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1.
J Infect ; 89(2): 106216, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38964511

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on the clearance of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) carriage. METHODS: We performed a prospective, multi-center study, conducted among patients who received a single dose of FMT from one of four healthy donors. The primary endpoint was complete clearance of CPE carriage two weeks after FMT with a secondary endpoint at three months. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed to assess gut microbiota composition of donors and recipients before and after FMT. RESULTS: Twenty CPE-colonized patients were included in the study, where post-FMT 20% (n = 4/20) of patients met the primary endpoint and 40% (n = 8/20) of patients met the secondary endpoint. Kaplan-Meier curves between patients with FMT intervention and the control group (n = 82) revealed a similar rate of decolonization between groups. Microbiota composition analyses revealed that response to FMT was not donor-dependent. Responders had a significantly lower relative abundance of CPE species pre-FMT than non-responders, and 14 days post-FMT responders had significantly higher bacterial species richness and alpha diversity compared to non-responders (p < 0.05). Responder fecal samples were also enriched in specific species, with significantly higher relative abundances of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Parabacteroides distasonis, Collinsella aerofaciens, Alistipes finegoldii and Blautia_A sp900066335 (q<0.01) compared to non-responders. CONCLUSION: FMT administration using the proposed regimen did not achieve statistical significance for complete CPE decolonization but was correlated with the relative abundance of specific bacterial taxa, including CPE species.


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto , Fezes/microbiologia , Idoso , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/terapia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/terapia , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/genética , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(28): e2318691121, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968121

RESUMO

Dietary lipids play an essential role in regulating the function of the gut microbiota and gastrointestinal tract, and these luminal interactions contribute to mediating host metabolism. Palmitic Acid Hydroxy Stearic Acids (PAHSAs) are a family of lipids with antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties, but whether the gut microbiota contributes to their beneficial effects on host metabolism is unknown. Here, we report that treating chow-fed female and male germ-free (GF) mice with PAHSAs improves glucose tolerance, but these effects are lost upon high fat diet (HFD) feeding. However, transfer of feces from PAHSA-treated, but not vehicle-treated, chow-fed conventional mice increases insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed GF mice. Thus, the gut microbiota is necessary for, and can transmit, the insulin-sensitizing effects of PAHSAs in HFD-fed GF male mice. Analyses of the cecal metagenome and lipidome of PAHSA-treated mice identified multiple lipid species that associate with the gut commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt) and with insulin sensitivity resulting from PAHSA treatment. Supplementing live, and to some degree, heat-killed Bt to HFD-fed female mice prevented weight gain, reduced adiposity, improved glucose tolerance, fortified the colonic mucus barrier and reduced systemic inflammation compared to HFD-fed controls. These effects were not observed in HFD-fed male mice. Furthermore, ovariectomy partially reversed the beneficial Bt effects on host metabolism, indicating a role for sex hormones in mediating the Bt probiotic effects. Altogether, these studies highlight the fact that PAHSAs can modulate the gut microbiota and that the microbiota is necessary for the beneficial metabolic effects of PAHSAs in HFD-fed mice.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Camundongos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ácidos Esteáricos/metabolismo , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Camundongos Obesos
3.
Vet Parasitol ; 330: 110250, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970904

