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1.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 323, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNA (miRNA)-21-5p participates in various biological processes, including cancer and autoimmune diseases. However, its role in the development of fibrosis in the in vivo model of systemic sclerosis (SSc) has not been reported. This study investigated the effects of miRNA-21a-5p overexpression and inhibition on SSc fibrosis using a bleomycin-induced SSc mouse model. METHODS: A murine SSc model was induced by subcutaneously injecting 100 µg bleomycin dissolved in 0.9% NaCl into C57BL/6 mice daily for 5 weeks. On days 14, 21, and 28 from the start of bleomycin injection, 100 µg pre-miRNA-21a-5p or anti-miRNA-21a-5p in 1 mL saline was hydrodynamically injected into the mice. Fibrosis analysis was conducted in lung and skin tissues of SSc mice using hematoxylin and eosin as well as Masson's trichrome staining. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of inflammatory cytokines, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) at Y705 or S727, and phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome-10 (PTEN) in skin tissues of SSc mice. RESULTS: MiRNA-21a-5p overexpression promoted lung fibrosis in bleomycin-induced SSc mice, inducing infiltration of cells expressing TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, or IL-17, along with STAT3 phosphorylated cells in the lesional skin. Conversely, anti-miRNA-21a-5p injection improved fibrosis in the lung and skin tissues of SSc mice, reducing the infiltration of cells secreting inflammatory cytokines in the skin tissue. In particular, it decreased STAT3-phosphorylated cell infiltration at Y705 and increased the infiltration of PTEN-expressing cells in the skin tissue of SSc mice. CONCLUSION: MiRNA-21a-5p promotes fibrosis in an in vivo murine SSc model, suggesting that its inhibition may be a therapeutic strategy for improving fibrosis in SSc.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Animais , Camundongos , Bleomicina , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/induzido quimicamente , Pele/patologia
2.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 99(4): 640-648, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569813

RESUMO

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic and progressive immune-mediated esophageal disorder. Given its increasing incidence, it is now a leading cause of dysphagia and food impaction in the United States. Eosinophilic esophagitis is most common in adult White men and has a high concurrence rate with other atopic conditions like allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, and eczema. The initial presentation includes symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, classically solid-food dysphagia. Without treatment, inflammation can progress to fibrosis with the formation of strictures, leading to complications such as food impaction. It is a clinicopathologic disease requiring compatible clinical symptoms and histologic evidence of eosinophil-predominant inflammation of the esophageal epithelium with more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field. The mainstay of management includes the 3 d's (diet, drugs, dilation): dietary modifications to eliminate trigger food groups; medications including proton pump inhibitors, swallowed topical glucocorticoids, and dupilumab; and esophageal dilation to manage strictures. Various elimination diets have been found to be effective, including 1-food, 2-food, 4-food, and 6-food elimination diets. Dupilumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that regulates interleukin 4 and 13 signaling pathways, has shown promising results in clinical trials and was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2022 for use in EoE. Symptom alleviation, although important, is not the sole end point of treatment in EoE as persistent inflammation, even in the absence of symptoms, can lead to esophageal fibrosis and stricture formation over time. The chronic nature and high recurrence rates of EoE warrant maintenance therapy in patients with EoE after initial remission is achieved.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Esofagite Eosinofílica , Gastroenterologistas , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Esofagite Eosinofílica/diagnóstico , Esofagite Eosinofílica/terapia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/terapia , Constrição Patológica/complicações , Constrição Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico
3.
FASEB J ; 38(7): e23599, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572590

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease globally. Currently, there are no effective drugs for the treatment of DN. Although several studies have reported the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report that both human umbilical cord MSCs (UC-MSCs) and UC-MSC-derived exosomes (UC-MSC-exo) attenuate kidney damage, and inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and renal fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced DN rats. Strikingly, the Hedgehog receptor, smoothened (SMO), was significantly upregulated in the kidney tissues of DN patients and rats, and positively correlated with EMT and renal fibrosis. UC-MSC and UC-MSC-exo treatment resulted in decrease of SMO expression. In vitro co-culture experiments revealed that UC-MSC-exo reduced EMT of tubular epithelial cells through inhibiting Hedgehog/SMO pathway. Collectively, UC-MSCs inhibit EMT and renal fibrosis by delivering exosomes and targeting Hedgehog/SMO signaling, suggesting that UC-MSCs and their exosomes are novel anti-fibrotic therapeutics for treating DN.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Exossomos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Receptor Smoothened , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Fibrose , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Cordão Umbilical/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301824, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578745

