Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 14.290
Filtrar
1.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 30(3): 25, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842627

RESUMO

Six planetary boundaries have already been exceeded, including climate change, loss of biodiversity, chemical pollution, and land-system change. The health research sector contributes to the environmental crisis we are facing, though to a lesser extent than healthcare or agriculture sectors. It could take steps to reduce its environmental impact but generally has not done so, even as the planetary emergency worsens. So far, the normative case for why the health research sector should rectify that failure has not been made. This paper argues strong philosophical grounds, derived from theories of health and social justice, exist to support the claim that the sector has a duty to avoid or minimise causing or contributing to ecological harms that threaten human health or worsen health inequity. The paper next develops ideas about the duty's content, explaining why it should entail more than reducing carbon emissions, and considers what limits might be placed on the duty.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Justiça Social , Responsabilidade Social , Humanos , Meio Ambiente , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Ética em Pesquisa , Obrigações Morais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Filosofia , Biodiversidade , Poluição Ambiental
2.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 105: 158-164, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788568

RESUMO

This article examines how deduction preserves certainty and how much certainty it can preserve according to Descartes's Rules for the Direction of the Mind. I argue that the certainty of a deduction is a matter of four conditions for Descartes. First, certainty depends on whether the conjunction of simple propositions is composed with necessity or contingency. Second, a deduction approaches the certainty of an intuition depending on how many "acts of conceiving" it requires and-third-the complexity or difficulty of the acts of thinking, which is determined by the content of the thoughts and on external factors. Fourth, certainty depends on the intellectual aptitude of the person using the deduction. A deduction lacks certainty when it relies on memory such that it is not apprehended with immediacy. However, the mental capacity and speed of a mind can be increased by training the special mental faculties of perspicacity and discernment. Increasing one's intellectual aptitude allows for more steps of a deduction to be inferred in fewer acts of conceiving, thereby helping preserve the certainty of a deduction.


Assuntos
Pensamento , Filosofia/história , Incerteza , História do Século XX , Intuição , Humanos
3.
New Dir Stud Leadersh ; 2024(182): 167-176, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742614

RESUMO

In this reflective article, we offer innovative approaches to creating opportunities for leadership learning through questioning the intentions versus impacts of leading short-term study abroad courses. We consider the critical relevance of approaching a course like this from a learning disposition-recognizing our roles as learners, as well as facilitators of learning. We note the impacts of hegemony and identity, the effort and skills of dialoguing across difference, the complexities of constructive ambiguity, and the necessity to be adaptable as we navigate liminal spaces, concepts, and efforts for peace leadership. In the end, although this was a brief, 10-day experience, we came to realize our entire outlook on facilitating leadership learning shifted to recognize and grapple with these complexities.


Assuntos
Liderança , Humanos , Irlanda do Norte , Adulto , Aprendizagem , Universidades , Ensino , Adulto Jovem , Currículo , Estudantes , Filosofia
4.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 46(2): 21, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38814479

RESUMO

In their anthology Everything Flows: Towards a Processual Philosophy of Biology, Daniel J. Nicholson and John Dupré argue that modern theories of biology imply that the fundamental structure of reality is processual at its core. In the present work, I first examine the implicit and explicit metaphysical presuppositions the editors make in order to allow for such an inference from scientific theory to ontology. After showing the difficulties of a naïve transfer of theoretical entities to fundamental ontology, I argue that the editors can nevertheless extend their claims beyond the mere articulation of different domain ontologies. This leads to the idea of a scientifically informed induction base for an ontology of processes.


Assuntos
Ontologias Biológicas , Filosofia , Biologia , Metafísica
5.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 105: 165-174, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38795607

RESUMO

Studies of the Early Modern debate concerning absolute and relative space and motion often ignore the significance of the concept of true motion in this debate. Even philosophers who denied the existence of absolute space maintained that true motions could be distinguished from merely apparent ones. In this paper, I examine Berkeley's endorsement of this distinction and the problems it raises. First, Berkeley's endorsement raises a problem of consistency with his other philosophical commitments, namely his idealism. Second, Berkeley's endorsement raises a problem of adequacy, namely whether Berkeley can provide an adequate account of what grounds the distinction between true and merely apparent motion. In this paper, I argue that sensitivity to Berkeley's distinction between what is true in the metaphysical, scientific, and vulgar domains can address both the consistency and the adequacy problems. I argue that Berkeley only accepts true motion in the scientific and vulgar domains, and not the metaphysical. There is thus no inconsistency between his endorsement of true motion in science and ordinary language, and his metaphysical idealism. Further, I suggest that sensitivity to these three domains shows that Berkeley possesses resources to give an adequate account of how true motions are discovered in natural science.


