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1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300615, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568985

RESUMO

The majority of Iranian fig production is exported, making it one of the world's most well-known healthy crops. Therefore, the main objective of the current experiment was to investigate the effects of various types of organic fertilizers, such as animal manure (cow and sheep), bird manure (partridge, turkey, quail, and chicken), and vermicompost, on the nutritional status of trees, vegetative and reproductive tree characteristics, fruit yield, and fruit quality traits in dried fig cultivar ("Sabz"). According to the findings, applying organic fertilizers, particularly turkey and quail, significantly improves vegetative and reproductive characteristics. However, other manures such as sheep, chicken, and vermicompost had a similar effect on the growth parameters of fig trees. Additionally, the findings indicated that except for potassium, use of all organic fertilizers had an impact on macro and microelements such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and sodium amount in fig tree leaves. Also, based on fruit color analysis in dried figs, the use of all organic fertilizers improved fruit color. Moreover, the analyses fruit biochemical showed that the use of some organic fertilizers improved that TSS and polyphenol compounds such as coumarin, vanillin, hesperidin gallic acid and trans frolic acid. In general, the results indicated that the addition of organic fertilizers, especially turkey manure, led to increased vegetative productivity and improvement in the fruit quality of the rain-fed fig orchard.


Assuntos
Ficus , Frutas , Ovinos , Animais , Solo/química , Ficus/química , Irã (Geográfico) , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco/análise , Estado Nutricional , Nitrogênio/análise
2.
Zootaxa ; 5401(1): 1-190, 2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480114

RESUMO

Eurytomidae (Chalcidoidea) species associated with fig trees (Ficus) are still poorly documented. A phylogenetic analysis of 63 morphological characters was conducted to revise Afrotropical species of Sycophila Walker and Ficomila Bouek associated with fig trees. Based on our results, which also included Palaearctic species of Sycophila, three subgenera of Sycophila are proposed: Sycophila s. str., Tineomyza Rondani stat. rev. and a new subgenus, Ficorytoma subgen. n. Lotfalizadeh & Rasplus. Ficomila is maintained as a valid genus. Thirty-six species are also newly described by Lotfalizadeh & Rasplus, namely Ficomila artocarpoides sp. n., F. carolae sp. n., F. bouceki sp. n., F. comptoni sp. n., F. flava sp. n., F. gabonensis sp. n., F. gibba sp. n., F. guinensis sp. n., F. sinai sp. n., F. tanzanica sp. n., F. vannoorti sp. n., Sycophila (Tineomyza) beninensis sp. n., S. (T.) busseicola sp. n., S. (T.) glumosae sp. n., S. (T.) luteacola sp. n., S. (T.) maldesi sp. n., S. (T.) minuta sp. n., S. (T.) platygastra sp. n., S. (T.) risbeci sp. n., S. (T.) wiebesi sp. n., S. (T.) zebrogastra sp. n., S. (Ficorytoma) delvarei sp. n., S. (F.) persicae sp. n., S. (Sycophila) annae sp. n., S. (S.) bidentata sp. n., S. (S.) longiflagellata sp. n., S. (S.) chirindensis sp. n., S. (S.) ficophila sp. n., S. (S.) fusca sp. n., S. (S.) lasallei sp. n., S. (S.) macrospermae sp. n., S. (S.) meridionalis sp. n., S. (S.) nigra sp. n., S. (S.) nigriterga sp. n., S. (S.) suricola sp. n., S. (S.) zebra sp. n.. Seven described species of Sycophila are reclassified in the subgenus Tineomyza: Sycophila (Tineomyza) flaviclava Bouek, 1981; S. (T.) modesta Bouek, 1981; S. (T.) naso Bouek, 1981; S. (T.) punctum Bouek, 1981; S. (T.) ruandensis Risbec, 1957; S. (T.) sessilis Bouek, 1981 and S. (T.) setulosa Zerova, 2009. After this revision, Ficomila and Sycophila include 46 species associated with Afrotropical Ficus. Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations as well as identification keys are provided for the subgenera, species-groups and species of Ficomila and Sycophila associated with Afrotropical fig trees; their host fig association and relative lack of host-specificity are also discussed.