RESUMO

Biliary atresia is a neonatal disease characterized by damage, inflammation, and fibrosis of the liver and bile ducts and by abnormal bile metabolism. It likely results from a prenatal environmental exposure that spares the mother and affects the fetus. Our aim was to develop a model of fetal injury by exposing pregnant mice to low-dose biliatresone, a plant toxin implicated in biliary atresia in livestock, and then to determine whether there was a hepatobiliary phenotype in their pups. Pregnant mice were treated orally with 15 mg/kg/d biliatresone for 2 days. Histology of the liver and bile ducts, serum bile acids, and liver immune cells of pups from treated mothers were analyzed at P5 and P21. Pups had no evidence of histological liver or bile duct injury or fibrosis at either timepoint. In addition, growth was normal. However, serum levels of glycocholic acid were elevated at P5, suggesting altered bile metabolism, and the serum bile acid profile became increasingly abnormal through P21, with enhanced glycine conjugation of bile acids. There was also immune cell activation observed in the liver at P21. These results suggest that prenatal exposure to low doses of an environmental toxin can cause subclinical disease including liver inflammation and aberrant bile metabolism even in the absence of histological changes. This finding suggests a wide potential spectrum of disease after fetal biliary injury.


Assuntos
Benzodioxóis , Atresia Biliar , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar , Gravidez , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Atresia Biliar/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares/patologia , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/complicações , Inflamação/patologia , Fibrose , Ácidos e Sais Biliares
6.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 154: 3630, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579324

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis is a chronic autoimmune connective tissue disease leading to microvascular and fibrotic manifestations in multiple organs. Several treatment options and recommendations from different European countries are available. In this study, for which the ambit is Switzerland specifically, we aim to describe the treatment patterns of systemic sclerosis patients with fibrotic manifestations. METHODS: Systemic sclerosis patients were selected from six Swiss tertiary centres recorded in the multicentre, prospective European Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) registry. Patients fulfilling the 2013 ACR/EULAR systemic sclerosis classification criteria at baseline were included. To determine the differences in treatment of varying degrees of fibrosis, four groups were identified: (1) patients with a modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) >0; (2) those with mRSS ≥7; (3) those with interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD), diagnosed by either chest X-Ray or high-resolution computed tomography; and (4) patients fulfilling one of the additional criteria for extensive interstitial lung disease, defined as interstitial lung disease involvement of >20% in high-resolution computed tomography, dyspnea NYHA-stage 3/4, or a predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) of <70%. RESULTS: A total of 590 patients with systemic sclerosis fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In this cohort, 421 (71.4%) had mRSS >0, of whom 195 (33.1%) had mRSS ≥7; interstitial lung disease was diagnosed in 198 of 456 (43.4%), of whom 106 (18.0 %) showed extensive interstitial lung disease. Regarding non-biologic disease-modifying medications (DMARDs), the most frequently prescribed was methotrexate, followed by hydroxychloroquine and mycophenolate mofetil. Rituximab and tocilizumab were most frequently used among the biologic DMARDs. Specifically, 148/372 (39.8%) of treated patients with skin fibrosis received methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil or rituximab, and 80/177 (45.2%) with interstitial lung disease received cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, tocilizumab or rituximab. Most patients received a proton-pump inhibitor, and few patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. CONCLUSION: Overall, in Switzerland, a wide range of medications is prescribed for systemic sclerosis patients. This includes modern, targeted treatments for which randomised controlled clinical trial have been recently reported.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Suíça , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Fibrose , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico
7.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 42(3): e4005, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583082

