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1.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 37: 100811, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623894

RESUMO

Brugia is a vector-transmitted nematode that is commonly known for its zoonotic significance of causing lymphatic filariasis in Asia and Oceanic regions of the world. In addition to public health concerns, Brugia species have been known to infect domestic animals, including dogs and cats. However, information is scarce regarding genus Brugia in North America, and rare infections have been noted in domestic cats, humans, and other wild mammals. Herein, we document the first reported case of a Brugia species infection in a dog from North America and the first molecular characterization of the species in question. A three-year-old German Shepard from Alberta, Canada presented to a local veterinary clinic with a facial subcutaneous nodule that was surgically excised. Histopathology identified an enlarged buccal lymph node containing small foci of eosinophilic and granulomatous inflammation within the cortex and capsule. This inflammation was associated with adult filarioid nematodes localized within lymphatic vessels or adjacent connective tissue. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, and PCR targeting the Hha1 repeat and the partial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (cox1) of the mitochondrial DNA confirmed parasite identity as Brugia sp. While we can rule out B. beaveri being the causative agent, we cannot exclude B. lepori infection or a third uncharacterized Brugia species. Veterinarians and physicians should be made aware of North American Brugia infections and their possible health concerns.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Filariose , Animais , Cães , Alberta , Brugia/genética , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Filariose/diagnóstico , Filariose/veterinária , Filariose/parasitologia , Inflamação/veterinária
2.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 44, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639423

RESUMO

Development of direct acting macrofilaricides for the treatment of human filariases is hampered by limitations in screening throughput imposed by the parasite life cycle. In vitro adult screens typically assess single phenotypes without prior enrichment for chemicals with antifilarial potential. We developed a multivariate screen that identified dozens of compounds with submicromolar macrofilaricidal activity, achieving a hit rate of >50% by leveraging abundantly accessible microfilariae. Adult assays were multiplexed to thoroughly characterize compound activity across relevant parasite fitness traits, including neuromuscular control, fecundity, metabolism, and viability. Seventeen compounds from a diverse chemogenomic library elicited strong effects on at least one adult trait, with differential potency against microfilariae and adults. Our screen identified five compounds with high potency against adults but low potency or slow-acting microfilaricidal effects, at least one of which acts through a novel mechanism. We show that the use of microfilariae in a primary screen outperforms model nematode developmental assays and virtual screening of protein structures inferred with deep learning. These data provide new leads for drug development, and the high-content and multiplex assays set a new foundation for antifilarial discovery.


Assuntos
Filariose , Animais , Humanos , Filariose/tratamento farmacológico , Microfilárias
3.
Parasitol Res ; 122(2): 461-469, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36482010

RESUMO

Dirofilariasis is the predominant emerging zoonotic filariasis in the world. The two most frequent filarial worms that infect dogs are Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis. This study reports filariasis among dogs brought to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) at the University of Peradeniya and signifies the first molecular characterization of D. repens, responsible for an emerging zoonotic filarial disease in Sri Lanka. Blood samples were collected and were morphologically analyzed using Modified Knott's Technique, followed by molecular analyses. The difference in filariasis prevalence among gender, breed, and age categories was analyzed using a chi-square test. Infection intensities were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal Wallis test. The dogs were brought to the clinic for either vaccination and/or for a regular checkup, and most were sick having non-specific clinical signs. Among the 87 dogs tested, 27.6% were positive for Dirofilaria. Conventional PCR and bi-directional sequencing of genomic DNA of microscopically tested positive samples revealed that the species in Sri Lanka was D. repens. The infection was significantly higher in males (39.1%) than in females (14.6%; χ2 = 0.447, p = 0.011), though it is not significant between puppies (age < 1 year) and adult dogs. More crossbred dogs were infected compared to older and purebred dogs. There was no difference in intensity of infection based on their gender, age, or breed. Sequences obtained from the current study were unique and were only 63% identical to those of D. repens reported from South India. The high number of Dirofilaria infections in domestic dogs indicates a potential reservoir for emerging human dirofilariasis cases in Sri Lanka. Thus, morphological and molecular diagnosis, along with epidemiological assessment of these zoonoses, is critical for the formulation of effective public health programs and control mechanisms.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Filariose , Adulto , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dirofilaria immitis/genética , Dirofilaria repens/genética , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Filariose/epidemiologia , Filariose/veterinária , Filarioidea , Hospitais Veterinários , Hospitais de Ensino , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1044412, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36467729