Assuntos
Movimento (Física) , Filosofia , Filosofia/história , Metafísica/história , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XVII
6.
J Anal Psychol ; 69(3): 455-477, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721715

RESUMO

After Evangelos Christou (1923-1956) studied philosophy at King's College, Cambridge, with Wittgenstein and others, he earned a doctorate at the Jung Institute in Zürich. He then returned home to Alexandria, near which he died in a car crash. The Logos of the Soul, published posthumously, argued for a psychology that would be neither a natural scientific psychology, devoted to causal analyses, nor a philosophical discipline that analysed mental events. Psychology would be an autonomous science of the soul, an unknown distinct from body and mind. Science deals with bodies and behaviours; philosophy with the mental concepts and acts. Psychology deals with "psychological experience". Dreams and fantasies can be sources of psychological experience, but so can perceptual acts and mental acts. Meaning occurs when something encounters an ego or self in a psychological experience. Observation in psychology is participant observation, akin to witnessing of a drama. Psychological methods, such as psychotherapy, are both means of discovery and means of becoming. Christou's work brought together Jung's analytical psychology and mid-century British philosophy in order to stake out the ground for psychology that would be an empirical analysis of psychological experience and a logical analysis of the concepts used in that psychology.


Après qu'Evangelos Christou (1923­1956) ait étudié la philosophie au King's College à Cambridge, avec Wittgenstein et d'autres, il fit un doctorat à l'Institut Jung de Zurich. Il retourna ensuite à Alexandrie, où il mourut peu de temps après dans un accident de voiture. The Logos of the Soul, publié à titre posthume, plaide pour une psychologie qui ne serait ni une psychologie scientifique naturelle, dédiée aux analyses causales, ni une discipline philosophique qui analyse les événements du mental. La psychologie serait une science autonome de l'âme, une inconnue distincte du corps et du mental. La science traite des corps et des comportements; la philosophie s'occupe des concepts et des actes. La psychologie s'intéresse à « l'expérience psychologique ¼. Les rêves et les fantasmes peuvent être des sources d'expérience psychologique, mais il en est de même pour les actes de perception et les actes du mental. Le sens apparait quand quelque chose rencontre un moi ou un soi dans une expérience psychologique. L'observation en psychologie est une observation participative, qui s'apparente à être témoin d'une pièce dramatique. Les méthodes psychologiques, telles la psychothérapie, sont à la fois des moyens d'exploration et des moyens pour devenir. L'œuvre de Christou a relié la psychologie analytique de Jung et la philosophie britannique du milieu du siècle afin de revendiquer le terrain pour une psychologie qui serait une analyse empirique de l'expérience psychologique et une analyse logique des concepts utilisés dans cette psychologie.


Luego de estudiar filosofía en el King's College de Cambridge, con Wittgenstein y otros, Evangelos Christou (1923­1956) obtuvo un doctorado en el Instituto Jung de Zúrich. Posteriormente regresó a su casa en Alejandría, cerca de la cual murió en un accidente de auto. El Logos del alma, publicado póstumamente, abogaba por una psicología que no fuera ni una psicología científica natural, dedicada a los análisis causales, ni una disciplina filosófica que analizara los acontecimientos mentales. La psicología sería una ciencia autónoma del alma, lo desconocido distinto del cuerpo y de la mente. La ciencia se ocupa de los cuerpos y las conductas; la filosofía, de los conceptos y los actos mentales. La psicología se ocupa de la "experiencia psicológica". Los sueños y las fantasías pueden ser fuentes de experiencia psicológica, pero también los actos perceptivos y mentales. El sentido se produce cuando algo se encuentra con un ego o un self en una experiencia psicológica. La observación en psicología es una observación participante, similar a ser testigo de un drama. Los métodos psicológicos, como la psicoterapia, son a la vez medios de descubrimiento y medios de devenir. La obra de Christou reunió la psicología analítica de Jung y la filosofía británica de mediados de siglo para sentar las bases de una psicología que fuera un análisis empírico de la experiencia psicológica y un análisis lógico de los conceptos utilizados en esa psicología.