RESUMO

Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is an inevitable consequence of all progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) and contributes to a substantial health burden worldwide. Icariin, an active flavonoid glycoside obtained from Epimedium species, exerts potential antifibrotic effect. The study aimed to explore the protective effects of icariin against tubulointerstitial fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced CKD mice and TGF-ß1-treated HK-2 cells, and furthermore, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrated that icariin significantly improved renal function, alleviated tubular injuries, and reduced fibrotic lesions in UUO mice. Furthermore, icariin suppressed renal inflammation, reduced oxidative stress as evidenced by elevated superoxide dismutase activity and decreased malondialdehyde level. Additionally, TOMM20 immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscope revealed that mitochondrial mass and morphology of tubular epithelial cells in UUO mice was restored by icariin. In HK-2 cells treated with TGF-ß1, icariin markedly decreased profibrotic proteins expression, inhibited inflammatory factors, and protected mitochondria along with preserving mitochondrial morphology, reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) overproduction, and preserving membrane potential. Further investigations demonstrated that icariin could activate nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway both in vivo and in vitro, whereas inhibition of Nrf2 by ML385 counteracted the protective effects of icariin on TGF-ß1-induced HK-2 cells. In conclusion, icariin protects against renal inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis at least partly through Nrf2-mediated attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction, which suggests that icariin could be developed as a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of CKD.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Obstrução Ureteral , Camundongos , Animais , Rim/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Obstrução Ureteral/metabolismo , Obstrução Ureteral/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose , Inflamação/metabolismo
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8034, 2024 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580647

RESUMO

Post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) is a potentially life-threatening complication following liver resection. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) often occurs in patients with chronic liver disease, which increases the risk of PHLF. This study aimed to investigate the ability of the combination of liver function and fibrosis markers (ALBI score and FIB-4 index) to predict PHLF in patients with HCC. Patients who underwent hepatectomy for HCC between August 2012 and September 2022 were considered for inclusion. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with PHLF, and ALBI score and FIB-4 index were combined based on their regression coefficients. The performance of the combined ALBI-FIB4 score in predicting PHLF and postoperative mortality was compared with Child-Pugh score, MELD score, ALBI score, and FIB-4 index. A total of 215 patients were enrolled in this study. PHLF occurred in 35 patients (16.3%). The incidence of severe PHLF (grade B and grade C PHLF) was 9.3%. Postoperative 90-d mortality was 2.8%. ALBI score, FIB-4 index, prothrombin time, and extent of liver resection were identified as independent factors for predicting PHLF. The AUC of the ALBI-FIB4 score in predicting PHLF was 0.783(95%CI: 0.694-0.872), higher than other models. The ALBI-FIB4 score could divide patients into two risk groups based on a cut-off value of - 1.82. High-risk patients had a high incidence of PHLF of 39.1%, while PHLF just occurred in 6.6% of low-risk patients. Similarly, the AUCs of the ALBI-FIB4 score in predicting severe PHLF and postoperative 90-d mortality were also higher than other models. Preoperative ALBI-FIB4 score showed good performance in predicting PHLF and postoperative mortality in patients undergoing hepatectomy for HCC, superior to the currently commonly used liver function and fibrosis scoring systems.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Falência Hepática , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Hepatectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Albumina Sérica/análise , Falência Hepática/diagnóstico , Falência Hepática/etiologia , Fibrose , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 326(4): C1203-C1211, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581656