RESUMO

Filarial infections caused by nematodes are one of the major neglected tropical diseases with public health concern. Although there is significant decrease in microfilariae (mf) prevalence following mass drug administration (IVM/DEC/ALB administration), this is transient, in that there is reported microfilaria repopulation 6-12 months after treatment. Wolbachia bacteria have been recommended as a novel target presenting antibiotic-based treatment for filarial disease. Potency of antibiotics against filarial diseases is undoubtful, however, the duration for treatment remains a hurdle yet to be overcome in filarial disease treatment.


Assuntos
Filariose , Infecções por Nematoides , Wolbachia , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Filariose/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Combinada
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 420, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimating human exposure to mosquito vectors is crucial for the prediction of malaria transmission and intervention impact. The human landing catch method is frequently used to directly measure estimate exposure rates; however, there has been an increasing shift from this method to exposure-free alternatives, such as the mosquito electrocuting traps (MET) and other approaches. While these latter methods can provide robust and representative values of human exposure and mosquito density, they often still require a human volunteer, which poses logistical challenges. Additionally, in the case of the MET, the early MET prototype (METe) required human volunteers to wear protective clothing that could be uncomfortable. We investigated two alternative trapping approaches to address these challenges by comparing the performance of the METe prototype to: (i) a modified caged MET prototype that offers full protection to users (METc) and (ii) a barrier screen trap (BST) designed to passively sample (host-seeking and blood-fed) mosquitoes outdoors without requiring a human participant. METHODS: The relative performance of the METe, METc and BST were evaluated in a 3 × 3 Latin square field experiment design conducted in south-eastern Tanzania over 12 nights of sampling. The outcomes of interest were the nightly catch of mosquitoes and biting time estimates. RESULTS: The METc and BST caught similar numbers of An. arabiensis as the METe (relative ratio [RR] = 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-1.39, P = 0.38 and RR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.63-2.04, P = 0.69, respectively). Similarly, the METc and BST caught similar numbers of Culex spp. as the METe (RR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.62-1.22, P = 0.42 and RR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.57-1.12, P = 0.199, respectively). All three trapping methods indicated a similar pattern of biting activity by An. arabiensis and Culex spp., characterized by biting starting in the early evening (18:00-22:00), peaking when people are typically sleeping (22:00-05:00) and dropping off drastically toward the morning (05:00-07:00). CONCLUSIONS: The modifications made to the METe design to improve user comfort and remove the need for protective clothing did not result in an underestimation of mosquito vector abundance nor misrepresentation of their biting time pattern. We recommend the METc for use over the METe design. Similarly, the BST demonstrated potential for monitoring malaria and filariasis vector densities in Tanzania.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Culex , Filariose , Malária , Infecções por Nematoides , Animais , Humanos , Tanzânia , Mosquitos Vetores , Malária/prevenção & controle , Fenótipo , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 866373, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36353644

RESUMO

Filarial parasites are tissue dwelling worms transmitted by hematophagous vectors. Understanding the mechanisms regulating microfilariae (the parasite offspring) development is a prerequisite for controlling transmission in filarial infections. Th2 immune responses are key for building efficient anti-parasite responses but have been shown to also lead to detrimental tissue damage in the presence of microfilariae. Litomosoides sigmodontis, a rodent filaria residing in the pleural cavity was therefore used to characterize pleuropulmonary pathology and associated immune responses in wild-type and Th2 deficient mice. Wild-type and Th2-deficient mice (Il-4rα-/-/Il-5-/- ) were infected with L. sigmodontis and parasite outcome was analyzed during the patent phase (when microfilariae are in the general circulation). Pleuropulmonary manifestations were investigated and pleural and bronchoalveolar cells were characterized by RNA analysis, imaging and/or flow cytometry focusing on macrophages. Il-4rα-/-/Il-5-/- mice were hypermicrofilaremic and showed an enhanced filarial survival but also displayed a drastic reduction of microfilaria-driven pleural cavity pathologies. In parallel, pleural macrophages from Il-4rα-/-/Il-5-/- mice lacked expression of prototypical alternative activation markers RELMα and Chil3 and showed an altered balance of some markers of the arginine metabolic pathway. In addition, monocytes-derived F4/80intermediate macrophages from infected Il-4rα-/-/Il-5-/- mice failed to mature into resident F4/80high large macrophages. Altogether these data emphasize that the presence of both microfilariae and IL-4R/IL-5 signaling are critical in the development of the pathology and in the phenotype of macrophages. In Il-4rα-/-/Il-5-/- mice, the balance is in favor of parasite development while limiting the pathology associated with the host immune response.