Assuntos
Ficus , Gastrópodes , Himenópteros , Caramujos , Animais , Filogenia
3.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 208: 111286, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498957

RESUMO

Dried figs were studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for identification of radiation treatment and dosage assessment. Gamma-irradiated samples show a multicomponent "sugar-like" EPR spectrum with line width of 6-8 mT, centered at g = 2.004. The investigation of the influence of the instrumental parameters microwave power and modulation amplitude on the EPR signal show saturation effect at microwave power above 2 mW and over modulation at modulation amplitude above 0.4 mT. Determination of the stability of radiation induced signals shows, that identification of previous radiation treatment is possible for a long time period after irradiation even more than one year. Dose-response curves of gamma-irradiated samples exhibits a linear response up to about 4 kGy and the saturation of the EPR signal at higher doses. A Single Aliquot Additive dosing method used to estimate the initial absorbed dose in irradiated dried fig flesh shows initial dose 0.25 kGy for the sample irradiated by 5 kGy and 3.7 kGy for those irradiated using 10 kGy. Taking into account the signal decay after 150 days of storage, the dose defined as initial should be 4.65 kGy for the 5 kGy irradiated sample and 8 kGy for that irradiated using 10 kGy.


Assuntos
Ficus , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica/métodos , Raios gama
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 919: 170861, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354792

RESUMO

Tropospheric ozone (O3) is likely to affect the chemical signal emitted by flowers to attract their pollinators through its effects on the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its high reactivity with these compounds in the atmosphere. We investigated these possible effects using a plant-pollinator interaction where the VOCs responsible for pollinator attraction are known and which is commonly exposed to high O3 concentration episodes: the Mediterranean fig tree (Ficus carica) and its unique pollinator, the fig wasp (Blastophaga psenes). In controlled conditions, we exposed fig trees bearing receptive figs to a high-O3 episode (5 h) of 200 ppb and analyzed VOC emission. In addition, we investigated the chemical reactions occurring in the atmosphere between O3 and pollinator-attractive VOCs using real-time monitoring. Finally, we tested the response of fig wasps to the chemical signal when exposed to increasing O3 mixing ratios (0, 40, 80, 120 and 200 ppb). The exposure of the fig tree to high O3 levels induced a significant decrease in leaf stomatal conductance, a limited change in the emission by receptive figs of VOCs not involved in pollinator attraction, but a major change in the relative abundances of the compounds among pollinator-attractive VOCs in O3-enriched atmosphere. Fig VOCs reacted with O3 in the atmosphere even at the lowest level tested (40 ppb) and the resulting changes in VOC composition significantly disrupted the attraction of the specific pollinator. These results strongly suggest that current O3 episodes are probably already affecting the interaction between the fig tree and its specific pollinator.


Assuntos
Ficus , Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Vespas , Animais , Árvores , Polinização/fisiologia , Vespas/fisiologia
5.
Genome Biol Evol ; 16(2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302111