Assuntos
Teoria Junguiana , Humanos , História do Século XX , Filosofia , Psicologia/história
7.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 105: 109-119, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761539

RESUMO

This paper investigates conceptions of explanation, teleology, and analogy in the works of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) and Georges Cuvier (1769-1832). Richards (2000, 2002) and Zammito (2006, 2012, 2018) have argued that Kant's philosophy provided an obstacle for the project of establishing biology as a proper science around 1800. By contrast, Russell (1916), Outram (1986), and Huneman (2006, 2008) have argued, similar to suggestions from Lenoir (1989), that Kant's philosophy influenced the influential naturalist Georges Cuvier. In this article, I wish to expand on and further the work of Russell, Outram, and Huneman by adopting a novel perspective on Cuvier and considering (a) the similar conceptions of proper science and explanation of Kant and Cuvier, and (b) the similar conceptions of the role of teleology and analogy in the works of Kant and Cuvier. The similarities between Kant and Cuvier show, contrary to the interpretation of Richards and Zammito, that some of Kant's philosophical ideas, whether they derived from him or not, were fruitfully applied by some life scientists who wished to transform life sciences into proper sciences around 1800. However, I also show that Cuvier, in contrast to Kant, had a workable strategy for transforming the life sciences into proper sciences, and that he departed from Kant's philosophy of science in crucial respects.


Assuntos
Anatomia Comparada , História Natural , Filosofia , História do Século XIX , Filosofia/história , História Natural/história , História do Século XVIII , Anatomia Comparada/história
8.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 105: 120-125, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763109

RESUMO

This paper is about the relationship between R.A. Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection (FTNS) and the two major pieces that Fisher wrote on indeterminism, "Indeterminism and Natural Selection" (1934) and Creative Aspects of Natural Law (1950). I argue that the FTNS presents a picture of natural selection that is interestingly different from what we find in these two indeterminism pieces, pace some recent work that advances the opposite conclusion. I also identify as the source of this difference both the mathematical form of the FTNS (i.e., a differential equation) and Fisher's meta-scientific commitment to advancing "general" claims about evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Seleção Genética , História do Século XX , Filosofia/história
9.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 105: 126-137, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776838

RESUMO

The problem of context, which explores relations between societal conditions and science, has a long and contentious tradition in the history, philosophy, and sociology of science. While the problem has received little explicit attention in recent years, two contemporary positions remain evident. First is the resources model, which seeks to maintain the autonomy of scientists by denying contextual influence, restricting the role of contexts to providing a pool of 'novel inputs'. Second is the contextual shaping position which recognizes that societal conditions influence science but remains conceptually vague and theoretically undeveloped. This paper argues, given current disciplinary conditions, the problem of context deserves renewed attention. In this paper I first review the history of the debate from the 1930s, highlighting several anxieties that continue to hamper the open study of the problem. After this historical review, I provide a critique of the resources model and assess the possibilities and shortfalls of the contextual shaping position. By addressing past and present perspectives, my goal is to move firmly beyond narrow accounts of context, as exemplified by the resources model. Instead, I propose a renewed program of research in which rich empirical studies are combined with equally rich theoretical work directed toward developing conceptual tools better able to capture the multiple intricacies evident in context-science relations.


Assuntos
Ciência , História do Século XX , Ciência/história , Modelos Teóricos , Filosofia/história , Sociologia
10.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 105: 149-157, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781705

RESUMO

To a large extent, the evidential base of claims in the philosophy of science has switched from thought experiments to case studies. We argue that abandoning thought experiments was a wrong turn, since they can effectively complement case studies. We make our argument via an analogy with the relationship between experiments and observations within science. Just as experiments and observations can together evidence claims in science, each mitigating the downsides of the other, so too can thought experiments and case studies be mutually supporting. After presenting the main argument, we look at potential concerns about thought experiments, suggesting that a judiciously applied mixed-methods approach can overcome them.


Assuntos
Filosofia , Ciência , Filosofia/história , Projetos de Pesquisa , Pensamento
11.
J Hist Ideas ; 85(2): 257-287, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708649

RESUMO

This article analyzes the influence of Chinese Neo-Confucianism on the development of German idealism. Information obtained by Leibniz from Jesuit missionaries included key concepts in Neo-Confucian philosophy that not only confirmed Leibniz's belief in the universality of his organic image of the cosmos but also influenced Leibniz's later writings. Such influence is also exhibited in Kant's work, especially in his crucial noumenon-phenomenon distinction, as well as in Hegel's phenomenology and philosophy of history. Recognition of these influences, unacknowledged by either Kant or Hegel, enhances our assessment of the import of both Neo-Confucianism and German idealism in international religio-philosophical discourse.