Assuntos
Filariose , Filarioidea , Animais , Camundongos , Arginina , Interleucina-5 , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microfilárias/genética , Células Th2
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(10): e0010857, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36269701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria and filariasis are significant vector-borne diseases that are co-endemic in the same human populations. This study aims to collate the evidence, probability, and characteristics of malaria and filariasis co-infections in participants among studies reporting the co-occurrence of both diseases. METHODS: We searched for potentially relevant articles reporting the co-occurrence of malaria and filariasis in five electronic databases (Embase, PubMed, Scopus, Medline, and CENTRAL) from inception to May 22, 2022. We estimated the pooled prevalence and probability of malaria and filariasis co-infections among study participants using random-effects meta-analyses and synthesized the characteristics of patients with co-infections narratively. RESULTS: We identified 951 articles, 24 of which (96,838 participants) met eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. Results of the meta-analysis showed a pooled prevalence of malaria and filariasis co-infections among participants of 11%. The prevalence of co-infections was 2.3% in Africa, 0.2% in Asia, and 1.6% in South America. The pooled prevalences of malaria and Wuchereria bancrofti, malaria and Loa loa, malaria and Mansonella perstans co-infections were 0.7%, 1.2%, and 1.0%, respectively. The meta-analysis results showed that the co-infections between two parasites occurred by probability (P = 0.001). Patients with co-infections were at increased risk of having an enlarged spleen, a lower rate of severe anemia, lower parasite density, and more asymptomatic clinical status. Patients with co-infections had decreased levels of C-X-C motif chemokine 5, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-4, c4 complement, and interleukin-10. In addition, patients with co-infections had a lower interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factor-α ratio and higher interleukin-10/interleukin-6 ratio. CONCLUSION: The present study showed that the prevalence of malaria and filariasis co-infections was low and varied between geographical areas in the selected articles. Co-infections tended to occur with a low probability. Further studies investigating the outcomes and characteristics of co-infections are needed.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Filariose , Malária , Mansonelose , Animais , Humanos , Prevalência , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-4 , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Interleucina-6 , Filariose/complicações , Filariose/epidemiologia , Filariose/parasitologia , Mansonelose/epidemiologia , Malária/complicações , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Probabilidade , Complemento C4 , Quimiocinas
9.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 35: 100784, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184112

RESUMO

Neglected tropical diseases pose a threat to domestic animal health, as domestic animals can serve as reservoirs for certain zoonotic parasitic infections, including Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) and lymphatic filariasis. Surveillance for these parasites in domestic animals is needed to understand infection prevalence and transmission cycles, with the goal of instituting appropriate interventions. The goal of this research was to report our finding of Brugia sp. infection in dogs from Chad, Africa, and to characterize the genetics and epidemiology of the parasite. During a recent Chadian canine pathogen surveillance project, we identified Brugia sp. infections in a total of 46 out of 428 dogs (10.7%) sampled at three time points in 2019-2020. We found high levels of sequence similarity to B. malayi and B. pahangi based on amplification of 18S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, and ITS-2 regions. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences placed the Chadian Brugia sp. in a clade with other Brugia spp. but grouped it separately from both B. malayi and B. pahangi. Analysis of Hha I sequences showed the greatest similarity with B. patei, a parasite previously reported from dogs, cats, and wildlife hosts in Kenya. Epidemiologic analysis using generalized linear regression modeling found significantly higher odds of Brugia sp. detection among dogs in villages in southern Chad compared to those in the northern region. Further, within the northern region, there were higher odds of detection in the dry season, compared to the wet season, which is consistent with the ecology of a presumably mosquito-borne parasite. The same 428 dogs were tested for Dirofilaria immitis antigen using a commercial assay (IDEXX SNAP 4Dx) at the earliest time point of the study, with 119 dogs testing positive. However, no association was noted between Brugia infection and a dog being positive for Di. immitis antigen, with only seven of the 119 Di. immitis antigen-positive dogs being Brugia-positive. This is the first report of Brugia sp. in domestic dogs in Chad and additional research is needed to definitively identify the species present, elucidate transmission, and understand potential risks to canine and human health.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Filariose , Animais , Brugia/genética , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Chade/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Dracunculus , Filariose/epidemiologia , Filariose/parasitologia , Filariose/veterinária , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S , RNA Ribossômico 5,8S , Zoonoses
11.
Parasitol Int ; 90: 102606, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659633