RESUMO

The evolution of reproductive mode is expected to have profound impacts on the genetic composition of populations. At the same time, ecological interactions can generate close associations among species, which can in turn generate a high degree of overlap in their spatial distributions. Caenorhabditis elegans is a hermaphroditic nematode that has enabled extensive advances in developmental genetics. Caenorhabditis inopinata, the sister species of C. elegans, is a gonochoristic nematode that thrives in figs and obligately disperses on fig wasps. Here, we describe patterns of genomic diversity in C. inopinata. We performed RAD-seq on individual worms isolated from the field across three Okinawan island populations. C. inopinata is about five times more diverse than C. elegans. Additionally, C. inopinata harbors greater differences in diversity among functional genomic regions (such as between genic and intergenic sequences) than C. elegans. Conversely, C. elegans harbors greater differences in diversity between high-recombining chromosome arms and low-recombining chromosome centers than C. inopinata. FST is low among island population pairs, and clear population structure could not be easily detected among islands, suggesting frequent migration of wasps between islands. These patterns of population differentiation appear comparable with those previously reported in its fig wasp vector. These results confirm many theoretical population genetic predictions regarding the evolution of reproductive mode and suggest C. inopinata population dynamics may be driven by wasp dispersal. This work sets the stage for future evolutionary genomic studies aimed at understanding the evolution of sex as well as the evolution of ecological interactions.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis , Ficus , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Ficus/genética , Caenorhabditis/genética , Genética Populacional , Genômica
6.
Biosystems ; 237: 105162, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38395103

RESUMO

Plants and animals have long been considered distinct kingdoms, yet here a 'plant-animal' is described. An extraordinary symbiosis in which neither organism can reproduce without the other, the fig tree (Ficus) provides the habitat for its exclusive pollinator: the fig wasp (Agaonidae). Characterising the 'fig-fig wasp holobiont' acknowledges, for the first time, 'plant-animal symbiogenesis'.


Assuntos
Ficus , Vespas , Animais , Polinização , Ecossistema , Simbiose
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 259(Pt 1): 129199, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176487

RESUMO

Jelly fig polysaccharides (JFP) were extracted from Ficus awkeotsang Makino achenes. The yield of JFP was approximately 10-15 %. FT-IR spectrum of the extracted JFP confirmed that it was made of low methoxyl pectin (LMP). 3D scaffolds of JFP (JFP scaffold) were fabricated using ionic crosslinking of 2 % (w/v) JFP solution with Ca2+ ions and freeze-drying. The JFP scaffold showed 73.46 ± 1.97 % porosity and a 12-fold swelling capacity. The porous morphology was also observed in SEM micrographs. JFP scaffolds were completely degraded in 14 days when incubated in 1 mg/mL lysozyme solution, compared to the 50 % degradation observed in PBS alone. The antioxidant activity of the JFP and JFP scaffold was approximately 40 %. The hemolytic assay of the JFP scaffold showed <5 % (3.0 ± 0.4) RBC lysis. The cytocompatibility of the JFP scaffold was evaluated using L929 mouse fibroblasts and human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). The in vitro studies using L929 cells showed that the JFP scaffold is cytocompatible. HDF cells cultured in the presence of JFP scaffolds show a higher fold cell viability, proliferation, and migration. Collagen expression and deposition were also studied, and no significant changes occurred with JFP scaffold treatment. In vivo CAM assay showed an increase in the number and thickness of blood vessels by 1.185-fold and 1.19-fold, respectively. These results confirm the angiogenic property of the JFP scaffold. These biocompatible and bioactive properties of the JFP scaffold could be beneficial for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.


Assuntos
Ficus , Engenharia Tecidual , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Colágeno , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Tecidos Suporte , Porosidade
8.
Virology ; 591: 109992, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38246037

RESUMO

We investigated the virome of agaonid fig wasps (Ceratosolen spp.) inside syconia ("fruits") of various Ficus trees fed upon by frugivores such as pteropodid bats in Sub-Saharan Africa. This virome includes representatives of viral families spanning four realms and includes near-complete genome sequences of three novel viruses and fragments of five additional potentially novel viruses evolutionarily associated with insects, fungi, plants, and vertebrates. Our study provides evidence that frugivorous animals are exposed to a plethora of viruses by coincidental consumption of fig wasps, which are obligate pollinators of figs worldwide.


