Thus, pollinator sharing benefited some species while others suffered reproductive disadvantages, consistent with competition. The framework developed here uses network tools to advance our understanding of how pollinator-mediated indirect interactions influence a species' relative reproductive success at the community level.


Assuntos
Plantas , Polinização , Fertilidade , Flores , Sementes
10.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 85(2-4): 191-204, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739615

RESUMO

The overuse of insecticides to control vector insects such as Diaphorina citri Kuwayama in citrus groves has altered the population dynamics of pest mites. Among phytophagous mites, population outbreaks of citrus leprosis mite, Brevipalpus yothersi Baker, have been increasingly intense and frequent in Brazilian citrus groves. Despite the great importance of the B. yothersi mite for citrus production, the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides on this mite have not yet been studied. Therefore, in this study, the effects of insecticides commonly used for D. citri control on B. yothersi mortality, reproduction, and instantaneous growth rate were assessed. For this, two experiments were carried out, one under controlled conditions and another in a greenhouse. The insecticides tested were beta-cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, buprofezin, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, pyriproxyfen, and thiamethoxam at 0 (control), 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and twofold the recommended insecticide concentration for D. citri control. The pyriproxyfen insecticide provided high mortality of B. yothersi even at low concentrations. Furthermore, this insecticide negatively interfered with the reproduction of this mite. Beta-cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, buprofezin, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, and thiamethoxam, in the tested concentrations, showed low impact on citrus leprosis mite. Regarding the reproduction of the mite, no significant increase in fecundity was observed on B. yothersi females exposed to insecticide residues, regardless of the concentration tested. Therefore, the application of these insecticides in the management of pest insects is unlikely to promote an increase in the citrus leprosis mite population.


Assuntos
Citrus , Inseticidas , Ácaros , Animais , Fertilidade , Reprodução
11.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(3): 433-437, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730301

RESUMO

The study was carried out in 5 dairy herds of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. The average milk yield was about 9000 kg per year. For each herd, the following fertility parameters were calculated at the start of the program and 4 years later: first- service conception rate, services per conception, length of inter-calving period and culling rate due to infertility. The incidence of silent heat, ovarian cysts, ovarian afunction, retained placenta and clinical endometritis was also recorded. Four years after implementation of the program, the average first-service conception rate increased from 43.2% to 51.2%. In three herds the differences were statistically significant (p⟨0.05). There was also a decrease in the number of services per pregnancy and in the culling rate due to infertility. Fertility performance was maintained in two herds. The average incidence of silent heat decreased from 38.1% to 29.7% and the difference was statistically significant (p⟨0.05) in three herds. There was no significant reduction in incidence of other reproductive disorders during the 4 years except for clinical endometritis in one herd. The average milk yield increased from 9300 kg to 9530 kg milk per cow per year. In conclusion, the results indicate that the implementation of the integrated veterinary herd health program improved or maintained fertility performance despite an increase in milk yield.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Medicina Veterinária/organização & administração , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Fertilidade , Incidência , Lactação , Leite , Gravidez
12.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 346, 2021 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fertility decline characterised by inter-birth intervals remains rather slow or stall in many countries of sub-Saharan African (SSA). Non-adherence to optimal inter-birth intervals often occasioned by low prevalence of contraceptive use and high fertility desires often lead to poor maternal and child health outcomes. Additionally, information on the influence of contraception and fertility desire on interval between first and second births (SBI) is rarely available. This study therefore aimed to examine the influence of fertility desire and contraception on SBI among women in four SSA countries. METHODS: We analysed cross-sectional data on women aged 15-49 years who participated in the recent Demographic and Health Surveys in DR Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria and South Africa. Semi-parametric Cox proportional hazards regression was employed for the analysis at 5% significance level. RESULTS: The median time to second birth was 34 months in DR Congo; 35 months, Nigeria; 42 months, Ethiopia; and 71 months, South Africa. About 70% of the women desired additional child(ren) and two-thirds have never used contraceptive in both Nigeria and DR Congo. The hazard of second birth was significantly lower among women who desired additional child(ren) compared to desired for no more child in DR Congo (aHR = 0.93; CI: 0.89-0.97), Ethiopia (aHR = 0.64; CI: 0.61-0.67) and South Africa (aHR = 0.51; CI: 0.47-0.55). Women who had never used contraceptive were 12%, 20% and 24% more likely to lengthen SBI than those who were current users in DR Congo, Nigeria and South Africa respectively. DR Congo and Nigerian women were about two times more likely to shorten SBI compared with their South African counterparts. Other significant determinants of SBI include ethnicity, rural residential, age and marital status at first birth, wealth and employment status. CONCLUSION: Findings showed differentials in the linkage between second birth interval and the desired fertility and contraception by country, demonstrating the importance of context. The contribution of these factors to second birth interval requires country context-specific attention if further decline in fertility and poor health outcomes associated with sub-optimal inter-birth interval is to be attained in SSA.