RESUMO

Extra-lymphatic manifestation of filariasis is uncommon and may usually be clinically misdiagnosed. The extra lymphatic presentation of Brugia malayi may due to the site of entry of the infective larvae, and only a few cases have been proven for the causative species. We report here a 59-year-old woman presented with swollen right conjunctiva and complaint of migratory swelling at her eyelid, which has turned out to be ocular filariasis by B. malayi in Chantaburi province, Thailand. This report highlights the increasing cases of B. malayi as a causative agent of ocular filariasis in human.


Assuntos
Brugia Malayi , Filariose , Animais , Túnica Conjuntiva , Feminino , Filariose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Larva , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tailândia
12.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 140, 2022 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35590314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and encephalitis are still the cause of several hundred thousand deaths annually. The excessive use of chemical insecticides for transmission control has led to environmental pollution and widespread resistance in mosquitoes. Botanical insecticides' efficacies improvement has thus received considerable attention recently. METHODS: The larvicidal effects of three essential oils from the Citrus family and limonene (their major ingredient) were first investigated against malaria and filariasis mosquito vectors. An attempt was then made to improve their efficacies by preparing nanoliposomes containing each of them. RESULTS: The larvicidal effect of nanoformulated forms was more effective than non-formulated states. Nanoliposomes containing Citrus aurantium essential oil with a particle size of 52 ± 4 nm showed the best larvicidal activity (LC50 and LC90 values) against Anopheles stephensi (6.63 and 12.29 µg/mL) and Culex quinquefasciatus (4.9 and 16.4 µg/mL). CONCLUSION: Due to the green constituents and high efficacy of nanoliposomes containing C. aurantium essential oil, it could be considered for further investigation against other mosquitoes' populations and field trials.


