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2.
Reprod Health ; 21(1): 72, 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822372

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the advancement in sexual and reproductive healthcare services and several public health measures aimed at controlling fertility rates, countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) still experience higher adolescent fertility rates than other low-and middle-income countries. This study examined the disparities in adolescent fertility in 39 countries in SSA, focusing on socioeconomic and residence-based dimensions. METHODS: This study involved a secondary analysis of data obtained from 39 recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in SSA. The measures of difference (D), ratio (R), population attributable fraction (PAF), and population attributable risk (PAR) were estimated using the Health Equity Assessment Tool (HEAT) software version 3.1 developed by the World Health Organization. The measures: D, R, PAF, and PAR were used to examine the inequalities in adolescent fertility across the socioeconomic and residence-based dimensions. RESULTS: Out of the 39 countries included in the study, Guinea (D=27.70), Niger (D=27.50), Nigeria (D=23.90), and Côte d'Ivoire (D=23.60) exhibited the most significant residence-based inequalities in the rate of adolescent fertility, with the higher rate observed among adolescents in rural areas. Rwanda was the sole country that showed a slight inclination towards rural inequality in terms of the rate of adolescent fertility, with a value of D = -0.80. The burden of adolescent fertility was disproportionately higher among young women with low economic status across all the countries, exacerbating wealth-based inequities. The countries with the largest absolute discrepancies were Nigeria (D=44.70), Madagascar (D=41.10), Guinea (D=41.00), and Cameroon (D=40.20). We found significant disparities in educational attainment contributing to unequal inequalities in adolescent fertility, particularly among young women who lack access to formal education. Countries such as Madagascar (D=59.50), Chad (D=55.30), Cameroon (D=54.60), and Zimbabwe (D=50.30) had the most significant absolute disparities. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that young women residing in rural areas, those in households with low economic status and those with limited educational opportunities experience a disproportionately high burden of adolescent fertility across the 39 countries in SSA. The current findings offer valuable information to governmental entities at all levels regarding the need to ensure the provision of equitable, accessible, and dependable sexual and reproductive health services to the populace, particularly for young women. Therefore, the various stakeholders need to enhance the effectiveness of health policies and legislation pertaining to adolescent women living in rural areas, those from economically disadvantaged households, and those with limited or no access to formal education. Such interventions could potentially reduce adolescent fertility rates and mitigate the adverse maternal and child outcomes associated with high adolescent fertility in SSA.


Adolescent fertility is a major health problem for many developing countries, especially those in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Although several sexual and reproductive health initiatives have been introduced in these countries, the number of births among adolescents continues to be high. The present study looked at the socioeconomic and geographical differences in adolescent fertility across 39 countries in SSA using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys embedded into the World Health Organization's Health Equity Assessment Toolkit (WHO HEAT) software. The study found that in countries like Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, and Côte d'Ivoire, the rates of adolescent fertility varied a lot, with higher rates in rural areas. Generally, poorer young women were more likely to have babies, which made the gap between the rich and the poor even wider. Nigeria, Madagascar, Guinea, and Cameroon had the biggest differences. Education also played a role. In countries like Madagascar, Chad, Cameroon, and Zimbabwe, young women who did not go to school (had no education) were more likely to have children as teenagers.  The study showed that in all 39 countries, young women living in rural areas, those who were poorer and those who did not go to school (had no education) faced a bigger problem with adolescent fertility. The study suggests that if people who make health policies pay more attention to teenage girls in the rural areas, those who are poor and do not have much education, they could make a significant difference in reducing adolescent fertility.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade , Gravidez na Adolescência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Gravidez , África Subsaariana , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fertilidade
3.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(6): e17341, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837568