Assuntos
Intervalo entre Nascimentos , Anticoncepcionais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul
13.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665545

RESUMO

The purpose of the study is to systematize theoretical models of demographic family policy approved in publications included into database SCOPUS in 2019-2020 and developed using empirical data obtained by analysis of methods and practices of increasing natality in certain countries of EU, BRICS and the New World. The France, Sweden, Great Britain, Norway and Denmark are oriented to expand measures of social support of citizen and regulation of occupation of women with children with purpose to increase natality. In the countries of South-Western Asia and North Africa the measures are targeted to decreasing level of natality and to implement family planning policy.


Assuntos
Política de Planejamento Familiar , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Criança , Demografia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Fertilidade , Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , Política Pública , Reprodução , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 504, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622357

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine whether cows detected as tuberculosis (bTB) reactors and seropositive to brucellosis (bBR), as well as co-positive to bBR and bTB (bBR-bTB) and with a complete lactation before slaughter, were associated with reduced milk production and fertility. A total of 8068 productive and reproductive records of high-yielding Holstein cows from a single large dairy herd with a high prevalence of bTB and bBR were collected from 2012 to 2015. Lactation derived either from calving (n = 6019) or hormonally induced lactation (n = 2049), and all cows received growth hormone throughout lactation. For cows not induced into lactation, pregnancy rate to first service for healthy cows (C; 26.6%) was higher (P < 0.01) than bBR (15.2%), bTB (15.8%), and bBR-bTB (1.3%) cows. For induced cows, pregnancy rate to first service did not differ significantly among C, bBR, and bTB (14.5-17.3%) cows, but the percentage success of first service was extremely low (1.3%; P < 0.01) in bBR-bTB cows. Services per pregnancy (only pregnant cows) were lowest for C (3.3 ± 2.9; P < 0.01) and highest (6.4 ± 3.4) for bBR-bTB non-induced cows. This variable was lowest for C (2.9 ± 2.5; P < 0.01) and highest for bBR-bTB non-induced cows (6.3 ± 3.1). Pregnancy rate to all services did not differed for C (79.5%), bBR (76.7%), and bTB (75.9%) but was lower (58.9%; P < 0.01) for bBR-bTB non-induced cows. For induced cows this variable was highest for bBR (53.3%) and lowest for bBR-bTB (34.1%; P < 0.01) non-induced cows. 305-d milk production was increased by 4%, and total milk yield by 7% in TB-positive cows compared to that of the negative cows non-induced hormonally into lactation. This study showed the negative impact of the co-positivity for bTB and bBR on the reproductive efficiency of Holstein cows, although positive bTB and bBR tests enhanced milk yield.


Assuntos
Brucelose Bovina/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos , Fertilidade , Leite , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Lactação , Gravidez
15.
J Insect Sci ; 21(5)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618901

