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1.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210207, 2022. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1339879

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo refletir sobre o conceito de vulnerabilidade em saúde à luz dos pressupostos de educação e liberdade de Hannah Arendt. Método estudo teórico-reflexivo cujos resultados foram agrupados em duas categorias: Vulnerabilidade em saúde como condição humana e Educação e liberdade do sujeito em situação de vulnerabilidade. Resultados a vulnerabilidade deve ser reconhecida como traço da condição humana, pois suas dimensões envolvem o sujeito e suas condições de saúde, materiais, socioambientais, culturais e jurídicas. Ao considerar a vulnerabilidade na perspectiva política e conscientizadora, a educação emerge como ferramenta para sobrepujá-las, pois possibilita desenvolver as singularidades dos sujeitos, preparando-os para a responsabilidade com o mundo; propicia superar a alienação; concretiza o aprendizado político e a tomada de decisões. Tudo isso reunido é crucial para suplantar a condição de vulnerabilidade frente às desigualdades existentes no mundo e o respeito à liberdade dos sujeitos. Conclusão e implicações para a prática pensamentos arendtianos guardam relação com vulnerabilidade, pois a conscientização, por meio da educação, é indispensável ao aprimoramento do atual contexto social e político. A busca do ser humano pela liberdade e o encorajamento de suas ações oportunizam a evolução do sujeito no mundo.


Resumen Objetivo reflexionar sobre el concepto de vulnerabilidad en salud a la luz de los supuestos de educación y libertad de Hannah Arendt. Método estudio teórico-reflexivo cuyos resultados se agruparon en dos categorías: Vulnerabilidad en salud como condición humana y Educación y libertad del sujeto en situación de vulnerabilidad. Resultados la vulnerabilidad debe ser reconocida como un rasgo de la condición humana, ya que sus dimensiones involucran al sujeto y sus condiciones de salud, materiales, socioambientales, culturales y legales. Al considerar la vulnerabilidad desde una perspectiva política y de sensibilización, la educación surge como una herramienta para superarlas, ya que permite desarrollar las singularidades de los sujetos, preparándolos para la responsabilidad con el mundo; permite superar la alienación; materializa el aprendizaje político y la toma de decisiones. Todo esto en conjunto es fundamental para superar la condición de vulnerabilidad ante las desigualdades existentes en el mundo y el respeto a la libertad de los sujetos. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica los pensamientos arendtianos están relacionados con la vulnerabilidad, ya que la conciencia, a través de la educación, es fundamental para mejorar el contexto social y político actual. La búsqueda por la libertad de los seres humanos y el estímulo de sus acciones brindan oportunidades para la evolución del sujeto en el mundo.


Abstract Objective reflect on the concept of health vulnerability in light of Hannah Arendt's assumptions on education and freedom. Method a theoretical-reflexive study whose results were grouped into two categories: Vulnerability in health as a human condition and Education and freedom of the subject in a vulnerable situation. Results vulnerability must be recognized as a feature of the human condition, because its dimensions involve the subject and their health, material, socio-environmental, cultural and legal conditions. When considering vulnerability from a political and awareness-raising perspective, education emerges as a tool to overcome it, for it makes it possible to develop the singularities of the subjects, preparing them for their responsibility to the world; it enables them to overcome alienation; it materializes political learning and decision making. All of this together is crucial to overcome the condition of vulnerability to the inequalities existing in the world and the respect for the subjects' freedom. Conclusion and implications for practice arendtian thoughts are related to vulnerability, since awareness, through education, is indispensable to the improvement of the current social and political context. The human being's search for freedom and the encouragement of their actions enable the evolution of the subject in the world.


Assuntos
Humanos , Filosofia , Educação , Vulnerabilidade em Saúde , Liberdade , Meio Social , Formação de Conceito
2.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(4): 119, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787736

RESUMO

This article is the first one to offer an investigation, from a biological perspective, of "natural philia" or "kin-based" philia (commonly translated as "friendship") in Aristotle's practical philosophy. After some preliminary considerations about its place in Aristotle's ethical treatises, the discussion focuses on Aristotle's biology. Here we learn that natural philia, couched in terms of a biological praxis rather than a trait of character, is widespread in the animal kingdom, although in different ways and to varying degrees. To account for such differences, Aristotle establishes a Scala Philiae in two different biological texts-Historia Animalium and Generation of Animals-where natural bonds in animals are classified in view of their strength and duration. Each level of Aristotle's Scala is examined. Finally, the argument returns to Aristotle's ethical and political texts, drawing greater attention to the biological mechanisms that underlie natural philia in human beings. I conclude that natural philia provides one fundamental biological building-block of Aristotle's ethics and politics.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Filosofia , Animais , Humanos
3.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(4): 115, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762203