RESUMO

Cardiometabolic diseases are often associated with heightened levels of angiotensin II (Ang II), which accounts for the observed oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. Accumulating evidence indicates a parallel upregulation of dipeptidyl dipeptidase 4 (DPP4) activity in cardiometabolic diseases, with its inhibition shown to mitigate oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. These findings highlight an overlap between the pathophysiological mechanisms used by Ang II and DPP4. Recent evidence demonstrates that targeted inhibition of DPP4 prevents the rise in Ang II and its associated molecules in experimental models of cardiometabolic diseases. Similarly, inhibitors of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) or Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockers downregulate DPP4 activity, establishing a bidirectional relationship between DPP4 and Ang II. Here, we discuss the current evidence supporting the cross talk between Ang II and DPP4, along with the potential mechanisms promoting this cross regulation. A comprehensive analysis of this bidirectional relationship across tissues will advance our understanding of how DPP4 and Ang II collectively promote the development and progression of cardiometabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4 , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina , Inflamação , Fibrose , Angiotensina I
11.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 19(1): 187, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between the thickness of the left atrial posterior wall and the low and no voltage zones in the left atrial posterior wall in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: 61 patients admitted to our cardiology department for AF and radiofrequency ablation of AF from January 1, 2020 to May 30, 2022 were enrolled according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The atrial wall thickness was measured by CT scan. Baseline data, preoperative cardiac ultrasound data, preoperative biochemical parameters, low voltage zone (fibrotic zone) and no voltage zone (scar zone) in the left atrial posterior wall area, and various parameters of posterior left atrial wall thickness were collected. RESULTS: The differences of the thickness between the upper, middle and lower mean levels of the left atrial posterior wall were statistically significant (P = 0.004). The results showed that body mass index was weakly positively correlated with the mean level of total left atrial posterior wall thickness (r = 0.426, P = 0.001) and was statistically significant. The remaining indices were positively or negatively correlated with the mean level of total left atrial posterior wall thickness, but none were statistically significant (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both left atrial posterior wall low-voltage zone and voltage-free zone were positively correlated with the mean total left atrial posterior wall thickness, and left atrial posterior wall low-voltage zone and voltage-free zone were significantly positively correlated. Body mass index was weakly positively correlated with total left atrial posterior wall thickness.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ablação por Cateter , Humanos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/patologia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Fibrose , Cicatriz , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 25(4): 341-353, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584095

RESUMO

Kidney fibrosis is an inevitable result of various chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) and significantly contributes to end-stage renal failure. Currently, there is no specific treatment available for renal fibrosis. ELA13 (amino acid sequence: RRCMPLHSRVPFP) is a conserved region of ELABELA in all vertebrates; however, its biological activity has been very little studied. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of ELA13 on transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)-treated NRK-52E cells and unilateral ureteral occlusion (UUO) mice. Our results demonstrated that ELA13 could improve renal function by reducing creatinine and urea nitrogen content in serum, and reduce the expression of fibrosis biomarkers confirmed by Masson staining, immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and western blot. Inflammation biomarkers were increased after UUO and decreased by administration of ELA13. Furthermore, we found that the levels of essential molecules in the mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways were reduced by ELA13 treatment in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, ELA13 protected against kidney fibrosis through inhibiting the Smad and ERK signaling pathways and could thus be a promising candidate for anti-renal fibrosis treatment.