Assuntos
Confucionismo , Alemanha , Confucionismo/história , História do Século XX , China , Filosofia/história , História do Século XIX
12.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 105: 1-16, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598866

RESUMO

I propose a technique for identifying fundamental properties using structures already present in physical theories. I argue that, in conjunction with a particular naturalistic commitment, that I dub 'algebraic naturalism', these structures can be used to generate a standard of metaphysical determinacy. This standard can be used to rule out the possibility of a virulent strain of 'deep' metaphysical indeterminacy that has been imputed to quantum mechanics.


Assuntos
Metafísica , Teoria Quântica , Física/história , Filosofia/história
13.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 105: 32-40, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38653145

RESUMO

A prevailing view holds that the main goal of mental health promotion is to maintain and improve positive mental health, which is not merely defined by the absence of mental disorders, but by the presence of certain abilities. There are, however, challenges associated with this view that this paper aims to identify and explore. We start by highlighting three requirements for an ethically and politically justified mental health promotion scheme: (i) using a positive concept of mental health that (ii) respects the neutrality principle while (iii) not being overly permissive. Then, we argue that the WHO's positive concept of health violates (ii), and continue by exploring three philosophical accounts (i.e., Nordenfelt, 1995, 2017; Graham 2010; Wren-Lewis & Alexandrova, 2021) that could potentially provide a solution. We show that these face a dilemma of their own: they either violate (ii) or (iii), and they can rectify one issue only by violating the other. Considering the problems linked to the positive notion of health, the final section explores the alternate route of rejecting proposition (i) and instead embracing a negative concept of health. We argue that this option does not present a more advantageous solution. We conclude by highlighting the necessity for additional research to tackle the challenges we identified.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Saúde Mental , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Filosofia
14.
Ambix ; 71(2): 191-208, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623817

RESUMO

Created and published in a printed volume in 1611, the emblem chosen by the literary Academy of the Umoristi is intriguing at multiple levels. At a time when the water cycle was still unknown, the image engaged the thorny question of how the evaporation of salty seawater, condensed into clouds, could subsequently pour down as sweet rain. Additionally, the Lucretian motto "Redit agmine dulci" audaciously evoked the philosophy of atoms. The combination of the image and the motto suggested looking at the meteorological phenomenon on display as a sort of natural distillation process, not different from the circulations taking place in the alembic. This enquiry will document how the Academy of the Umoristi was influenced in the choice of its emblem by the scientific Academy of the Lincei and how, towards the end of the seventeenth century, under the patronage of Christina of Sweden, the interconnection of alchemy and atomism alluded to in the academic emblem was reclaimed as a distinctive philosophical banner.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Filosofia , História do Século XVII , Filosofia/história , Academias e Institutos/história , Cidade de Roma
15.
Philos Ethics Humanit Med ; 19(1): 5, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594714

RESUMO

Medicine is faced with a number of intractable modern challenges that can be understood in terms of hyper-intellectualization; a compassion crisis, burnout, dehumanization, and lost meaning. These challenges have roots in medical philosophy and indeed general Western philosophy by way of the historic exclusion of human emotion from human reason. The resolution of these medical challenges first requires a novel philosophic schema of human knowledge and reason that incorporates the balanced interaction of human intellect and human emotion. This schema of necessity requires a novel extension of dual-process theory into epistemology in terms of both intellect and emotion each generating a distinct natural kind of knowledge independent of the other as well as how these two forms of mental process together construct human reason. Such a novel philosophic schema is here proposed. This scheme is then applied to the practice of medicine with examples of practical applications with the goal of reformulating medical practice in a more knowledgable, balanced, and healthy way. This schema's expanded epistemology becomes the philosophic foundation for more fully incorporating the humanities in medicine.


Assuntos
Medicina , Filosofia , Humanos , Filosofia Médica , Emoções , Conhecimento
16.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 60(2): e22307, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607694

RESUMO

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Gertrude Buck and collaborators developed a sociologically and pragmatist-informed approach to language that has been neglected in later scholarship. Buck approached the study of language from the standpoint of pragmatist functional psychology, which is indebted to John Dewey's pragmatism at the University of Michigan, and which views language as a normal, dynamic action of human organisms engaged in necessary cooperative relations with one another. Her approach overcomes the small-minded pragmatism that would criticize figurative or poetic language as impractical, and instead shows how figuration is essential to the particular ways in which language is action that conveys meaning to others and serves broader social functions. Buck's forgotten work helps overcome criticisms of the application of pragmatic action theory to language and literature, sketching how language structure may be explained on the basis of language as a natural social-communicative act, how figurative language is inherent in the normal act of communicating situated bodily experiences to others, and how rhetorical speech and writing contributes to participation in democratic social processes. This paper also indicates how Buck's work has been partially rediscovered in Composition Studies, as well as prefigures later reader-response esthetics and feminist analyses of language.