Assuntos
Ficus , Vespas , Humanos , Animais , Viroma , Polinização , Frutas , Simbiose
9.
J Mol Evol ; 92(1): 42-60, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280051

RESUMO

Fig wasps (Agaonidae; Hymenoptera) are the only pollinating insects of fig trees (Ficus; Moraceae), forming the most closely and highly specific mutualism with the host. We used transcriptome sequences of 25 fig wasps from six genera to explore the evolution of key molecular components of fig wasp chemosensory genes: odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs). We identified a total 321 OBPs and 240 CSPs, with each species recording from 6 to 27 OBP genes and 6-19 CSP genes. 318 OBP genes are clustered into 17 orthologous groups and can be divided into two groups: PBP sensitive to pheromone and GOBP sensitive to general odor molecules, such as alcohols, esters, acids, ketones, and terpenoids. 240 CSP genes are clustered into 12 orthologous groups, which can be divided into three major groups and have functions, such as olfactory, tissue formation and/or regeneration, developmental, and some specific and unknown function. The gene sequences of most orthologous groups vary greatly among species and are consistent with the phylogenetic relationships between fig wasps. Strong purifying selection of both OBP and CSP genes was detected, as shown by low ω values. A positive selection was detected in one locus in CSP1. In conclusion, the evolution of chemosensory proteins OBPs and CSPs in fig wasps is relatively conservative, and they play an indispensable role in the life activities of fig wasps. Our results provide a starting point for understanding the molecular basis of the chemosensory systems of fig wasps.


Assuntos
Ficus , Vespas , Animais , Filogenia , Vespas/genética , Ficus/genética , Odorantes , Simbiose
10.
Tree Physiol ; 44(2)2024 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198737

RESUMO

Despite intensive studies on plant functional traits, the intraspecific variation and their co-variation at the multi-scale remains poorly studied, which holds the potential to unveil plant responses to changing environmental conditions. In this study, intraspecific variations of 16 leaf functional traits of a common fig species, Ficus tinctoria G. Frost., were investigated in relation to different scales: habitat types (hemiepiphytic and terrestrial), growth stages (small, medium and large) and tree crown positions (upper, middle and lower) in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China. Remarkable intraspecific variation was observed in leaf functional traits, which was mainly influenced by tree crown position, growth stage and their interaction. Stable nitrogen isotope (δ15N) and leaf area (LA) showed large variations, while stable carbon isotope (δ13C), stomata width and leaf water content showed relatively small variations, suggesting that light- and nitrogen-use strategies of F. tinctoria were plastic, while the water-use strategies have relatively low plasticity. The crown layers are formed with the growth of figs, and leaves in the lower crown increase their chlorophyll concentration and LA to improve the light energy conversion efficiency and the ability to capture weak light. Meanwhile, leaves in the upper crown increase the water-use efficiency to maintain their carbon assimilation. Moreover, hemiepiphytic medium (transitional stage) and large (free-standing stage) figs exhibited more significant trait differentiation (chlorophyll concentration, δ13C, stomata density, etc.) within the crown positions, and stronger trait co-variation compared with their terrestrial counterparts. This pattern demonstrates their acclimation to the changing microhabitats formed by their hemiepiphytic life history. Our study emphasizes the importance of multi-scaled intraspecific variation and co-variation in trait-based strategies of hemiepiphyte and terrestrial F. tinctoria, which facilitate them to cope with different environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Ficus , Ficus/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Clorofila , Aclimatação , Árvores/fisiologia , Água
11.
Microsc Res Tech ; 87(5): 957-976, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38174385