RESUMO

Thermal acclimation can provide an essential buffer against heat stress for host populations, while acting simultaneously on various life-history traits that determine population growth. In turn, the ability of a pathogen to invade a host population is intimately linked to these changes via the supply of new susceptible hosts, as well as the impact of warming on its immediate infection dynamics. Acclimation therefore has consequences for hosts and pathogens that extend beyond simply coping with heat stress-governing both population growth trajectories and, as a result, an inherent propensity for a disease outbreak to occur. The impact of thermal acclimation on heat tolerances, however, is rarely considered simultaneously with metrics of both host and pathogen population growth, and ultimately fitness. Using the host Daphnia magna and its bacterial pathogen, we investigated how thermal acclimation impacts host and pathogen performance at both the individual and population scales. We first tested the effect of maternal and direct thermal acclimation on the life-history traits of infected and uninfected individuals, such as heat tolerance, fecundity, and lifespan, as well as pathogen infection success and spore production. We then predicted the effects of each acclimation treatment on rates of host and pathogen population increase by deriving a host's intrinsic growth rate (rm) and a pathogen's basic reproductive number (R0). We found that direct acclimation to warming enhanced a host's heat tolerance and rate of population growth, despite a decline in life-history traits such as lifetime fecundity and lifespan. In contrast, pathogen performance was consistently worse under warming, with within-host pathogen success, and ultimately the potential for disease spread, severely hampered at higher temperatures. Our results suggest that hosts could benefit more from warming than their pathogens, but only by linking multiple individual traits to population processes can the full impact of higher temperatures on host and pathogen population dynamics be realised.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Daphnia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Temperatura Alta , Animais , Daphnia/microbiologia , Daphnia/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Fertilidade , Termotolerância , Longevidade
4.
Genet Sel Evol ; 56(1): 42, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female fertility is an important trait in dairy cattle. Identifying putative causal variants associated with fertility may help to improve the accuracy of genomic prediction of fertility. Combining expression data (eQTL) of genes, exons, gene splicing and allele specific expression is a promising approach to fine map QTL to get closer to the causal mutations. Another approach is to identify genomic differences between cows selected for high and low fertility and a selection experiment in New Zealand has created exactly this resource. Our objective was to combine multiple types of expression data, fertility traits and allele frequency in high- (POS) and low-fertility (NEG) cows with a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on calving interval in Australian cows to fine-map QTL associated with fertility in both Australia and New Zealand dairy cattle populations. RESULTS: Variants that were significantly associated with calving interval (CI) were strongly enriched for variants associated with gene, exon, gene splicing and allele-specific expression, indicating that there is substantial overlap between QTL associated with CI and eQTL. We identified 671 genes with significant differential expression between POS and NEG cows, with the largest fold change detected for the CCDC196 gene on chromosome 10. Our results provide numerous candidate genes associated with female fertility in dairy cattle, including GYS2 and TIGAR on chromosome 5 and SYT3 and HSD17B14 on chromosome 18. Multiple QTL regions were located in regions with large numbers of copy number variants (CNV). To identify the causal mutations for these variants, long read sequencing may be useful. CONCLUSIONS: Variants that were significantly associated with CI were highly enriched for eQTL. We detected 671 genes that were differentially expressed between POS and NEG cows. Several QTL detected for CI overlapped with eQTL, providing candidate genes for fertility in dairy cattle.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Frequência do Gene
6.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 7(4): e00493, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: During the process of transition from paediatric to adult health care, counselling concerning fertility is an important issue and is based mainly on serum markers of gonadal function. Here, we analysed these markers in adolescents with various underlying endocrine diseases at the time of transition. METHODS: After reaching near adult height and late puberty (girls: bone age [BA] ≥14 years, and boys: BA ≥16 years), we assessed stages of puberty according to Tanner and measured testes or ovarian volumes and serum markers of gonadal function (anti-Mullerian hormone [AMH], inhibin B, 17ß-estradiol, testosterone). RESULTS: One hundred and ten patients (56 females and 54 males) were included from May 2010 to March 2016 with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD; n = 17), growth hormone deficiency (GHD; n = 35), Turner syndrome (TS; n = 27), short stature after being born small for gestational age (SGA; n = 20) and Klinefelter syndrome (KS; n = 11). Female and male adolescents exhibited mature secondary sexual characteristics. The levels of serum inhibin B and AMH were lower in TS and female MPHD than in GHD and SGA, each independently (p < 0.05). The levels of serum AMH were higher whereas serum inhibin B were lower in male MPHD and KS (p < 0.05). Ovary volumes were significantly smaller in patients with TS, and testicular volumes were smaller in patients with KS. CONCLUSIONS: After current established treatments with sex steroids, the development of secondary sexual characteristics was mature. However, impaired markers of fertility have been identified in patients with TS, KS and MPHD, reflecting gonadal dysgenesis in TS and KS, but gonadal immaturity in MPHD as gonadal gonadotropin stimulation is lacking throughout development. Consequently, in patients with MPHD, these markers cannot reliably predict individual fertility, which warrants consideration and incorporation in future treatment concepts.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano , Biomarcadores , Fertilidade , Transição para Assistência do Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Biomarcadores/sangue , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Inibinas/sangue , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/etiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Síndrome de Turner/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Estradiol/sangue , Puberdade/fisiologia , Síndrome de Klinefelter
7.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(6): e14634, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38860761