RESUMO

Research, innovation, and progress in the life sciences are increasingly contingent on access to large quantities of data. This is one of the key premises behind the "open science" movement and the global calls for fostering the sharing of personal data, datasets, and research results. This paper reports on the outcomes of discussions by the panel "Open science, data sharing and solidarity: who benefits?" held at the 2021 Biennial conference of the International Society for the History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Biology (ISHPSSB), and hosted by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL).


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação , Filosofia
4.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(4): 112, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734317

RESUMO

The question of whether "genetic information" is a merely causal factor in development or can be made sense of semantically, in a way analogous to a language or other type of representation, has generated a long debate in the philosophy of biology. It is intimately connected with another intense debate, concerning the limits of genetic determinism. In this paper I argue that widespread attempts to draw analogies between genetic information and information contained in books, blueprints or computer programs, are fundamentally inadequate. In development, gene exons are the central part of an intricate and densely ramified semantic Genetic Informational Network. DNA in the entire genome is in a state of continuous positive and negative feedback with itself and with its 'environment', and is 'read' and acted upon by the cell in various alternative and complementary ways. The linear combinatorial coding relation between codons and amino acids is but one aspect of semantic genetic information, which is, when considered in its entirety, a far wider and richer concept.


Assuntos
Idioma , Semântica , DNA , Filosofia
5.
Conscious Cogn ; 95: 103216, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649065

RESUMO

A central goal for cognitive science and philosophy of mind is to distinguish between perception and cognition. The representational approach has emerged as a prominent candidate to draw such a distinction. The idea is that perception and cognition differ in the content and the format in which the information is represented -just as perceptual representations are nonconceptual in content and iconic in format, cognitive representations are conceptual in content and discursive in format. This paper argues against this view. I argue that both perception and cognition can use conceptual and nonconceptual contents and be vehiculated in iconic and discursive formats. If correct, the representational strategy to distinguish perception from cognition fails.


Assuntos
Cognição , Ciência Cognitiva , Humanos , Percepção , Filosofia
7.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 57(4): 336-357, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599515

RESUMO

This essay traces how the concept of energy-defined as the ability to do work in physics-informed two similar fields of knowledge with very dissimilar results. One, the resource economy in the late 19th century, laid some important epistemic and ideological foundations for the destruction of the environment in the present. The other, ecology, introduced a new holistic view of nature, which laid the groundwork for the recent reconceptualization of ethics, epistemology, and humankind's role on Earth culminating in the Anthropocene hypothesis-formulated in direct opposition to the capitalist, anthropocentric notions inherited from the 19th century. In both cases, it was the concept of energy that enabled thinking about the multifarious visualities, materialities, and temporalities of natural phenomena as united in a single causal substructure of energy exchanges. In resource economics, the energetic worldview imposed an anthropocentric useful/useless divide on the environment-modeled, I argue, on the energy/entropy distinction-and made it "logical" to think of minerals, plants, and human labor as analogous resources, justifiably equated and linked in the economic system. The same ability to equate and connect was fundamental to the discipline of ecology and its application to sociology in the 20th century, and, in more recent years, to philosophy and historiography. In stripping nature of all surface illusions, energy proved enormously efficient for exposing the entanglement of large-scale systems composed of animate and inanimate actors equally imbued with agency.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Filosofia , Capitalismo , História do Século XX , Humanos , Conhecimento , Plantas
8.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 27(5): 64, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613471