RESUMO

The present exploration demonstrates the efficient, sustainable, cost-effective, and environment-friendly green approach for the synthesis of silver (Ag)-doped copper oxide (CuO) embedded with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite using the green one-pot method and the green deposition method. Leaf extracts of Ficus carica and Azadirachta indica were used for both methods as reducing and capping agents. The effect of methodology and plant extract was analyzed through different characterization techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The lowest band gap of 3.0 eV was observed for the Ag/CuO/rGO prepared by the green one-pot method using F. carica. The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and the formation of metal oxide was confirmed through functional group detection using FT-IR. Calculation of thermodynamic parameters showed that all reactions involved were nonspontaneous and endothermic which shows the stability of nanocomposites. XRD studies revealed the crystallinity, phase purity and small average crystallite size of 32.67 nm. SEM images disclosed that the morphology of the nanocomposites was spherical with agglomeration and rough texture. The particle size of the nanocomposites calculated through HRTEM was found in agreement with the XRD results. The numerous properties of the synthesized nanocomposites enhanced their potential against the degradation of methylene blue, rhodamine B, and ciprofloxacin. The highest percentage degradation of Ag/CuO/rGO was found to be 97%, synthesized using the green one-pot method with F. carica against ciprofloxacin, which might be due to the lowest band gap, delayed electron-hole pair recombination, and large surface area available. The nanocomposites were also tested against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: Facile synthesis of Ag/CuO/rGO nanocomposite using a green one-pot method and the green deposition method. The lowest band gap of 3.0 eV was observed for nanocomposite prepared by a green one-pot method using Ficus carica. Least average crystallite size of 32.67 nm was found for nanocomposite prepared by a green one-pot method using F. carica. Highest antibacterial and catalytic activity (97%) was obtained against ciprofloxacin with nanocomposite prepared through green one-pot method using F. carica. A mechanism of green synthesis is proposed.


Assuntos
Azadirachta , Ficus , Grafite , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanocompostos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Nanocompostos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ciprofloxacina , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química
12.
Eur J Neurosci ; 59(7): 1833-1847, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38217338

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are a significant global health concern, primarily affecting middle and older populations. Recently, there has been growing interest in herbal therapeutics as a potential approach to address diverse neuropathological conditions. Despite the widespread prevalence of NDs, limited phytochemical has been reported for their promising therapeutic potential with distinct underlying mechanisms. Additionally, the intricate molecular pathways influenced by herbal phytoconstituents, particularly in neurodegenerative disorders, are also not well documented. This report explores the phytoconstituents of Ficus racemosa (F. racemosa), an unfamiliar plant of the Moraceae family, for their potential interactions with pathological pathways of NDs. The influential phytoconstituents of F. racemosa, including polyphenols, glycosides, terpenoids, and furocoumarin, have been reported for targeting diverse pathological states. We proposed the most convincing molecular interplay between leading phytoconstituents and detrimental signalling cascades. However, extensive research is required to thoroughly understand the phytochemical persuaded intricate molecular pathway. The comprehensive evidence strongly suggests that F. racemosa and its natural compounds could be valuable in treating NDs. This points towards an exciting path for future research and the development of potential treatments based on a molecular level.


Assuntos
Ficus , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ficus/química , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos
13.
Bioorg Chem ; 144: 107116, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38237391

RESUMO

Four undescribed coumarin derivatives, ficusalt A (1) and ficusalt B (2), a pair of racemic coumarins, (±) ficudimer A (3a/3b), along with ten known amides, were isolated from the roots of Ficus hirta. Their structures were elucidated by several spectroscopic data analyses, including HRESIMS, NMR, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The cytotoxic activities of all compounds against HeLa, HepG2, MCF-7, and H460 cell lines were detected using the MTT assay. Among these, 5 showed the highest activity against HeLa cells. Subsequently, the apoptotic, anti-invasive, and anti-migration effects of 5 on HeLa cells were determined by flow cytometer, transwell invasion assay, and wound-healing assay, respectively. The result suggested that 5 distinctly induced the apoptosis in HeLa cells and inhibited their invasion and migration. Further studies on anticancer mechanisms were conducted using Western blotting. As a result, 5 increased the cleavage of PARP and the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Moreover, 5 notably upregulated the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK, whereas inhibited the expression of p-ERK and p-AKT. Our results demonstrated that 5 could be a potential leading compound for further application in the treatment of cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Ficus , Feminino , Humanos , Células HeLa , Ficus/química , Amidas/farmacologia , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose
14.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0290439, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38165887