RESUMO

The impact of beta-carotene on cattle fertility has been investigated in various studies; however, consensus on this issue has not been reached. In the present study, we systematically reviewed and meta-analysed 29 publications conducted between 1984 and 2022, focusing on seven fertility measures, clinical mastitis and milk yield in cows. We did not find statistically significant results in 8 out of 11 parameters (p > .05). Statistically significant results were observed for milk yield (MD: 216.25 kg in 305 days, p = .01, CI: 50.73-381.77), pregnancy at first service (OR: 1.38 CI: 1.08-1.76, p = .01) and clinical mastitis (OR: 0.59, CI: 0.44-0.80, p = .006) in favour of beta-carotene supplementation. The meta-regression revealed significant effects of 'plasma beta-carotene levels' on 'service to per pregnancy' and dose on 'milk yield' (p = .04 and p = 0). In binary outcomes, 'dose × day' and 'plasma beta-carotene concentration in the control group' positively influenced pregnancy at first service (p = .02 and .03). In conclusion, given the positive point direction observed for some variables and insignificant results for others, there is a need for more studies. We note the very high heterogeneity of outcomes and suggest caution in interpreting results.


Assuntos
Lactação , Mastite Bovina , Leite , beta Caroteno , Animais , beta Caroteno/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Bovinos , Leite/química , Gravidez , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fertilidade
8.
Ann Saudi Med ; 44(3): 141-145, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical treatment, expectant approaches, and surgical treatment options are available in the treatment of ectopic pregnancy. Regardless of the treatment, in addition to its effectiveness, the main concern is to limit the risk of relapse and preserve fertility. OBJECTIVES: Determine the impact of medical or surgical treatment for ectopic pregnancy on future fertility. DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Department of obstrtrics and gynecolgy at Ankara Etlik Zübeyde Hanim Women's Health Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who were treated for ectopic pregnancy between June 2016 and November 2019 were allocated into two groups. Expectant approach or medical treatment by methotrexate constituted the conservative treatment group while salpingectomy by laparoscopy indicated the surgical treatment group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fertility rates within two years following treatment were evaluated according to treatment options. SAMPLE SIZE: 202 patients. RESULTS: Of the 202 patients, 128 had medical treatment and 74 patients had surgical treatment for ectopic pregnancy. Of 272 diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy, 70 were excluded for various reasons. Parity and unemployment rate was significantly higher in the surgical treatment (P=.006 and P=.12, respectively). Moreover, ectopic mass size and serum ß-hCG levels were significantly higher in the surgical treatment group (P<.001 and P<.001, respectively). There were no significant differences between the conservative and surgical treatment groups in time to pregnancy (17.0 months vs 19.0 months, P=.255). Similarly, there was no significant difference between the conservative and surgical treatment groups with respect to history of infertility (P=.12). There were no significant differences between the conservative and surgical treatment groups in terms of live birth (51.6% vs 44.6%) and ectopic pregnancy (2.3% vs 1.4%) (P=.72 for both). There was no significant difference between the conservative and surgical treatment groups with respect to infertility rate (35.9% vs 41.9%, P=.72) and admittance to the IVF program (3.9% vs 6.8%, P=.39) following ectopic pregnancy treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Reproductive outcomes did not differ significantly in women undergoing expectant management, medical treatment, and surgery for ectopic pregnancy. This finding suggests that clinicians should not hesitate to act in favor of surgical treatment for ectopic pregnancy even if there were concerns for future fertility. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective study.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides , Tratamento Conservador , Laparoscopia , Metotrexato , Gravidez Tubária , Salpingectomia , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Salpingectomia/métodos , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Gravidez Tubária/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Abortivos não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Abortivos não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Turquia , Fertilidade , Gonadotropina Coriônica Humana Subunidade beta/sangue , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos
9.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304241, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence supports the benefits of hydroxyurea (HU) in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD), but reservations remain due to long-term concerns of fertility. Retrospective analysis of clinical records of SCD patients (haemoglobin SS genotype) have identified gender-related differences in disease progression. This could inform risk stratification during SCD at diagnosis with the possibility to guide therapeutic decisions. METHODS: This systemic review and meta-analysis evaluated fertility parameters in both children (aged ≥ 6 years) and adults with SCD receiving HU therapy. Studies were sourced from PubMed and EMBASE from inception to July 2023. A total of 160 potentially relevant articles were identified. RESULTS: Four studies were included that evaluated the effects of HU on sperm parameters in males. A further 4 studies assessed anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) levels and ovarian reserves in females. Differences from baseline values were used to identify compromised fertility. Amongst males, HU treatment negatively impacted the concentration of spermatozoa (MD = -15.48 million/mL; 95% CI: [-20.69, -10.26]; p< 0.001), which continued following treatment cessation (MD = -20.09 million/mL; 95% CI: [-38.78, -1.40]; P = 0.04). HU treatment also led to lower total sperm counts (MD = -105.87 million; 95% CI: [-140.61, -71.13]; P< 0.001) which persisted after treatment (MD = -53.05 million; 95% CI: [-104.96, -1.14]; P = 0.05). Sperm volume, initial forward motility and morphology were unaffected by HU treatment. In females, HU treatment decreased the mean AMH levels 1.83 (95% CI [1.42, 2.56]. A total of 18.2.% patients treated with HU showed reduced ovarian reserves. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: This systemic review and meta-analysis suggest that the use of HU for SCD impacts seminal fluid parameters in males and can diminish AMH levels and ovarian reserves in females.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Fertilidade , Hidroxiureia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Antidrepanocíticos/efeitos adversos , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxiureia/efeitos adversos , Reserva Ovariana/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304221, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of post-abortion care services in Chinese women who have undergone induced abortion. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in five databases from January 2011 to June 2023 (PROSPERO registration CRD42023440458). Estimates of intervention effects were represented as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to evaluate the strength of recommendations. RESULTS: The meta-analysis of 42 randomized controlled studies involving 70,126 participants indicated that post-abortion care services could significantly increase rate of effective contraceptive use (RR = 2.33, 95%CI = 1.80-3.00, 10 studies, GRADE (Medium)), reduce repeat abortion rate (RR = 0.26, 95%CI = 0.20-0.36, 19 studies, GRADE (High)), increase follow-up visit rate (RR = 1.37, 95%CI = 1.06-1.75, 5 studies, GRADE (Very low)) in one year after abortions, and improve patient satisfaction rate (RR = 1.37, 95%CI = 1.03-1.83, 9 studies, GRADE (High)). CONCLUSION: Post-abortion care services could help increase the rate of continuation of post-abortion effective contraceptives, prevent repeat abortions, and promote female fertility. Exploring strategies for better provision of post-abortion services requires more high-quality research.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Humanos , Feminino , China , Gravidez , Fertilidade , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1397783, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38846497

RESUMO

Objective: Various stem cell-loaded scaffolds have demonstrated promising endometrial regeneration and fertility restoration. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of stem cell-loaded scaffolds in treating uterine injury in animal models. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched. Data were extracted and analyzed using Review Manager version 5.4. Improvements in endometrial thickness, endometrial glands, fibrotic area, and number of gestational sacs/implanted embryos were compared after transplantation in the stem cell-loaded scaffolds and scaffold-only group. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and confidence interval (CI) were calculated using forest plots. Results: Thirteen studies qualified for meta-analysis. Overall, compared to the scaffold groups, stem cell-loaded scaffolds significantly increased endometrial thickness (SMD = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.54 to 2.44, P < 0.00001; I² = 16%) and the number of endometrial glands (SMD = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.45 to 2.41, P < 0.00001; I² = 0). Moreover, stem cell-loaded scaffolds present a prominent effect on improving fibrosis area (SMD = -2.50, 95% CI: -3.07 to -1.93, P < 0.00001; I² = 36%) and fertility (SMD = 3.34, 95% CI: 1.58 to 5.09, P = 0.0002; I² = 83%). Significant heterogeneity among studies was observed, and further subgroup and sensitivity analyses identified the source of heterogeneity. Moreover, stem cell-loaded scaffolds exhibited lower inflammation levels and higher angiogenesis, and cell proliferation after transplantation. Conclusion: The evidence indicates that stem cell-loaded scaffolds were more effective in promoting endometrial repair and restoring fertility than the scaffold-only groups. The limitations of the small sample sizes should be considered when interpreting the results. Thus, larger animal studies and clinical trials are needed for further investigation. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO, identifier CRD42024493132.