Assuntos
Aedes , Filariose , Inseticidas , Malária , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Limoneno/farmacologia , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(5): e0010407, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35604906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a neglected tropical disease caused by the filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. The Global Program to Eliminate LF uses mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs that clear microfilariae (Mf) from blood to interrupt transmission by mosquitos. New diagnostic tools are needed to assess the impact of MDA on bancroftian filariasis, because available serologic tests can remain positive after successful treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified Wb-bhp-1, which encodes a W. bancrofti homologue of BmR1, the B. malayi protein used in the Brugia Rapid antibody test for brugian filariasis. Wb-bhp-1 has a single exon that encodes a 16.3 kD protein (Wb-Bhp-1) with 45% amino acid identity to BmR1. Immunohistology shows that anti-Wb-Bhp-1 antibodies primarily bind to Mf. Plasma from 124 of 224 (55%) microfilaremic individuals had IgG4 antibodies to Wb-Bhp-1 by ELISA. Serologic reactivity to Wb-Bhp-1 varied widely with samples from different regions (sensitivity range 32-92%), with 77% sensitivity for 116 samples collected from microfilaremic individuals outside of sub-Saharan Africa. This variable sensitivity highlights the importance of validating new diagnostic tests for parasitic diseases with samples from different geographical regions. Individuals with higher Mf counts were more likely to have anti-Wb-Bhp-1 antibodies. Cross-reactivity was observed with a minority of plasma samples from people with onchocerciasis (17%) or loiasis (10%). We also identified, cloned and characterized BmR1 homologues from O. volvulus and L. loa that have 41% and 38% identity to BmR1, respectively. However, antibody assays with these antigens were not sensitive for onchocerciasis or loiasis. CONCLUSIONS: Wb-Bhp-1 is a novel antigen that is useful for serologic diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis. Additional studies are needed to assess the value of this antigen for monitoring the success of filariasis elimination programs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos , Filariose , Wuchereria bancrofti , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/análise , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/genética , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Antígenos de Helmintos/análise , Antígenos de Helmintos/genética , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Brugia Malayi , Reações Cruzadas , Filariose Linfática/diagnóstico , Filariose Linfática/genética , Filariose Linfática/imunologia , Filariose Linfática/parasitologia , Filariose/diagnóstico , Filariose/genética , Filariose/imunologia , Filariose/parasitologia , Humanos , Loíase/diagnóstico , Loíase/imunologia , Microfilárias/imunologia , Oncocercose/diagnóstico , Oncocercose/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos , Wuchereria bancrofti/genética , Wuchereria bancrofti/imunologia , Wuchereria bancrofti/isolamento & purificação
14.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 116(11): 1015-1021, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35474144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The level of blood filariasis parasitaemia as well as the frequency of and the relationship between cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CTX-P), antiretroviral therapy (ART) intake and CD4 cell count among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in rural areas of Gabon were being studied. METHODS: Sociodemographic data and recent biological tests of PLHIV and HIV-negative participants were collected. Loa loa and Mansonella perstans microfilaria were detected by direct microscopy examination and leucoconcentration. RESULTS: Overall, 209 HIV-positive and 148 HIV-negative subjects were enrolled. The overall prevalence of microfilaria was comparable between PLHIV (19.9% [n=41/206]) and HIV-negative participants (14.8% [n=22/148]) (p=0.2). The L. loa infection rate was comparable between HIV-positive (9.2%) and HIV-negative participants (6.8%) (p=0.2), while the M. perstans infection rate was 14-fold higher among PLHIV (p<0.01). L. loa parasitaemia was 6-fold lower in PLHIV receiving CTX-P (median 150 mf/mL [interquartile range {IQR} 125-350]) than in patients without (900 [550-2225]) (p<0.01). Among subjects with a CD4 cell count <200 cells/µL, the prevalence of M. perstans was 7-fold higher than that of L. loa (20.6% vs 2.9%). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a similar exposure to L. loa infection of PLHIV and HIV-negative patients while M. perstans is more frequently found in HIV-positive individuals, notably those with a CD4 count <200 cells/µL.


Assuntos
Filariose , Infecções por HIV , Loíase , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Loíase/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Gabão/epidemiologia , Filariose/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Parasitol ; 108(2): 192-198, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435985

RESUMO

Grouse and ptarmigan (Galliformes) harbor fairly diverse helminth faunas that can impact the host's health, including filarial nematodes in the genus Splendidofilaria. As host and parasite distributions are predicted to shift in response to recent climate change, novel parasites may be introduced into a region and impose additional stressors on bird populations. Limited information is available on the prevalence of filariasis in Alaska galliforms. To date, no molecular surveys have been completed. Past studies relied on examining blood smears or total body necropsies, which are time-consuming and may not detect filarial parasites with low prevalence in hosts. Therefore, we developed a TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR assay targeting the cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene (COI) of Splendidofilaria to decrease processing times and increase sensitivity as well as provide baseline data on the diversity of filariid infections in galliform species in Alaska. We screened a combined total of 708 galliform samples (678 unique individual birds) from different tissues (blood, muscle, and lung) for the presence of filarial DNA across the state of Alaska. Real-time PCR screening revealed an overall prevalence of filarial infection of 9.5% across species: Bonasa umbellus (0%, n = 23), Dendragapus fuliginosus (0%, n = 8), Falcipennis canadensis (26.8%, n = 198), Lagopus lagopus (2.6%, n = 274), Lagopus leucura (0%, n = 23), Lagopus muta (3%, n = 166), and Tympanuchus phasianellus (12.5%, n = 16). We observed microfilarial infections throughout most of Alaska except in Arctic regions and the Aleutian Islands where viable vectors may not be present.