Assuntos
Idioma , Filosofia , Humanos , Feminino , Michigan , Comunicação , Instituições Acadêmicas
17.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 46(2): 18, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587716

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to elucidate the vital meaning and strategic role that nutrition holds in Claude Bernard's  "biological philosophy", in the sense Auguste Comte gave to this expression, i.e. the theoretical part of biology. I propose that Bernard's nutritive perspective on life should be thought of as an  "interfield" object, following Holmes' category. Not only does nutrition bridge disciplines like physiology and organic chemistry, as well as levels of inquiry ranging from special physiology to the organism's total level, including the cell and protoplasm, but it also forms the genetic and structural foundation for Bernard's two fundamental axioms in general physiology: the necessary complementarity of destruction and creation (1) and the uniformity of this physiological law across all life forms, be it plants or animals (2). Because Bernard's nutritive theory is a major pivot for the re-ordering of life and its characterization, I argue that it must be located and understood in the scientific and metaphysical context of his time, of which he claims to be the heir and challenger-what I propose to characterize as the  "epistemic space" of nutrition, on the background of which Bernard builds his own  "logic". I then set out this logic of nutrition, focusing on three interrelated bernardian theses: the establishment of the theory of indirect nutrition as the basis for the notion of  "milieu intérieur"; the enduring conception of nutrition as a continuous generation; the emphasis on nutrition as a way of reshaping the form/matter relationship.


Assuntos
Metafísica , Filosofia , Animais , Masculino
18.
Perspect Biol Med ; 67(1): 166-179, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662071

RESUMO

The relationship between philosophy and bioethics remains a matter of perennial debate, but there does appear to be a consensus on one issue: whatever bioethics might want to borrow from philosophical ethics, it won't be normative theories. This essay argues that theories can have an important role to play in bioethics, though it might not be the one traditionally assumed by philosophers.


Assuntos
Bioética , Teoria Ética , Humanos , Filosofia , Temas Bioéticos
19.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 19(1): 2341450, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38634343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Phenomenology is a branch of philosophy that focuses on human lived experience. Illness including dental diseases can affect this living experience. Within the dental literature, there is very little reported on the use of phenomenology compared to other healthcare sciences. Hence, the aim was to review the literature and provide an overview of various applications of phenomenology in dental research. METHODS: This study was a narrative review using literature in the last 10 years identified by web-based search on PubMed and Scopus using keywords. A total of 33 articles that were closely related to the field and application in dentistry were included. The methodology, main results, and future research recommendations, if applicable, were extracted and reviewed. RESULTS: The authors in this study had identified several areas such as orofacial pain and pain control research, dental anxiety, dental education, oral healthcare perceptions and access, living with dental diseases and dental treatment experience in which the phenomenological method was used to gain an in-depth understanding of the topic. CONCLUSIONS: There are several advantages of using the phenomenological research method, such as the small sample size needed, the diverse and unique perspective that can be obtained and the ability to improve current understanding, especially from the first-person perspective.


Assuntos
Filosofia , Doenças Estomatognáticas , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Odontologia
20.
BMC Med Ethics ; 25(1): 38, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38539209

RESUMO

In line with recent proposals for experimental philosophy and philosophy of science in practice, we propose that the philosophy of medicine could benefit from incorporating empirical research, just as bioethics has. In this paper, we therefore take first steps towards the development of an empirical philosophy of medicine, that includes investigating practical and moral dimensions. This qualitative study gives insight into the views and experiences of a group of various medical professionals and patient representatives regarding the conceptualization of health and disease concepts in practice and the possible problems that surround them. This includes clinical, epistemological, and ethical issues. We have conducted qualitative interviews with a broad range of participants (n = 17), working in various health-related disciplines, fields and organizations. From the interviews, we highlight several different practical functions of definitions of health and disease. Furthermore, we discuss 5 types of problematic situations that emerged from the interviews and analyze the underlying conceptual issues. By providing theoretical frameworks and conceptual tools, and by suggesting conceptual changes or adaptations, philosophers might be able to help solve some of these problems. This empirical-philosophical study contributes to a more pragmatic way of understanding the relevance of conceptualizing health and disease by connecting the participants' views and experiences to the theoretical debate. Going back and forth between theory and practice will likely result in a more complex but hopefully also better and more fruitful understanding of health and disease concepts.


Assuntos
Bioética , Filosofia , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Atenção à Saúde
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...