RESUMO

The apicomplexan Eimeria ovinoidalis is distributed worldwide. It can cause clinical coccidiosis, which is one of the most pathogenic species in sheep, reducing growth rates and resulting in significant economic losses in the industry. Its principal clinical sign is profuse diarrhoea in young animals. In this study, we established a model of E. ovinoidalis infection in lambs to understand its pathogenicity and evaluate the gut microbiota and fecal metabolite profiles. Specifically, we observed a significant shift in the abundance of bacteria and disrupted metabolism in lambs. Especially during the peak period of excrete oocysts, it promoted the reproduction of some harmful bacteria in Proteobacteria and Actinobacteriota, and reduced the abundance of beneficial bacteria such as Lachnospiraceae and Rikenellaceae. In the later stage of the patent period, the abundance of harmful bacteria in the intestine decreased, the abundance of beneficial bacteria which could produce anti-inflammatory substances began to increase, and the abundance and diversity of intestinal flora also tended to parallel with the control group. Coccidia infection could lead to the increase of differential metabolites and metabolic pathways between infected and control group, but the difference decreased with time. During the peak period of excrete oocysts, although the antimicrobial metabolites such as Lividamine were up-regulated, the excess of these metabolites could still induce the production of endotoxin, while Butanoic acid and other anti-inflammatory metabolites decreased significantly. A metabolomics analysis showed that E. ovinoidalis infection altered metabolites and metabolic pathways, with biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, Teichoic acid biosynthesis and Butanoate metabolism as the major disrupted metabolic pathways. Details of the gut microbiota and the metabolome after infection with E. ovinoidalis may aid in the discovery of specific diagnostic markers and help us understand the changes in parasite metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Eimeria/fisiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/microbiologia
4.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 248: 116288, 2024 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38981330

RESUMO

Germacrone and curdione are germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids that are widely distributed and have extensive pharmacological activities; they are the main constituents of 'Xing-Nao-Jing Injection' (XNJ). Studies on the metabolic features of germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids are limited. In this study, the metabolites of germacrone and curdione were characterized by UHPLC-Q-Exactive Oribitrap mass spectrometry after they were orally administered to rats. In total, 60 and 76 metabolites were found and preliminarily identified in rats administered germacrone and curdione, respectively, among which at least 123 potential new compounds were included. New metabolic reactions of germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids were identified, which included oxidation (+4 O and +5 O), ethylation, methyl-sulfinylation, vitamin C conjugation, and cysteine conjugation reactions. Among the 136 metabolites (including 113 oxidation metabolites, two glucuronidation, two methylation, nine methyl-sulfinylation, three ethylation, six cysteine conjugation, and one Vitamin C conjugation metabolites), 32 metabolites were detected in nine organs, and the stomach, intestine, liver, kidneys, and small intestine were the main organs for the distribution of these metabolites. All 136 metabolites were detected in urine and 64 of them were found in feces. The results of this study not only contribute to research on in vivo processes related to germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids but also provide a strong foundation for a better understanding of in vivo processes and the effective forms of germacrone, curdione, and XNJ.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano , Animais , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/metabolismo , Ratos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Distribuição Tecidual , Administração Oral , Fezes/química
5.
Vet Parasitol ; 330: 110249, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38981318

RESUMO

The present study aims to assess the performance of different molecular targets using various matrices of samples for the detection of Uncinaria stenocephala (US) in hookworm infected dogs. To this end, the DNA extraction was performed on the following matrices of samples: (i) larvae of US obtained from experimentally infected dogs with US with different larvae counts per microliter (µl); (ii) pure US eggs suspension in distilled water with different egg counts per µl; (iii) spiked dog fecal samples with different US eggs per gram (EPG) of feces; (iv) feces from dogs naturally infected with hookworm eggs; (v) fecal suspension with hookworm eggs recovered from the FLOTAC apparatus. All the samples were tested with four different PCR protocols targeting specific regions for the detection of both hookworms US and AC as follows: Protocol A (ITS1, 5.8 S, ITS2) and Protocol B (18 S) for the detection of both species, Protocol C (ITS1) for the detection of AC and Protocol D (ITS1) for the detection of US. The best results were obtained with DNA extracted from US larvae matrix obtained from experimentally infected dogs, showing a detection limit of 3.5 larvae/ml for the protocols A, B and D. A moderate correlation was found between the FLOTAC technique and PCR protocols B and D with respect to fecal samples from dogs naturally infected with hookworms. Indeed, PCR protocols B (18 S) and D (ITS1) gave the best results for feces and fecal suspension from naturally infected dogs. However, all the PCR protocols used showed lower sensitivity than FLOTAC technique. Perhaps, isolating US eggs in advance could help to obtain better quality and quantity of DNA, avoiding some notable factors such as inhibitors present in faecal samples. However, a further study is needed to evaluate and standardise a protocol for the recovery of parasitic elements, that could be applied prior to DNA extraction. Therefore, this could lead to a better amplification of US eggs DNA. In conclusion, our results showed that the type of sample (sample-matrix) used for the DNA extraction samples is crucial, as this affects the diagnostic sensitivity of the technique.