Assuntos
Filariose , Filarioidea , Galliformes , Animais , Filariose/epidemiologia , Filariose/parasitologia , Filariose/veterinária , Filarioidea/genética , Microfilárias/genética , Codorniz , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
16.
Vet Pathol ; 59(3): 467-475, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35311406

RESUMO

Giraffe skin disease (GSD) is an emerging disease of free-ranging giraffe recognized in the last 25 years in several species, including the critically endangered Nubian giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis camelopardalis) of Uganda. Identifying the cause of GSD and understanding its impact on health were deemed paramount to supporting these vulnerable populations. Sixty-four giraffes were immobilized in Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, from 2017 to 2019, and GSD lesions were opportunistically biopsied. Fifty-five giraffes (86%) had GSD lesions on the neck, axilla, chest, and cranial trunk. Lesions were categorized into early, intermediary, and dormant stages based on gross and histological characteristics. Early lesions were smaller, crusted nodules with eosinophilic and pyogranulomatous dermatitis and furunculosis. Intermediary lesions were thick plaques of proliferative and fissured hyperkeratosis and acanthosis with dense dermal granulation tissue and severe eosinophilic and granulomatous dermatitis. Lesions appeared to resolve to dormancy, with dormant lesions consisting of hairless plaques of hyperkeratosis with dermal scarring and residual inflammation. The periphery of early and intermediary lesions included follicular granulomas containing adult filarid nematodes, with myriad encysted microfilariae in the superficial dermis. Stage L3 larvae were common in early and intermediary lesions, and dormant lesions had remnant encysted microfilariae with no adult or stage L3 larvae. Nematodes were morphologically and genetically novel with close identity to Stephanofilaria spp. and Brugia malayi, which cause infectious filariasis. Identification of potential insect vectors, long-term monitoring of GSD lesions, and evaluating response to therapy is ongoing in the efforts to help conserve the Nubian giraffe.


Assuntos
Dermatite , Filariose , Girafas , Dermatopatias , Animais , Dermatite/patologia , Dermatite/veterinária , Filariose/patologia , Filariose/veterinária , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Dermatopatias/veterinária
18.
Trop Doct ; 52(3): 446-448, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331071

RESUMO

Filariasis is a major health issue of tropical and subtropical regions and is endemic in India. It is rarely seen in cytological smears, exfoliative scrapings or in effusions. We present the case of a 29-year old female with filaria found on cytological examination of both breast and ovary.


Assuntos
Filariose , Neoplasias , Adulto , Animais , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Feminino , Filariose/diagnóstico , Filariose/patologia , Humanos , Microfilárias , Ovário/patologia , Gravidez
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD013638, 2022 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35174482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends mass drug administration (MDA), giving a drug at regular intervals to a whole population, as part of the strategy for several disease control programmes in low- and middle-income countries. MDA is currently WHO policy for areas endemic with lymphatic filariasis, which is a parasitic disease that can result in swollen limbs and disability. The success depends on communities adhering to the drugs given, and this will be influenced by the perception of the drug, the programme, and those delivering it.  OBJECTIVES: To synthesize qualitative research evidence about community experience with, and understanding and perception of, MDA programmes for lymphatic filariasis. To explore whether programme design and delivery influence the community experience identified in the analysis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and seven other databases up to 8 April 2021, together with reference checking, citation searching, and contact with study authors to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: This review synthesized qualitative research and mixed-methods studies when it was possible to extract qualitative data. Eligible studies explored community experiences, perceptions, or attitudes towards MDA programmes for lymphatic filariasis in any country, conducted between 2000 and 2019.  DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data on study design including: authors, aims, participants, methods, and qualitative data collection methods. We also described programme delivery factors including: country, urban or rural setting, endemicity, drug regimen, rounds of MDA received at the time of the study, who delivered the drugs, how the drugs were delivered, use of health education, and sensitization and adherence monitoring. We conducted a thematic analysis and developed codes inductively using ATLAS.ti software. We examined codes for underlying ideas, connections, and interpretations and, from this, generated analytical themes. We assessed the confidence in the findings using the GRADE-CERQual approach, and produced a conceptual model to display our findings.  MAIN RESULTS: From 902 results identified in the search, 29 studies met our inclusion criteria. The studies covered a broad range of countries in Africa, South-East Asia, and South America, and explored the views and experiences of community members and community drug distributors in low-income countries endemic for lymphatic filariasis. Four themes emerged. People weigh up benefits and harms before participating. People understand the potential benefits in terms of relief of suffering, stigma, and avoiding costs (high confidence); however, these theoretical benefits do not always mesh with their experiences (high confidence). In particular, adverse effects are frightening and unwelcome (high confidence); and these effects are amplified through rumour and social media (moderate confidence). Many people are suspicious of MDA programmes. When people lack a scientific explanation for the programme and their experiences of it, they often develop social explanations instead. These are largely shaped on the historical backdrop and level of trust people have in relevant authority figures (high confidence), although some have unwavering faith in their government and, by extension, the programme (moderate confidence). Programmes expect compliance, and this can become coercive and blaming. Health workers and community members stigmatize non-compliance, which can become coercive (moderate confidence), so communities may appear to comply publicly, but privately reject treatment (moderate confidence). Community distributors are often not respected or valued. They have little authority (moderate confidence), and the behaviour of some distributors damages the MDA programme's reputation (high confidence). Communities want information about programmes to help make decisions about participation, but drug distributors are not sufficiently informed, or skilled in this communication (high confidence). We intended to assess whether programme designs influenced communities' perceptions of the programme and decision to adhere but were unable to do so as few studies adequately reported the design and implementation of the local programme. We have moderate to high confidence in the evidence contributing to the review themes and subthemes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Adherence with MDA for filariasis is influenced by individual direct experience of benefit and harm; social influences in the community; political influences and their relationship to government; and historical influences. Fear of adverse effects was frequently described and this appears to be particularly important for communities. When views were negative, we were surprised by the strength of feeling expressed. Enthusiasm for these schemes as a strategy in global policy needs debate in the light of these findings.