RESUMO

Recent studies have challenged assumptions about the classic fig-fig wasp pollination mutualism model, suggesting that further investigation into the receptive phase of fig development is needed. This study assessed the pollination mechanisms of Ficus septica in southern Taiwan and identified two species of wasps as the primary pollinators. Machine learning was used to identify and rank the factors that explain the relative abundance of these wasps. The two wasp species showed the highest level of cohabitation ever reported in the literature, with three-quarters of the figs containing multiple foundresses. The study also reported re-emerged foundresses and a 10% ratio of pollinated figs without foundresses. Local factors, such as the sampling period and tree identity, were the best predictors of the presence and number of each foundress species, with fig size also affecting the number of foundresses. The study highlights the variability in pollinator abundance between figs, crops, and trees. It also shows that the local environment of the trees and the availability of figs are crucial factors in determining which figs the pollinator wasps choose. These findings challenge assumptions about the classic mutualism model and suggest that long-term surveys are needed to estimate the relative contributions of each partner and provide data for evolutionary and ecological models. This study also provides valuable insights into the factors that affect the abundance and interactions of pollinator wasps during the receptive phase of fig development, with implications for understanding the behaviour of pollinating wasps and advancing our knowledge of population dynamics in Ficus species.


Assuntos
Ficus , Vespas , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Simbiose , Polinização , Árvores
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 321: 117519, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38043752

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ficus benghalensis, commonly known as Banyan Fig, is the national tree of India and its aerial roots are used traditionally to treat female reproductive disorders. However, despite this traditional use, no pharmacological evidence could be traced supporting this use. Additionally, no comprehensive metabolite profiling was reported for F. benghalensis aerial roots. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study attempts to justify biochemically the traditional use of F. benghalensis aerial roots in treatment of female reproductive disorders and in relation to its secondary metabolite profile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total ethanol extract (TEE) and subfractions [petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and n-butanol (BUF] were prepared from air-dried powdered aerial roots of F. benghalensis. Detailed in-vivo investigation of the hormonal activity and action mechanism of the total ethanol extract and subfractions was carried out through evaluation of estrogenic and gonadotropic activities. The estrogenic activity was evaluated on ovariectomized immature female rats through estimating uterine weight, vaginal cornification and serum estradiol level along with histological examination of uteri. The gonadotropic activity was measured by assay of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) like activities. Total follicular and corpora lutea counts in immature female rats were used to determine FSH and LH like activities, respectively in addition to histological picture of the genitalia. Comprehensive non-targeted metabolite profiling was carried out for the TEE and subfractions using UPLC-HRMS in negative and positive ionization modes. UPLC-MS fingerprint was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares analyses to correlate the bioactivities to specific chemical constituents in F. benghalensis different subfractions. GC-MS was further used for non-polar silylated fractions. RESULTS: Results revealed that only the non-polar PEF and CHF displayed moderate estrogenic and FSH-like activities but with no LH-like activity. Metabolites profiling via (UPLC-HRMS) and multivariate PCA analysis enabled identification and comparison of various chemical classes in F. benghalensis extract and fractions. The active non-polar fractions revealed nearly similar metabolites profile being composed of isoflavonoids, triterpenes, sterols, fatty acids and cyclic peptides. In contrast, polar fractions were more abundant in apocarotenoids, fatty acyl amides, hydroxybenzoates and hydroxycinnamates in addition to two lignans. PLS analysis revealed strong correlation between hydroxylated fatty acids and pyranoisoflavones with estrogenic and FSH-like activities. GC-MS analysis was further employed for non-polar fractions profiling revealing for their enrichment in fatty acids/esters, terpenes, organic acids and phenolics. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to rationalize the use of F. benghalensis aerial root traditionally in treatment of gynecological disorders, revealing that the petroleum ether and chloroform non-polar subfractions of F. benghalensis showed estrogenic and FSH-like activity with absence of LH-like activity. This biological activity could possibly be attributed to its metabolites profile of isoflavonoids, fatty acids, triterpenes, sterols and cyclic peptides identified via UPLC-MS and GC-MS techniques. Consequently, F. benghalensis aerial roots should be used with caution in traditional treatment of female infertility or other reproductive disorders.