RESUMO

A method for rearing the southern green stinkbug, (Nezara viridula L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), using a modified lygus semi-solid artificial diet was developed. First to second-instar nymph were reared in a density of 631.5 ± 125.05 eggs per Petri-dish (4 cm deep × 15 cm diam). Second instar to adult were reared in a density of 535.0 ± 112.46 s instar nymphs per rearing cage (43 × 28 × 9 cm). Mating and oviposition occurred in popup rearing cages (30 × 30 cm), each holding 60-90 mixed sex adults of similar age. Adults emerged 35.88 ± 2.13 d after oviposition and survived for an average of 43.09 ± 9.53 d. On average, adults laid 223.95 ± 69.88 eggs in their lifetime, for a total production of 8,099 ± 1,277 fertile eggs/oviposition cage. Egg fertility was 77.93% ± 16.28. Egg masses held in petri-dishes had a total hatchability of 79.38% ± 20.03. Mortality of early nymphs in petri-dishes was 0.64% ± 0.12 for the first instar and 1.37% ± 0.45 for second instar. Late nymphal mortality in rearing cages was 1.41% ± 0.10, 3.47% ± 1.27, and 4.72% ± 1.29 for the third, fourth, and fifth instars, respectively. Survivorship from nymphs to adults was 88.48% ± 2.76. Using artificial diet for rearing N. viridula could reduce cost by avoiding time-consuming issues with daily feeding fresh natural hosts and insect manipulation. It could increase reliability and simplicity of bug production, which should facilitate mass rearing of its biological control agents.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Heterópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Fertilidade , Heterópteros/fisiologia , Laboratórios , Mortalidade , Oviposição , Reprodução
16.
J Insect Sci ; 21(5)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655291

RESUMO

Crop resistance plays a role in preventing aphid damage, benefiting food production industries, but its effects are limited due to aphid adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. Therefore, furthering understanding of aphid-crop interactions will improve our ability to protect crops from aphids. To determine how aphids adapt to resistant varieties of wheat, Triticum aestivum L. over time, we performed a laboratory experiment to assess the multi-generational effects of three wheat varieties, Batis, Ww2730, and Xiaoyan22, with different resistance levels on the fitness of Sitobion avenae (Fab.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The results showed that Ww2730 and Xiaoyan22 were more resistant than Batis to S. avenae, regardless of whether the aphids were newly introduced or had been acclimated before being introduced to the three wheat varieties. However, the effect of resistance on aphid life-history traits was time dependent. Aphid weigh gain increased and they development faster of the acclimated generation compared to the newly introduced generation on all three varieties. And the fecundity on the three varieties and net reproduction rates on Batis and Xiaoyan22 significantly decreased. Aphid fitness in terms of individual life-history parameters improved, whereas aphid fitness in terms of reproductive decreased, and a convergence effect, the difference gaps and standard errors of all life-history traits among the three acclimated populations had narrowed and were less than those in the three first-generation populations, was observed during the 3-mo experimental period. We suggested that S. avenae could rapidly respond to wheat resistance through life-history plasticity.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Controle de Insetos , Triticum , Animais , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Afídeos/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas , Fertilidade , Traços de História de Vida , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria , Folhas de Planta , Reprodução
17.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 752, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outcome of cervical artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed semen in sheep is limited by the inability of sperm to traverse the cervix of some ewe breeds. Previous research has demonstrated that cervical sperm transport is dependent on ewe breed, as sperm can traverse the cervix in greater numbers in some higher fertility ewe breeds. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ewe breed differences in sperm transport through the cervix remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to characterise the cervical transcriptome of four European ewe breeds with known differences in pregnancy rates following cervical AI using frozen-thawed semen at the follicular phase of a natural oestrous cycle. Cervical post mortem tissue samples were collected from two Irish ewe breeds (Belclare and Suffolk; medium and low fertility, respectively) and from two Norwegian ewe breeds (Norwegian White Sheep (NWS) and Fur; high fertility compared to both Irish breeds) at the follicular phase of a natural oestrous cycle (n = 8 to 10 ewes per breed). RESULTS: High-quality RNA extracted from biopsies of the mid-region of the cervix was analysed by RNA-sequencing and Gene Ontology (GO). After stringent filtering (P <  0.05 and FC > 1.5), a total of 11, 1539 and 748 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in Belclare, Fur and NWS compared to the low fertility Suffolk breed, respectively. Gene ontology analysis identified significantly enriched biological processes involved in muscle contraction, extracellular matrix (ECM) development and the immune response. Gene co-expression analysis revealed similar patterns in muscle contraction and ECM development modules in both Norwegian ewe breeds, which differed to the Irish ewe breeds. CONCLUSIONS: These breed-specific biological processes may account for impaired cervical sperm transport through the cervix in sheep during the follicular phase of the reproductive cycle. This novel and comprehensive dataset provides a rich foundation for future targeted initiatives to improve cervical AI in sheep.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero , Fase Folicular , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Inseminação Artificial , Masculino , Gravidez , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Transcriptoma
18.
Ann Parasitol ; 67(2): 337-340, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598406