Assuntos
Ancylostomatoidea , Doenças do Cão , Fezes , Infecções por Uncinaria , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Animais , Cães , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Fezes/parasitologia , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Ancylostomatoidea/genética , Infecções por Uncinaria/veterinária , Infecções por Uncinaria/diagnóstico , Infecções por Uncinaria/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Helmintos/análise , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/métodos , Larva , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Vet Parasitol ; 330: 110241, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38981319

RESUMO

Changes to the faecal microbiota of horses associated with administration of anthelmintic drugs is poorly defined. This study included horses with cyathostomin infection where susceptibility and resistance to oxfendazole and abamectin was known. This study assessed the changes to the faecal microbiota associated with administration of two different anthelmintics in this population. Twenty-four adult horses were included. Faecal egg counts were performed on all horses prior to random allocation into abamectin (n=8), oxfendazole (n=8) or Control groups (n=8) and at Day 14 post treatment. Faecal samples were collected for microbiota analysis prior to anthelmintic administration and on Day 3 and Day 14. From each faecal sample, DNA was extracted prior to PCR amplification, next generation sequencing and analysis using QIIME2. Anthelmintic treatment was associated with changes in alpha diversity (p <0.05), with increased evenness and diversity at Day 14 and increased richness at Day 3 within the abamectin group. Differences in relative abundance of bacteria at the phyla, family and genus taxonomic levels occurred after treatment; indicating that the microbiota was altered with anthelmintic administration. The results support that anthelmintic administration and removal of cyathostomins from the large intestine of horses is associated with changes in the faecal microbiota. The results suggest that removal of cyathostomins is associated with greater differences in microbiota, compared to anthelmintic drug administration that is ineffective in reducing cyathostomin infection. Cyathostomin removal was supported by adequate reduction of faecal egg counts, determined by faecal egg count reduction testing.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Fezes , Doenças dos Cavalos , Ivermectina , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Animais , Cavalos , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzimidazóis
7.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(7)2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38986506

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to compare the effects of linear and branched fructooligosaccharides (FOS) extracted from chicory and grass (Lolium perenne), respectively on human microbiota composition, diversity, and metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test the effects of linear and branched FOS on human microbiota we used the artificial in vitro human colon model (TIM-2). Microbiota composition and diversity were assessed by V3-V4 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing, followed by differential taxa abundance and alpha/beta diversity analyses. SCFA/BCFA production was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. As a result, branched FOS had the most beneficial effects on microbial diversity and metabolite production. Also, branched FOS significantly increased the abundance of commensal bacteria associated with maintaining healthy gut functions and controlling inflammation, such as Butyricicoccus, Erysipelotrichaceae, Phascolarctobacterium, and Sutterella. Linear FOS also significantly increased the abundance of some other commensal gut bacteria (Anaerobutyricum, Lachnospiraceae, Faecalibacterium), but there were no differences in diversity metrics compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that branched FOS had the most beneficial effects compared to the linear FOS in vitro, concerning microbiota modulation, and metabolite production, making this a good candidate for further studies in food biotechnology.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Colo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oligossacarídeos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Lolium/microbiologia , Cichorium intybus , Fezes/microbiologia
8.
Gut Microbes ; 16(1): 2377567, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39012957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intestinal-liver axis is associated with various liver diseases. Here, we verified the role of the gut microbiota and macrophage activation in the progression of pyrrolizidine alkaloids-induced hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (PA-HSOS), and explored the possible mechanisms and new treatment options. METHODS: The HSOS murine model was induced by gavage of monocrotaline (MCT). An analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) of the feces was conducted to determine the composition of the fecal microbiota. Macrophage clearance, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and butyrate supplementation experiments were used to assess the role of intestinal flora, gut barrier, and macrophage activation and to explore the relationships among these three variables. RESULTS: Activated macrophages and low microflora diversity were observed in HSOS patients and murine models. Depletion of macrophages attenuated inflammatory reactions and apoptosis in the mouse liver. Moreover, compared with control-FMT mice, the exacerbation of severe liver injury was detected in HSOS-FMT mice. Specifically, butyrate fecal concentrations were significantly reduced in HSOS mice, and administration of butyrate could partially alleviated liver damage and improved the intestinal barrier in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, elevated lipopolysaccharides in the portal vein and high proportions of M1 macrophages in the liver were also detected in HSOS-FMT mice and mice without butyrate treatment, which resulted in severe inflammatory responses and further accelerated HSOS progression. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the gut microbiota exacerbated HSOS progression by regulating macrophage M1 polarization via altered intestinal barrier function mediated by butyrate. Our study has identified new strategies for the clinical treatment of HSOS.