Assuntos
Nefropatias , Obstrução Ureteral , Camundongos , Animais , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Obstrução Ureteral/tratamento farmacológico , Obstrução Ureteral/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Rim/metabolismo , Fibrose , Biomarcadores/metabolismo
14.
BMC Med Imaging ; 24(1): 78, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the feasibility of Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) in assessing renal interstitial fibrosis induced by hyperuricemia. METHODS: A hyperuricemia rat model was established, and the rats were randomly split into the hyperuricemia (HUA), allopurinol (AP), and AP + empagliflozin (AP + EM) groups (n = 19 per group). Also, the normal rats were selected as controls (CON, n = 19). DKI was performed before treatment (baseline) and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days after treatment. The DKI indicators, including mean kurtosis (MK), fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean diffusivity (MD) of the cortex (CO), outer stripe of the outer medulla (OS), and inner stripe of the outer medulla (IS) were acquired. Additionally, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, Masson trichrome staining, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) immunostaining were used to reveal renal histopathological changes at baseline, 1, 5, and 9 days after treatment. RESULTS: The HUA, AP, and AP + EM group MKOS and MKIS values gradually increased during this study. The HUA group exhibited the highest MK value in outer medulla. Except for the CON group, all the groups showed a decreasing trend in the FA and MD values of outer medulla. The HUA group exhibited the lowest FA and MD values. The MKOS and MKIS values were positively correlated with Masson's trichrome staining results (r = 0.687, P < 0.001 and r = 0.604, P = 0.001, respectively). The MDOS and FAIS were negatively correlated with Masson's trichrome staining (r = -626, P < 0.0014 and r = -0.468, P = 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSION: DKI may be a non-invasive method for monitoring renal interstitial fibrosis induced by hyperuricemia.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia , Ratos , Animais , Hiperuricemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Fibrose
15.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 22(1): 149, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI), a representative form of ischemic heart disease, remains a huge burden worldwide. This study aimed to explore whether extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted from hyaluronic acid (HA)-primed induced mesenchymal stem cells (HA-iMSC-EVs) could enhance the cardiac repair after MI. RESULTS: HA-iMSC-EVs showed typical characteristics for EVs such as morphology, size, and marker proteins expression. Compared with iMSC-EVs, HA-iMSC-EVs showed enhanced tube formation and survival against oxidative stress in endothelial cells, while reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in cardiomyocytes. In THP-1 macrophages, both types of EVs markedly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory signaling players, whereas HA-iMSC-EVs were more potent in augmenting anti-inflammatory markers. A significant decrease of inflammasome proteins was observed in HA-iMSC-EV-treated THP-1. Further, phospho-SMAD2 as well as fibrosis markers in TGF-ß1-stimulated cardiomyocytes were reduced in HA-iMSC-EVs treatment. Proteomic data showed that HA-iMSC-EVs were enriched with multiple pathways including immunity, extracellular matrix organization, angiogenesis, and cell cycle. The localization of HA-iMSC-EVs in myocardium was confirmed after delivery by either intravenous or intramyocardial route, with the latter increased intensity. Echocardiography revealed that intramyocardial HA-iMSC-EVs injections improved cardiac function and reduced adverse cardiac remodeling and necrotic size in MI heart. Histologically, MI hearts receiving HA-iMSC-EVs had increased capillary density and viable myocardium, while showed reduced fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that HA-iMSC-EVs improve cardiac function by augmenting vessel growth, while reducing ROS generation, inflammation, and fibrosis in MI heart.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Infarto do Miocárdio , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteômica , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Fibrose
16.
Biol Res ; 57(1): 14, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570874

RESUMO

Galectins are soluble glycan-binding proteins that interact with a wide range of glycoproteins and glycolipids and modulate a broad spectrum of physiological and pathological processes. The expression and subcellular localization of different galectins vary among tissues and cell types and change during processes of tissue repair, fibrosis and cancer where epithelial cells loss differentiation while acquiring migratory mesenchymal phenotypes. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that occurs in the context of these processes can include modifications of glycosylation patterns of glycolipids and glycoproteins affecting their interactions with galectins. Moreover, overexpression of certain galectins has been involved in the development and different outcomes of EMT. This review focuses on the roles and mechanisms of Galectin-1 (Gal-1), Gal-3, Gal-4, Gal-7 and Gal-8, which have been involved in physiologic and pathogenic EMT contexts.


Assuntos
Galectinas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Galectinas/genética , Galectinas/metabolismo , Fibrose , Glicoproteínas , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Glicolipídeos
17.
Sci Transl Med ; 16(741): eadj0133, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569018

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) drives fibrosis and disease progression in a number of chronic disorders, but targeting this ubiquitously expressed cytokine may not yield a viable and safe antifibrotic therapy. Here, we sought to identify alternative ways to inhibit TGFß signaling using human hepatic stellate cells and macrophages from humans and mice in vitro, as well as mouse models of liver, kidney, and lung fibrosis. We identified Mer tyrosine kinase (MERTK) as a TGFß-inducible effector of fibrosis that was up-regulated during fibrosis in multiple organs in three mouse models. We confirmed these findings in liver biopsy samples from patients with metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). MERTK also induced TGFß expression and drove TGFß signaling resulting in a positive feedback loop that promoted fibrosis in cultured cells. MERTK regulated both canonical and noncanonical TGFß signaling in both mouse and human cells in vitro. MERTK increased transcription of genes regulating fibrosis by modulating chromatin accessibility and RNA polymerase II activity. In each of the three mouse models, disrupting the fibrosis-promoting signaling loop by reducing MERTK expression reduced organ fibrosis. Pharmacological inhibition of MERTK reduced fibrosis in these mouse models either when initiated immediately after injury or when initiated after fibrosis was established. Together, these data suggest that MERTK plays a role in modulating organ fibrosis and may be a potential target for treating fibrotic diseases.