RESUMO

A survey on human cystic echinococcosis was carried out in two public health establishments including the state hospital and one private medical clinic in Djelfa province (Algeria) to report the epidemiological profile of surgical cases and to examine the fertility of collected cysts. Total 18 hydatid cysts from 11 patients of different ages living both in rural and urban areas were obtained. Liver localization was noted in 73% of cases compared to lung localization (27%). Microscopic examination showed a fertility rate of 94.45% against 5.55% of sterile cysts.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/cirurgia , Fertilidade , Humanos , Saúde Pública
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 513, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642833

RESUMO

The Normal feathered local chicken (LL), Sasso-RIR (SRSR) and their F1-cross (LSR) chickens were hatched to evaluate for egg hatchability, body weight, feed efficiency, and survival rate. After 14 days of brooding, 150 chicks of each genotype were randomly selected and further replicated into five pens in a deep litter grower house consisting of 30 chicks each in a completely randomized design, and evaluated for a period of 16 weeks. Hatchability of fertile eggs was highest for LL (80.0%), intermediate for LSR (68.6%), and lowest for SRSR (55.9%) chickens. The body weight (BW) of chicks at 2 weeks of age was 80.0, 76.3, and 61.5 g/bird for SRSR, LSR, and LL, respectively, the latter being the lowest (p < 0.05). The respective BW at 8 weeks of age was 732, 587, and 451 g while at 18 weeks it was 1877, 1379, and 1070 g/bird and different from each other (p < 0.05). During 3- to 8-week and 9- to 18-week growth periods, the LL chickens were inferior (p < 0.05) in feed intake (29.7 and 66.9 g/d/bird) whereas the SRSR chickens were superior (p < 0.05) in body weight gain (15.5 and 16.3 g/d/bird) and feed conversion ratio (2.67 and 5.35 g feed/ g gain), respectively. The mortality rate of chicken was not affected by genotypes. It can be concluded that Sasso-RIR chicken genotype had played a significant role in upgrading the growth rate and market weight of the local normal feathered chicken without adverse effect on hatchability, feed efficiency, and survival rate.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Óvulo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Galinhas/genética , Etiópia , Fertilidade
20.
J Insect Sci ; 21(5)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718644

RESUMO

Plant viruses can change the phenotypes and defense pathways of the host plants and the performance of their vectors to facilitate their transmission. Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) (Crinivirus), a newly reported virus occurring on cucurbit plants and many other plant species, is transmitted specifically by Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (B biotype) and MED (Q biotype) cryptic species in a semipersistent manner. This study evaluated the impacts of CCYV on B. tabaci to better understand the plant-virus-vector interactions. By using CCYV-B. tabaci MED-cucumber as the model, we investigated whether or how a semipersistent plant virus impacts the biology of its whitefly vector. CCYV mRNAs were detectable in nymphs from first to fourth instars and adults of B. tabaci with different titers. Nymph instar durations and adult longevity of female whiteflies greatly extended on CCYV-infected plants, but nymph instar durations and adult longevity of male whiteflies were not significantly influenced. In addition, the body length and oviposition increased in adults feeding on CCYV-infected plants, but the hatching rates of eggs and survival rates of different stages were not affected. Most interestingly, the sex ratio (male:female) significantly reduced to 0.5:1 in whitefly populations on CCYV-infected plants, while the ratio remained about 1:1 on healthy plants. These results indicated that CCYV can significantly impact the biological characteristics of its vector B. tabaci. It is speculated that CCYV and B. tabaci have established a typical mutualist relationship mediated by host plants.


Assuntos
Crinivirus/patogenicidade , Hemípteros , Insetos Vetores , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Cucumis/virologia , Fertilidade , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Hemípteros/virologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Longevidade , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Vírus de Plantas/patogenicidade , Razão de Masculinidade , Viroses/transmissão
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