Assuntos
Butiratos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva , Fígado , Macrófagos , Animais , Camundongos , Butiratos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Humanos , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/microbiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Ativação de Macrófagos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Feminino , Fezes/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/genética , Função da Barreira Intestinal
9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 292, 2024 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39013880

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence has revealed the gut bacteria dysbiosis and brain hippocampal functional and structural alterations in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the potential relationship between the gut microbiota and hippocampal function alterations in patients with MDD is still very limited. Data of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were acquired from 44 unmedicated MDD patients and 42 demographically matched healthy controls (HCs). Severn pairs of hippocampus subregions (the bilateral cornu ammonis [CA1-CA3], dentate gyrus (DG), entorhinal cortex, hippocampal-amygdaloid transition area, and subiculum) were selected as the seeds in the functional connectivity (FC) analysis. Additionally, fecal samples of participants were collected and 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing was used to identify the altered relative abundance of gut microbiota. Then, association analysis was conducted to investigate the potential relationships between the abnormal hippocampal subregions FC and microbiome features. Also, the altered hippocampal subregion FC values and gut microbiota levels were used as features separately or together in the support vector machine models distinguishing the MDD patients and HCs. Compared with HCs, patients with MDD exhibited increased FC between the left hippocampus (CA2, CA3 and DG) and right hippocampus (CA2 and CA3), and decreased FC between the right hippocampal CA3 and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex. In addition, we found that the level of proinflammatory bacteria (i.e., Enterobacteriaceae) was significantly increased, whereas the level of short-chain fatty acids producing-bacteria (i.e., Prevotellaceae, Agathobacter and Clostridium) were significantly decreased in MDD patients. Furthermore, FC values of the left hippocampal CA3- right hippocampus (CA2 and CA3) was positively correlated with the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in patients with MDD. Moreover, altered hippocampal FC patterns and gut microbiota level were considered in combination, the best discrimination was obtained (AUC = 0.92). These findings may provide insights into the potential role of gut microbiota in the underlying neuropathology of MDD patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipocampo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/microbiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/microbiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fezes/microbiologia
10.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 11(1)2024 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39019622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the optimal incentive protocol for maximising participation while managing study costs during the Voyage trial. DESIGN: Prospective cohort (Voyage trial) of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality outcomes in individuals screened with multitarget stool DNA (mt-sDNA) served as the population. A subset was randomised to receive postage stamps as a pre-consent incentive, or as a post-consent incentive after completion of the consent and questionnaire. Descriptive statistics from year 1 are reported. RESULTS: During year 1 of the Voyage trial, a total of 600 258 individuals with mt-sDNA orders received at Exact Sciences Laboratories were randomly selected and invited to participate. Of those, 26 429 (4.4%) opted in, 14 365 of whom (54.3%) consented. The opt-in and consent samples were similar to the target population with respect to sex but differed by geographic residence and age (p<0.001). For the embedded incentive experiment, 2333 were randomised to the pre-incentive arm, while 2342 were randomised to the post-incentive arm. Overall consent rate in the incentive trial was 56.4% (60.9% for the pre-consent incentive arm (1421/2333) vs 52.0% for the post-consent incentive arm (1217/2342), p<0.001). Cost reduction was observed for the pre-consent incentive group, and higher response rates were seen among older versus younger individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-consent incentive option was associated with a higher participation rate and lower costs and was used for the remainder of study recruitment. CRC incidence and mortality vary with age; thus, adjusting for differential participation by age and region will be important in analyses of Voyage data. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04124406.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Seleção de Pacientes , Humanos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Idoso , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Fezes/química , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Incidência , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Benef Microbes ; 15(4): 397-410, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955351