RESUMO

The idea of technocracy has been widely criticized in Western literature in the philosophy and sociology of technology. A common critique of technocracy is that it represents an "antidemocratic" and "dehumanizing" ideology. This paper invites Western scholars to reconsider their oppositions to technocracy by drawing on resources from Confucian ethics. In doing so, this paper synthesizes the major ethical challenges of technocracy mainly concerned by Western scholars in philosophy, political theories, sociology, and policy studies. This paper argues that incorporating Confucian resources such as the rule of virtue into technocracy may be helpful for reexamining these ethical challenges to technocracy that are deeply rooted in Western liberal democratic ideologies. The Confucian rule of virtue means that social policies should be made by the virtuous and capable and these policies need to have impacts on the moral progress of the society. Confucian values provide ethical guidance for technocrats in assessing the moral quality of the sociotechnical systems they build. From the Confucian perspective, sociotechnical systems are often assessed based on the criterion whether and how these sociotechnical systems contribute to a process of harmonization. This paper will introduce some practical cases that demonstrate how technical experts and expertise contribute to organizational and social management. In these cases, virtues and the rule of virtue do play a crucial role: virtues either determine the selection of technocrats and the legitimization of their political power or are embedded in engineering design and affect human behavior in the use context.


Assuntos
Teoria Ética , Virtudes , Engenharia , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Filosofia
9.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 233-242, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202547

RESUMO

The study of happiness and well-being is receiving increased attention in different fields. Recent research into well-being has focused on delving deeper into the individual's conception about the experience of well-being. McMahan and Estes (2011a) created a scale that assesses lay conceptions of well-being based on four dimensions: the experience of pleasure, avoidance of negative experience, self-development and contribution to others. The goal of this study was to adapt this scale, the Beliefs about Well-Being Scale (BWBS), to the Spanish population. The sample consisted of 1,024 participants from the general population ranging in age interval from 17 to 87 years old. The confirmatory factorial analysis results in a structure of four dimensions, similar to the original scale, although in the adaptation of the scale the items decrease from 16 to 12. The results of the reliability analysis reveal indexes similar to those of the original scale. These results confirm the validity of Beliefs about Well-Being Scale with general population in a cultural context different from the original study. This will allow cross-cultural studies to analyze the influence of culture in the perception of well-being


El estudio de la felicidad y el bienestar está recibiendo cada vez más atención en diferentes campos. Las investigaciones recientes sobre el bienestar se han centrado en profundizar en la concepción del individuo sobre la experiencia del bienestar. McMahan y Estes (2011a) crearon una escala que evalúa las concepciones legas del bienestar en base a cuatro dimensiones: la experiencia de placer, la evitación de la experiencia negativa, el autodesarrollo y la contribución a los demás. El objetivo de este estudio fue adaptar esta escala, Beliefs about Well-Being Scale (BWBS), a la población española. La muestra estuvo formada por 1.024 participantes de la población general con un intervalo de edad entre 17 y 87 años. El análisis factorial confirmatorio da como resultado una estructura de cuatro dimensiones, similar a la escala original, aunque en la adaptación de la escala los ítems disminuyen de 16 a 12. Los resultados del análisis de fiabilidad revelan índices similares a los de la escala original. Estos resultados confirman la validez de la Escala de Creencias sobre el Bienestar con población general en un contexto cultural diferente al del estudio original. Esto permitirá realizar estudios transculturales para analizar la influencia de la cultura en la percepción del bienestar


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Satisfação Pessoal , Cultura , Adaptação Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Felicidade , Comparação Transcultural , Filosofia , Testes Psicológicos/normas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Fatorial , Prazer , Espanha
10.
Nurs Sci Q ; 34(4): 346-351, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538182

RESUMO

This article presents descriptions of mentoring from a philosophy of education and a humanbecoming mentoring model perspective. Descriptions of mentoring-protégé relationships experienced by the author are included using the humanbecoming paradigm as a guide in describing such experiences.


Assuntos
Humanismo , Tutoria , Humanos , Mentores , Filosofia
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(9): 4321-4339, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586282

RESUMO

Biobanks are multidisciplinary infrastructures and, accordingly, this integrative research seeks to bring out the concept of biobank in the various sciences that construct and interpret it, so as to arrive at a holistic understanding of its essential components. This integrative review - guided by PRISMA and with quality assessment following CASPe - resulted in a selection of 30 articles. Data were analysed by Aristotelian categories and the results were interpreted on the complexity paradigm of Edgar Morin. The biobank concept was clarified by considering it to be the representation of a biological, social and cultural phenomenon in which knowledge and practices from diverse scientific fields enter into complementary, antagonistic and ambiguous types of relationship. This network of signification, analysed here using categories from Aristotelian philosophy, has impacts on the construction of subjectivity and forms of socialisation.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Filosofia , Humanos
12.
Kennedy Inst Ethics J ; 31(3): 247-270, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565744