Assuntos
Endométrio , Regeneração , Alicerces Teciduais , Feminino , Endométrio/fisiologia , Endométrio/citologia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Alicerces Teciduais/química , Animais , Humanos , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2024): 20240494, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864332

RESUMO

Social organization, dispersal and fecundity coevolve, but whether they are genetically linked remains little known. Supergenes are prime candidates for coupling adaptive traits and mediating sex-specific trade-offs. Here, we test whether a supergene that controls social structure in Formica selysi also influences dispersal-related traits and fecundity within each sex. In this ant species, single-queen colonies contain only the ancestral supergene haplotype M and produce MM queens and M males, while multi-queen colonies contain the derived haplotype P and produce MP queens, PP queens and P males. By combining multiple experiments, we show that the M haplotype induces phenotypes with higher dispersal potential and higher fecundity in both sexes. Specifically, MM queens, MP queens and M males are more aerodynamic and more fecund than PP queens and P males, respectively. Differences between MP and PP queens from the same colonies reveal a direct genetic effect of the supergene on dispersal-related traits and fecundity. The derived haplotype P, associated with multi-queen colonies, produces queens and males with reduced dispersal abilities and lower fecundity. More broadly, similarities between the Formica and Solenopsis systems reveal that supergenes play a major role in linking behavioural, morphological and physiological traits associated with intraspecific social polymorphisms.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Formigas , Fertilidade , Comportamento Social , Animais , Formigas/fisiologia , Formigas/genética , Masculino , Feminino , Haplótipos
13.
Wiad Lek ; 77(4): 716-723, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To predict trends in fertility, neonatal and perinatal mortality, and stillbirth rates to ascertain future perinatal care requirements during the post-war reconstruction in Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: The study uses the data from the Centre for Medical Statistics of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine, covering the years 2012 to 2022. The data analysis was by a univariate linear regression model. The quality of these models was evaluated using the coefficient of determination, R2. RESULTS: Results: In 2022, the birth rate in Ukraine had declined to 2.5 times lower than that of 2011. The period was characterized by a notable increase in the incidence of premature births and in neonates with birth weights under 1000 grams and between 1000 to 2499 grams. While the neonatal mortality rate decreased by 3.7 times, there remains a statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in the mortality rates of premature infants and neonates weighing less than 1000 grams. The stillbirth rate in Ukraine remains constant; however, it exceeds that of the European Union. Predictions indicate a rise in antenatal mortality and a reduction in both intranatal and perinatal mortality. As of 2022, the perinatal mortality rate in Ukraine made up 7.72 per 1000 live births, which is significantly higher than the rate in the European Union. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The optimization of the network of healthcare facilities and resources should be prioritized, in response to the reliable decline in the birth rate. This necessitates improvements in the medical care for premature and low birth weight infants, and efforts for preventing stillbirths.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Assistência Perinatal , Mortalidade Perinatal , Natimorto , Humanos , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Perinatal/tendências , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Assistência Perinatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Lactente , Fertilidade , Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia
14.
Cell Transplant ; 33: 9636897241259552, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847385