RESUMO

Previous studies reporting the association between gut microbiota dysbiosis and maternal obesity were mostly confined at the phylum level or at postpartum period. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic changes in gut microbial communities associated with maternal obesity at different time points of pregnancy. We performed 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 amplicon sequencing on stool samples from 110 women in all three trimesters and 1-month postpartum. Maternal gut microbial communities associated with maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) were explored. The influence of maternal obesity on gut microbiota trajectories was determined based on longitudinal shifts in community clusters across the trimesters. The richness index of alpha diversity decreased with the progression of pregnancy, particularly in women with excessive GWG. The evenness index in 2nd trimester was found inversely associated with GWG. Various taxonomic differences in 1st trimester were associated with excessive GWG, whereas limited taxonomic differences in 2nd and 3rd trimesters were associated with pre-pregnancy BMI or GWG. Meanwhile, the gut microbiota trajectory with especially depleted genus Faecalibacterium in 1st trimester was associated with excessive GWG (adjusted odds ratio 5.7, 95% confidence interval 1.2-28.1). Moreover, the longitudinal abundances of genus Lachnospiraceae ND3007 group across gestations were depleted in women with overweight/obese pre-pregnancy BMI, while genus Bifidobacterium enriched in women with excessive GWG. Our study shows that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in early pregnancy may have a significant impact on excess GWG. The abundance of the genus Faecalibacterium in 1st trimester may be a potential risk factor. Clinical trial number: NCT03785093 (https://classic.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03785093).


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Disbiose , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Fezes/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Disbiose/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Obesidade/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem , Obesidade Materna , Faecalibacterium/genética
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 16122, 2024 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38997279

RESUMO

Alcoholic-associated liver disease (ALD) and metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) show a high prevalence rate worldwide. As gut microbiota represents current state of ALD and MASLD via gut-liver axis, typical characteristics of gut microbiota can be used as a potential diagnostic marker in ALD and MASLD. Machine learning (ML) algorithms improve diagnostic performance in various diseases. Using gut microbiota-based ML algorithms, we evaluated the diagnostic index for ALD and MASLD. Fecal 16S rRNA sequencing data of 263 ALD (control, elevated liver enzyme [ELE], cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) and 201 MASLD (control and ELE) subjects were collected. For external validation, 126 ALD and 84 MASLD subjects were recruited. Four supervised ML algorithms (support vector machine, random forest, multilevel perceptron, and convolutional neural network) were used for classification with 20, 40, 60, and 80 features, in which three nonsupervised ML algorithms (independent component analysis, principal component analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and random projection) were used for feature reduction. A total of 52 combinations of ML algorithms for each pair of subgroups were performed with 60 hyperparameter variations and Stratified ShuffleSplit tenfold cross validation. The ML models of the convolutional neural network combined with principal component analysis achieved areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) > 0.90. In ALD, the diagnostic AUC values of the ML strategy (vs. control) were 0.94, 0.97, and 0.96 for ELE, cirrhosis, and liver cancer, respectively. The AUC value (vs. control) for MASLD (ELE) was 0.93. In the external validation, the AUC values of ALD and MASLD (vs control) were > 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. The gut microbiota-based ML strategy can be used for the diagnosis of ALD and MASLD.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04339725.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Aprendizado de Máquina , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Algoritmos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Idoso , Curva ROC , Fezes/microbiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/microbiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo
13.
J Med Virol ; 96(7): e29802, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39023095