Assuntos
Ficus , Triterpenos , Feminino , Ratos , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Clorofórmio , Ratos Endogâmicos BUF , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Etanol , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Peptídeos Cíclicos , Esteróis
16.
Food Chem ; 438: 138067, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38039865

RESUMO

In this study, figs were irradiated with X-rays doses of 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 kGy and stored at 4 °C for 20 d to evaluate effects of X-ray on redox homeostasis and energy metabolism in figs. Non-irradiated figs were recorded as control group. Results indicated that 3.0 kGy X-rays delayed fig color discoloration by inhibiting the ΔE* values. The electrolyte leakage, MDA and O2-· levels of figs were significantly alleviated. Energy metabolism assay revealed that 3.0 kGy X-rays could significantly maintain higher activities of H+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, SDH, CCO, G6PDH and 6PGDH of figs. 3.0 kGy X-rays also retained mitochondria membrane integrity of figs. Furthermore, 3.0 kGy X-rays resulted in 26.09 % higher NADK activity and 16.30 % lower NADH content than the control. The study proves that X-ray irradiation can be used as figs preservation means to maintain redox homeostasis and regulate energy metabolism, thus lengthening the shelf life of figs.


Assuntos
Ficus , Raios X , Oxirredução
17.
Fitoterapia ; 172: 105755, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38000761

RESUMO

Ficus deltoidea was known for its potent antioxidant, anti-melanogenic and photoprotective skin barrier activities. These properties are contributed by its biomarkers which are vitexin and isovitexin. This study aims to optimize the yield of methanolic extraction of Ficus deltoidea leaves (EFD) and evaluate their effects on skin barrier function and hydration. For optimization, Box-Behnken design was utilized to investigate the effects of methanol concentration, sonication time, and solvent-to-sample ratio on the yields of vitexin and isovitexin in EFD. The optimal yields obtained were 32.29 mg/g for vitexin and 35.87 mg/g for isovitexin. The optimum extraction conditions were 77.66% methanol concentration, 20.03 min sonication time, and 19.88 mL/g solvent-to-sample ratio. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was utilized to measure variant marker genes of transglutaminase-1, caspase 14, ceramide synthase 3, involucrin, and filaggrin of EFD-induced keratinocyte differentiation by in vitro study. Exposure to EFD has elevated the mRNA levels of all tested marker genes by 0.7-9.2 folds. Then, in vivo efficacy study was conducted on 20 female subjects for 14 days to evaluate skin biophysical assessment of hydration. EFD topical formulation treatment successfully increased skin hydration on day 7 (43.74%) and day 14 (47.23%). In silico study by molecular docking was performed to identify intermolecular binding interactions of vitexin and isovitexin with the interested proteins of tested marker genes. The result of molecular docking to the interested proteins revealed a similar trend with real-time PCR data. In conclusion, EFD potentially enhanced the skin barrier function and hydration of human skin cells.