RESUMO

Thin endometrium (TE) is a significant factor contributing to fertility challenges, and addressing this condition remains a central challenge in reproductive medicine. Menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MenSCs) play a crucial role in tissue repair and regeneration, including that of TE. The Wnt signaling pathway, which is highly conserved and prevalent in eukaryotes, is essential for cell proliferation, tissue development, and reproductive functions. MALAT1 is implicated in various transcriptional and molecular functions, including cell proliferation and metastasis. However, the combined effects of the Wnt signaling pathway and the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) MALAT1 on the regulation of MenSCs' regenerative capabilities in tissue engineering have not yet been explored. To elucidate the regulatory mechanism of MALAT1 in TE, we analyzed its expression levels in normal endometrium and TE tissues, finding that low expression of MALAT1 was associated with poor clinical prognosis. In addition, we conducted both in vitro and in vivo functional assays to examine the role of the MALAT1/miR-7-5p/TCF4 axis in cell proliferation and migration. Techniques such as dual-luciferase reporter assay, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and immunoblot experiments were utilized to clarify the molecular mechanism. To corroborate these findings, we established a TE model and conducted pregnancy experiments, demonstrating a strong association between MALAT1 expression and endometrial fertility. In conclusion, our comprehensive study provides strong evidence supporting that lncRNA MALAT1 modulates TCF4 expression in the Wnt signaling pathway through interaction with miR-7-5p, thus enhancing MenSCs-mediated improvement of TE and improving fertility.


Assuntos
Endométrio , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Feminino , Humanos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Endométrio/citologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Fator de Transcrição 4/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição 4/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Adulto , Camundongos , Fertilidade/genética
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 250, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Buffalo spermatozoa have a distinct membrane structure that makes them more vulnerable to cryopreservation, resulting in lower-quality post-thawed sperm. This decreases the success rate of artificial insemination in buffaloes. Understanding and addressing these specific vulnerabilities are essential for improving reproductive techniques in buffalo populations. The properties of cryopreserved buffalo bull semen were examined in this study regarding the impact of adding autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to OptiXcell® or Tris egg yolk-based extenders. Ten buffalo bulls were used to collect semen. Each bull's ejaculate was separated into two main equal amounts, each of which was then diluted with either OptiXcell® or Tris egg yolk-based extender, supplemented with various PRP concentrations (5%, 10%, and 15%), and the control (0%), before being cryopreserved according to established protocols. Following equilibration and thawing, the quality and functionality of the sperm were evaluated, along with the antioxidant enzyme activities (GSH and TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and in vivo fertilization rate of the thawed semen. RESULTS: All PRP concentrations in both extenders, particularly 10% PRP, improved the quality and functionality of the sperm in both equilibrated and frozen-thawed semen. Additionally, the antioxidant enzyme activities in both extenders were higher in the PRP-supplemented groups compared to the control group in thawed semen (P < 0.05). All post-thaw sperm quality, antioxidant enzyme activities, and functionality aside from DNA integrity were higher (P < 0.05) in the PRP-supplemented OptiXcell® than in the PRP-supplemented Tris egg yolk-based extender. The fertility of cryopreserved semen in the extenders supplemented with 10% and 15% PRP increased (P < 0.05) significantly more than that of the control extenders, with 10% PRP being the optimum concentration in OptiXcell® (80%) compared to that of Tris egg yolk-based extender (66.67%) and control of two extenders (53.33% and 46.67%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Even though autologous PRP-supplemented extenders have a protective impact on equilibrated and cryopreserved semen, 10% PRP-supplemented OptiXcell® extenders are more effective at preserving post-thaw semen quality, functionality, and antioxidant capacity, which increases the in vivo fertility of buffalo bulls.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Criopreservação , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Preservação do Sêmen , Animais , Masculino , Criopreservação/veterinária , Criopreservação/métodos , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Fertilidade , Gema de Ovo/química , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Feminino , Sêmen , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 687, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839829

RESUMO

Understanding the factors influencing mosquitoes' fecundity and longevity is important for designing better and more sustainable vector control strategies, as these parameters can impact their vectorial capacity. Here, we address how mating affects midgut growth in Aedes aegypti, what role Juvenile Hormone (JH) plays in this process, and how it impacts the mosquito's immune response and microbiota. Our findings reveal that mating and JH induce midgut growth. Additionally, the establishment of a native bacterial population in the midgut due to JH-dependent suppression of the immune response has important reproductive outcomes. Specific downregulation of AMPs with an increase in bacteria abundance in the gut results in increased egg counts and longer lifespans. Overall, these findings provide evidence of a cross-talk between JH response, gut epithelial tissue, cell cycle regulation, and the mechanisms governing the trade-offs between nutrition, immunity, and reproduction at the cellular level in the mosquito gut.