RESUMO

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder, is recognized for its association with alterations in the gut microbiome and metabolome. This study delves into the largely unexplored domain of the gut virome in IBS patients. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the fecal metagenomic data set from 277 IBS patients and 84 healthy controls to characterize the gut viral community. Our findings revealed a distinct gut virome in IBS patients compared to healthy individuals, marked by significant variances in between-sample diversity and altered abundances of 127 viral operational taxonomic units (vOTUs). Specifically, 111 vOTUs, predominantly belonging to crAss-like, Siphoviridae, Myoviridae, and Quimbyviridae families, were more abundant in IBS patients, whereas the healthy control group exhibited enrichment of 16 vOTUs from multiple families. We also investigated the interplay between the gut virome and bacteriome, identifying a correlation between IBS-enriched bacteria like Klebsiella pneumoniae, Fusobacterium varium, and Ruminococcus gnavus, and the IBS-associated vOTUs. Furthermore, we assessed the potential of gut viral signatures in predicting IBS, achieving a notable area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.834. These findings highlight significant shifts in the viral diversity, taxonomic distribution, and functional composition of the gut virome in IBS patients, suggesting the potential role of the gut virome in IBS pathogenesis and opening new avenues for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies targeting the gut virome in IBS management.


Assuntos
Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Metagenômica , Viroma , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/virologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Fezes/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Metagenoma
14.
Acta Vet Scand ; 66(1): 32, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39010071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) are widely distributed across Europe. They may play an important role by spreading zoonotic bacteria in the environment and to humans and animals. The aim of our work was to study the prevalence and characteristics of the most important foodborne bacterial pathogens in wild hedgehogs. RESULTS: Faecal samples from 148 hospitalised wild hedgehogs originating from the Helsinki region in southern Finland were studied. Foodborne pathogens were detected in 60% of the hedgehogs by PCR. Listeria (26%) and STEC (26%) were the most common foodborne pathogens. Salmonella, Yersinia, and Campylobacter were detected in 18%, 16%, and 7% of hedgehogs, respectively. Salmonella and Yersinia were highly susceptible to the tested antimicrobials. Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes 2a were the most common types found in hedgehogs. All S. Enteritidis belonged to one sequence type (ST11), forming four clusters of closely related isolates. L. monocytogenes was genetically more diverse than Salmonella, belonging to 11 STs. C. jejuni ST45 and ST677, Y. pseudotuberculosis O:1 of ST9 and ST42, and Y. enterocolitica O:9 of ST139 were also found. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that wild European hedgehogs should be considered an important source of foodborne pathogens, and appropriate hygiene measures after any contact with hedgehogs and strict biosecurity around farms are therefore important.


Assuntos
Ouriços , Ouriços/microbiologia , Animais , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fezes/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/veterinária , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0307079, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39012882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most of the current bacteriophages (phages) are mostly isolated from environments. However, phages isolated from feces might be more specific to the bacteria that are harmful to the host. Meanwhile, some phages from the environment might affect non-pathogenic bacteria for the host. METHODS: Here, bacteriophages isolated from mouse feces were intratracheally (IT) or intravenously (IV) administered in pneumonia mice caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2 hours post-intratracheal bacterial administration. As such, the mice with phage treatment, using either IT or IV administration, demonstrated less severe pneumonia as indicated by mortality, serum cytokines, bacteremia, bacterial abundance in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in lung tissue (immunofluorescence of neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase). RESULTS: Interestingly, the abundance of phages in BALF from the IT and IV injections was similar, supporting a flexible route of phage administration. With the incubation of bacteria with neutrophils, the presence of bacteriophages significantly improved bactericidal activity, but not NETs formation, with the elevated supernatant IL-6 and TNF-α, but not IL-1ß. In conclusion, our findings suggest that bacteriophages against Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be discovered from feces of the host. CONCLUSIONS: The phages attenuate pneumonia partly through an enhanced neutrophil bactericidal activity, but not via inducing NETs formation. The isolation of phages from the infected hosts themselves might be practically useful for future treatment. More studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Fezes , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Animais , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Camundongos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/terapia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/terapia , Pneumonia/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Terapia por Fagos/métodos , Feminino , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/terapia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia
16.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1324794, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39015337