Assuntos
Filariose , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Comunicação , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 28, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the complexity of retrieving skin-dwelling microfilariae, filarioids of dogs presenting dermal microfilariae (e.g. Cercopithifilaria spp., Onchocerca lupi) are relatively unknown compared to Dirofilaria spp. and Acanthocheilonema spp. whose microfilariae circulate in the blood. Although Cercopithifilaria spp. and O. lupi filarioids are distributed worldwide, there is a paucity of information on their occurrence in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate these filarioids in a large population of dogs from different regions of Iran. METHODS: From October 2018 to September 2020, skin biopsies were obtained from dogs housed in shelters (n = 557) and privately owned dogs (n = 26) in seven provinces of Iran (Hamedan, Kermanshah, Yazd, Mazandaran, Khuzestan, Lorestan, Esfahan), as well as from three road-killed jackals (Canis aureus) and three cats (Felis catus) in Hamedan province. The skin biopsies were first soaked in saline solution at room temperature overnight, and examined for dermal microfilariae under the microscope. Positive skin specimens and sediments were tested by PCR for a 304-bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and amplicons were sequenced. RESULTS: Microfilariae of Cercopithifilaria spp. were found in skin biopsies of 32 of the 583 (5.5%) dogs tested, with infection rates of up to 25% in Kermanshah. No microfilariae were recovered from skin biopsy samples collected from dogs in Khorramabad and Ahvaz, nor from the examined jackals and cats. None of the privately owned dogs were found to be infected. Morphologic and morphometric characteristics of the microfilariae were consistent with C. bainae. Eighteen skin samples were positive for the cox1 gene, of which 15 sequences showed a nucleotide identity of 100% and three of 93.4% with the reference sequence of C. bainae available in GenBank (haplotype I; GenBank accession number: JF461457). CONCLUSIONS: The data from this study broadens current knowledge on the geographical distribution of C. bainae in dogs in Middle Eastern countries. Further studies on different wild canine species in the country (e.g. jackal, fox, wolf) could provide further information on the epidemiology of these filarioids. A particular focus should be put on zoonotic O. lupi given the reports of its presence in human patients from this country.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Filariose/veterinária , Filarioidea/isolamento & purificação , Chacais/parasitologia , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Pele/parasitologia , Animais , Biópsia , Gatos/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Feminino , Filariose/epidemiologia , Filarioidea/classificação , Filarioidea/genética , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Microfilárias , Filogenia , Pele/patologia
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