Assuntos
Fígado , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , c-Mer Tirosina Quinase/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
18.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 44(2): 129-143, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575213

RESUMO

Most of the major clinical signs and consequences of eosinophilic esophagitis seem to be related to tissue remodeling. Important data on remodeling activity in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis are provided by a range of current and new biologic markers and diagnostics. To completely clarify the possible advantages and restrictions of therapeutic approaches, clinical studies should take into consideration the existence and reversibility of esophageal remodeling. The degree of mucosal or submucosal disease activity may not be reflected by epithelial eosinophilic inflammation, which is used to define one criterion of disease activity".


Assuntos
Enterite , Eosinofilia , Esofagite Eosinofílica , Gastrite , Humanos , Esofagite Eosinofílica/diagnóstico , Esofagite Eosinofílica/terapia , Fibrose
19.
Ren Fail ; 46(1): 2334406, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575341

RESUMO

A critical event in the pathogenesis of kidney fibrosis is the transition of macrophages into myofibroblasts (MMT). Exosomes play an important role in crosstalk among cells in the kidney and the development of renal fibrosis. However, the role of myofibroblast-derived exosomes in the process of MMT and renal fibrosis progression remains unknown. Here, we examined the role of myofibroblast-derived exosomes in MMT and kidney fibrogenesis. In vitro, transforming growth factor-ß1 stimulated the differentiation of kidney fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and promoted exosome release from myofibroblasts. RAW264.7 cells were treated with exosomes derived from myofibroblasts. We found purified exosomes from myofibroblasts trigger the MMT. By contrast, inhibition of exosome production with GW4869 or exosome depletion from the conditioned media abolished the ability of myofibroblasts to induce MMT. Mice treatment with myofibroblast-derived exosomes (Myo-Exo) exhibited severe fibrotic lesion and more abundant MMT cells in kidneys with folic acid (FA) injury, which was negated by TANK-banding kinase-1 inhibitor. Furthermore, suppression of exosome production reduced collagen deposition, extracellular matrix protein accumulation, and MMT in FA nephropathy. Collectively, Myo-Exo enhances the MMT and kidney fibrosis. Blockade of exosomes mediated myofibroblasts-macrophages communication may provide a novel therapeutic target for kidney fibrosis.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Nefropatias , Animais , Camundongos , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Rim/patologia , Fibrose
20.
BMC Nephrol ; 25(1): 121, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the potential of Native T1-mapping in predicting the prognosis of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We enrolled 119 CKD patients as the study subjects and included 20 healthy volunteers as the control group, with follow-up extending until October 2022. Out of these patients, 63 underwent kidney biopsy measurements, and these patients were categorized into high (25-50%), low (< 25%), and no renal interstitial fibrosis (IF) (0%) groups. The study's endpoint event was the initiation of renal replacement therapy, kidney transplantation, or an increase of over 30% in serum creatinine levels. Cox regression analysis determined factors influencing unfavorable kidney outcomes. We employed Kaplan-Meier analysis to contrast kidney survival rates between the high and low T1 groups. Additionally, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis assessed the predictive accuracy of Native T1-mapping for kidney endpoint events. RESULTS: T1 values across varying fibrosis degree groups showed statistical significance (F = 4.772, P < 0.05). Multivariate Cox regression pinpointed 24-h urine protein, cystatin C(CysC), hemoglobin(Hb), and T1 as factors tied to the emergence of kidney endpoint events. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a markedly higher likelihood of kidney endpoint events in the high T1 group compared to the low T1 value group (P < 0.001). The ROC curves for variables (CysC, T1, Hb) tied to kidney endpoint events demonstrated area under the curves(AUCs) of 0.83 (95%CI: 0.75-0.91) for CysC, 0.77 (95%CI: 0.68-0.86) for T1, and 0.73 (95%CI: 0.63-0.83) for Hb. Combining these variables elevated the AUC to 0.88 (95%CI: 0.81-0.94). CONCLUSION: Native T1-mapping holds promise in facilitating more precise and earlier detection of CKD patients most at risk for end-stage renal disease.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Rim , Prognóstico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Fibrose , Hemoglobinas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
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