RESUMO

Background: Despite mounting evidence of gut-brain involvement in psychiatric conditions, functional data remain limited, and analyses of other microbial niches, such as the vaginal microbiota, are lacking in relation to mental health. This aim of this study was to investigate if the connections between the gut microbiome and mental health observed in populations with a clinical diagnosis of mental illness extend to healthy women experiencing stress and depressive symptoms. Additionally, this study examined the functional pathways of the gut microbiota according to the levels of psychological symptoms. Furthermore, the study aimed to explore potential correlations between the vaginal microbiome and mental health parameters in young women without psychiatric diagnoses. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 160 healthy Danish women (aged 18-40 years) filled out questionnaires with validated scales measuring symptoms of stress and depression and frequency of dietary intake. Fecal and vaginal microbiota samples were collected at the beginning of the menstrual cycle and vaginal samples were also collected at cycle day 8-12 and 18-22. Shotgun metagenomic profiling of the gut and vaginal microbiome was performed. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) was used for functional profiling and 56 Gut Brain Modules were analyzed in the fecal samples. Results: The relative abundance in the gut of the genera Escherichia, Parabacteroides, and Shigella was higher in women with elevated depressive symptoms. Women with high perceived stress showed a tendency of increased abundance of Escherichia, Shigella, and Blautia. Amongst others, the potentially pathogenic genera, Escherichia and Shigella correlate with alterations in the neuroactive pathways such as the glutamatergic, GABAeric, dopaminergic, and Kynurenine pathways. Vaginosis symptoms were more prevalent in women reporting high levels of stress and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: The findings of this study support the concept of a microbiota-associated effect on the neuroactive pathways even in healthy young women. This suggest, that targeting the gut microbiome could be a promising approach for future psychiatric interventions.


Assuntos
Depressão , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estresse Psicológico , Vagina , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Adolescente , Depressão/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Estresse Psicológico/microbiologia , Microbiota , Dinamarca , Voluntários Saudáveis , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Metagenômica/métodos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1454: 541-582, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39008275

RESUMO

Digenetic trematodes form a major group of human parasites, affecting a large number of humans, especially in endemic foci. Over 100 species have been reported infecting humans, including blood, lung, liver and intestinal parasites. Traditionally, trematode infections have been diagnosed by parasitological methods based on the detection and the identification of eggs in different clinical samples. However, this is complicated due to the morphological similarity between eggs of different trematode species and other factors such as lack of sensitivity or ectopic locations of the parasites. Moreover, the problem is currently aggravated by migratory flows, international travel, international trade of foods and changes in alimentary habits. Although efforts have been made for the development of immunological and molecular techniques, the detection of eggs through parasitological techniques remains as the gold standard for the diagnosis of trematodiases. In the present chapter, we review the current status of knowledge on diagnostic techniques used when examining feces, urine, and sputum and also analyze the most relevant characteristics used to identify eggs with a quick key for the identification of eggs.


Assuntos
Fezes , Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos , Humanos , Infecções por Trematódeos/diagnóstico , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Escarro/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/métodos
18.
Parasitol Res ; 123(7): 274, 2024 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39017738