Assuntos
Ficus , Extratos Vegetais , Humanos , Feminino , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ficus/química , Metanol , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Solventes
18.
J Econ Entomol ; 117(1): 118-126, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37978043

RESUMO

Planococcus ficus (Signoret) is a worldwide pest of grapevine. Mealybugs overwinter under bark and move into the grape canopy as the season progresses. Because crawlers are more active than later stages, mealybug movement behavior is likely to be stage specific. To quantify P. ficus demography and movement behavior, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted. First, P. ficus populations were monitored on grapevine seedlings to describe survival, change in size, timing of male pupation, and timing of oviposition over a 6-wk period. Subsequently, cohorts of mealybugs were generated by infesting grapevines with crawlers and holding infested grapevines for a specified duration of 0 (crawlers), 1, 2, 3, or 4 wk. Crawlers (0-wk) were more likely to move upwards and towards a light source, than all other age cohorts tested. Further, mealybugs from 4-wk-old cohorts were more likely to move downward than all other age cohorts tested. Results suggest that crawlers are more likely to move to the top of grapevines by moving upwards and orienting towards either the sun or the moon than all other age cohorts tested, whereas older gravid females are more likely to move downward. Passive movement of mealybugs on farm machinery or animals requires surviving a host free period. To quantify risk of passive movement, establishment rates and effects of starvation on each age cohort were quantified. Larger and older mealybugs were more likely to establish on grapevines than smaller and younger mealybugs. Further, mealybug longevity in absence of food was greater for older cohorts compared to younger cohorts. Crawlers survived an average of 2 days without food, whereas females from 4-wk-old cohorts survived for an average of 11 days without food. Further, 70% of starved females from 4-wk-old cohorts deposited fertile eggs. In the absence of food, some mealybugs from cohorts aged 2-, 3-, and 4-wk formed pupa with viable males emerging. Adult males from starved nymphs lived for an average of 3 days post-emergence. Results provide methods for producing cohorts of mealybugs of predictable size and stage and provides insight into P. ficus demography and movement behavior.


Assuntos
Ficus , Hemípteros , Vitis , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Inseto Planococcus , Movimento , Demografia
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 104(6): 3275-3293, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38115189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit is consumed worldwide as a functional food. It contains phytochemicals that have been related to health benefits. However, the characteristic chemicals remain unclear. In this work, phytochemicals were prepared from figus by ultrasound-assisted extraction under optimized conditions. The chemical composition of fig fruit and leaves was characterized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-seven compounds were identified, including 58 flavonoids, 29 coumarins, 19 acids, 15 terpenoids, 11 alkaloids, and 25 other compounds. The mass spectrum (MS) fragmentation pathways of representative chemicals were elucidated. Flavonoid glycosides and prenylated flavonoids were mainly present in fig fruit, whereas coumarins were abundant in leaves. Both fig fruit and leaf extracts showed good cellular antioxidant activity. CONCLUSION: The full phytochemical profile of fig was revealed by UPLC-MS/MS. Prenylated flavonoids and prenylated coumarins were the characteristic phytochemicals. These data provided useful information for the extensive utilization of fig fruit in functional food. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Ficus , Antioxidantes/análise , Ficus/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Flavonoides/análise , Cumarínicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise
20.
J Econ Entomol ; 117(1): 209-217, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38124401

RESUMO

Perina nuda (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a serious pest of banyan trees (Ficus spp.), which is distributed in South China, but little is known about the host preference on the different banyan tree species. To address this gap, we conducted experiments to investigate larval feeding preferences, assessing the impact of feeding experience in both choice and no-choice conditions. Fifth and sixth instars were exposed to 4 banyan species, and food intake, feeding area, and relative ingestion index were measured. Our findings reveal that Ficus concinna was the preferred host of fifth instars in choice tests, while sixth instars exhibited a preference for this host in no-choice tests. In contrast, fifth instars did not display a significant preference for any of the 4 species in no-choice tests. However, sixth instars fed on F. microcarpa, F. altissima, and F. concinna continued to exhibit a preference for the original host. These observations indicate that larval feeding preference changes with instar, and feeding experience contributes to a preference for the original host. Consequently, the feeding preference of P. nuda larvae is influenced by multiple factors, including instar and previous feeding experience. These findings enhance our understanding of P. nuda's ecological interactions and its potential impact on various banyan tree species.


Assuntos
Ficus , Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Larva , Comportamento Alimentar , Plantas , Árvores
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