Assuntos
Aedes , Fertilidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hormônios Juvenis , Animais , Aedes/microbiologia , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aedes/fisiologia , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , Feminino , Aptidão Genética
17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1402579, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841305

RESUMO

The term 'differences of sex development' (DSD) refers to a group of congenital conditions that are associated with atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, and/or anatomical sex. DSD in individuals with a 46,XX karyotype can occur due to fetal or postnatal exposure to elevated amount of androgens or maldevelopment of internal genitalia. Clinical phenotype could be quite variable and for this reason these conditions could be diagnosed at birth, in newborns with atypical genitalia, but also even later in life, due to progressive virilization during adolescence, or pubertal delay. Understand the physiological development and the molecular bases of gonadal and adrenal structures is crucial to determine the diagnosis and best management and treatment for these patients. The most common cause of DSD in 46,XX newborns is congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, determining primary adrenal insufficiency and androgen excess. In this review we will focus on the other rare causes of 46,XX DSD, outside CAH, summarizing the most relevant data on genetic, clinical aspects, puberty and fertility outcomes of these rare diseases.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita , Fertilidade , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Puberdade , Humanos , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/genética , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética
18.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 724, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866948

RESUMO

Most genetic variants associated with fertility in mammals fall in non-coding regions of the genome and it is unclear how these variants affect fertility. Here we use genome-wide association summary statistics for Heifer puberty (pubertal or not at 600 days) from 27,707 Bos indicus, Bos taurus and crossbred cattle; multi-trait GWAS signals from 2119 indicine cattle for four fertility traits, including days to calving, age at first calving, pregnancy status, and foetus age in weeks (assessed by rectal palpation of the foetus); and expression quantitative trait locus for whole blood from 489 indicine cattle, to identify 87 putatively functional genes affecting cattle fertility. Our analysis reveals a significant overlap between the set of cattle and previously reported human fertility-related genes, impling the existence of a shared pool of genes that regulate fertility in mammals. These findings are crucial for developing approaches to improve fertility in cattle and potentially other mammals.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Feminino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862423

RESUMO

The microbiome plays a critical role in the process of conception and the outcomes of pregnancy. Disruptions in microbiome homeostasis in women of reproductive age can lead to various pregnancy complications, which significantly impact maternal and fetal health. Recent studies have associated the microbiome in the female reproductive tract (FRT) with assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes, and restoring microbiome balance has been shown to improve fertility in infertile couples. This review provides an overview of the role of the microbiome in female reproductive health, including its implications for pregnancy outcomes and ARTs. Additionally, recent advances in the use of microbial biomarkers as indicators of pregnancy disorders are summarized. A comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of the microbiome before and during pregnancy and its impact on reproductive health will greatly promote maternal and fetal health. Such knowledge can also contribute to the development of ARTs and microbiome-based interventions.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Microbiota , Saúde Reprodutiva , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Genitália Feminina/microbiologia
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(25): e2406788121, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865267

RESUMO

Heritable symbionts are common among animals in nature, but the molecular mechanisms underpinning symbiont invasions of host populations have been elusive. In this study, we demonstrate the spread of Rickettsia in an invasive agricultural pest, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean (MED), across northeastern China from 2018 to 2023. Here, we show that the beneficial symbiont Rickettsia spreads by manipulating host hormone signals. Our analyses suggest that Rickettsia have been horizontally acquired by B. tabaci MED from another invasive whitefly B. tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 during periods of coexistence. Rickettsia is transmitted maternally and horizontally from female B. tabaci MED individuals. Rickettsia infection enhances fecundity and results in female bias among whiteflies. Our findings reveal that Rickettsia infection stimulates juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis, in turn enhancing fecundity, copulation events, and the female ratio of the offspring. Consequently, Rickettsia infection results in increased whitefly fecundity and female bias by modulating the JH pathway. More female progeny facilitates the transmission of Rickettsia. This study illustrates that the spread of Rickettsia among invasive whiteflies in northeastern China is propelled by host hormone regulation. Such symbiont invasions lead to rapid physiological and molecular evolution in the host, influencing the biology and ecology of an invasive species.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Hemípteros , Rickettsia , Razão de Masculinidade , Simbiose , Animais , Rickettsia/fisiologia , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , China
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