RESUMO

The North African hedgehog (Atelerix algirus) is an introduced species from Northwest Africa and is currently distributed in the Canary Islands. This species of hedgehog has been studied as a reservoir of enteropathogens, including Cryptosporidium spp. However, there are no data at species level. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify the Cryptosporidium species present in a population of hedgehogs (n = 36) in the Canary Islands. Molecular screening was performed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene of Cryptosporidium spp. Seven of the 36 fecal samples (19.45%) were positive and confirmed by nested PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene and Sanger sequencing. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium muris were identified in 11.1% (4/36) and 5.6% (2/36) of the samples, respectively, while one sample could only be identified at the genus level. The zoonotic subtypes IIdA15G1 (n = 1), IIdA16G1b (n = 1), and IIdA22G1 (n = 1) of C. parvum were identified by nested PCR followed by analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene sequence. This study is the first genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in A. algirus, identifying zoonotic species and subtypes of the parasite.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Ouriços , Filogenia , Animais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Ouriços/parasitologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha
19.
Parasitol Res ; 123(7): 273, 2024 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39017986

RESUMO

Blastocystis is an intestinal protist frequently identified in humans and other animals, though its clinical significance remains controversial. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis in faecal samples from symptomatic (n = 55) and asymptomatic (n = 50) individuals seeking medical care in Meknes, Morocco. Detection of the protist was accomplished through coproparasitological examination and culture in Jones medium. Culture-positive samples were subjected to molecular analyses (PCR and Sanger sequencing) based on sequences of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Epidemiological questionnaires on demographics and potential risk factors were collected from participating patients. The overall Blastocystis infection rate was 51.4% (54/105), with no differences between symptomatic (52.7%, 29/55) and asymptomatic (50.0%, 25/50) individuals. Sequence analyses identified three Blastocystis subtypes, with ST3 being the most prevalent (42.0%), followed by ST1 (34.0%), and ST2 (12.0%). Regarding intra-subtype diversity, allele 4 was found within ST1; alleles 11/12 and alleles 34/36 (alone or in combination) were identified within ST2 and ST3 respectively. Allele 34 in ST3 (40.8%) and allele 4 in ST1 (34.7%) were the most common genetic variants circulating in the surveyed clinical population. A statistically significant association between ST2 and the presence of flatulence was observed. This is the first study assessing the epidemiology and genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp. in the Meknes region, Morocco.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Fezes , Variação Genética , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Blastocystis/genética , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Fezes/parasitologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Prevalência , Criança , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Genótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 39(1): 110, 2024 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39009899

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease with an unclear etiology that can lead to irreversible changes in distal colonic function in chronic patients. This study investigated anorectal function in recurrent UC patients and identified influencing factors. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled 33 recurrent UC patients and 40 newly diagnosed patients from January 2019 to December 2022. Data collection included clinical records, scores, and anorectal function assessments. Regression analyses were used to identify factors impacting anorectal function. RESULTS: Recurrent UC patients had higher baseline CRP and fecal calprotectin levels, increased anxiety and depression, and more severe fecal incontinence. They also had lower BMIs, serum Hb and albumin (ALB) levels, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire scores than did initial-onset UC patients. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that long disease duration (coef. - 0.376, P < 0.001) and high fecal calprotectin level (coef. - 0.656, P < 0.001) independently influenced the initial sensation threshold in recurrent UC patients. Additionally, high fecal calprotectin (coef. - 0.073, P = 0.013) and high Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score (coef. - 0.489, P = 0.001) were identified as two independent determinants of the defecation volume threshold. For the defecation urgency threshold, the independent factors included high disease duration (coef. - 0.358, P = 0.017) and high fecal calprotectin level (coef. - 0.499, P = 0.001). Similarly, the sole independent factor identified for the maximum capacity threshold was high fecal calprotectin (coef. - 0.691, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Recurrent UC patients had increased rectal sensitivity and compromised anorectal function, which significantly impacted quality of life. Proactively managing the disease, reducing UC relapses, and addressing anxiety are effective measures for improving anorectal function in these patients.


Assuntos
Canal Anal , Colite Ulcerativa , Fezes , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário , Reto , Recidiva , Humanos , Colite Ulcerativa/fisiopatologia , Colite Ulcerativa/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Canal Anal/fisiopatologia , Reto/fisiopatologia , Defecação/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Incontinência Fecal/fisiopatologia , Incontinência Fecal/etiologia , Incontinência Fecal/psicologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia
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