RESUMO

Legal standards of disclosure in a variety of jurisdictions require physicians to inform patients about the likely consequences of treatment, as a condition for obtaining the patient's consent. Such a duty to inform is special insofar as extensive disclosure of risks and potential benefits is not usually a condition for obtaining consent in non-medical transactions.What could morally justify the physician's special legal duty to inform? I argue that existing justifications have tried but failed to ground such special duties directly in basic and general rights, such as autonomy rights. As an alternative to such direct justifications, I develop an indirect justification of physicians' special duties from an argument in Kant's political philosophy. Kant argues that pre-legal rights to freedom are the source of a duty to form a state. The state has the authority to conclusively determine what counts as "consent" in various kinds of transactions. The Kantian account can subsequently indirectly justify at least one legal standard imposing a duty to inform, the reasonable person standard, but rules out one interpretation of a competitor, the subjective standard.


Assuntos
Revelação/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Obrigações Morais , Direitos do Paciente , Filosofia , Relações Médico-Paciente/ética , Médicos/ética , Revelação/legislação & jurisprudência , Ética Médica , Liberdade , Governo , Humanos , Médicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Política , Risco
13.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(10): 1348-1355, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556868

RESUMO

Causal reductionism is the widespread assumption that there is no room for additional causes once we have accounted for all elementary mechanisms within a system. Due to its intuitive appeal, causal reductionism is prevalent in neuroscience: once all neurons have been caused to fire or not to fire, it seems that causally there is nothing left to be accounted for. Here, we argue that these reductionist intuitions are based on an implicit, unexamined notion of causation that conflates causation with prediction. By means of a simple model organism, we demonstrate that causal reductionism cannot provide a complete and coherent account of 'what caused what'. To that end, we outline an explicit, operational approach to analyzing causal structures.


Assuntos
Causalidade , Neurociências/tendências , Filosofia , Animais , Anuros/fisiologia , Previsões , Neurônios/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(9): e601-e604, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between individual adaptation of management philosophy and mission statement, and work engagement among employees in a single Japanese company. METHODS: We carried out a 1-year prospective cohort study on all workers aged 18 to 65 years in a Japanese electrical components manufacturer. Our cohort included 2044 men and 721 women. We used multiple regression analysis to examine associations between variables. RESULTS: Higher individual adaptation of management philosophy and mission statement at baseline was significantly associated with better work engagement at follow-up after adjusting for potential confounders and work engagement at baseline (ß = 0.085, 95% confidence interval 0.054 to 0.117). CONCLUSIONS: There is a positive association between higher individual adaptation of management philosophy and mission statement with work engagement.


Assuntos
Filosofia , Engajamento no Trabalho , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Cuad Bioet ; 32(105): 141-148, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543044

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to show the historical continuity of transhumanism over time, from the birth of Darwinist eugenics to the present day. The history of transhumanism is rooted in the ideas of Francis Galton, who were assumed by the one who defined the current term, Julian Huxley. The influence of Huxley's thinking on present transhumanist philosophy cannot be considered marginal, as his philosophy was continued by the founders of the first transhumanist movements in the United States of America, F.M. Esfandiary and Timothy Leary. Both thinkers were the masters of today's transhumanists. This is how we seek here to establish a historical line from eugenics to today's transhumanism.


Assuntos
Humanismo , Filosofia , Eugenia (Ciência)
16.
Cuad Bioet ; 32(105): 237-247, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543052

RESUMO

The present work analyzes the classical notion of human nature. He studies this concept in Aristotle, in whom the Greek intellectual understanding of the notion of nature culminates as the later Thomistic reception of it. The main objective of this work is to provide a brief and concise introduction to the philosophy of man, which underlies in many of the authors who not only consider transhumanist thought reductive, with respect to their conception of what man is, but also they try to provide ethical solutions to take on the great opportunities that technoscience presents to today's man.


Assuntos
Características Humanas , Filosofia , Humanos , Princípios Morais
17.
Med Health Care Philos ; 24(4): 609-619, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398350

RESUMO

Research ethics committees in Germany usually don't have philosophers as members and if so, only contingently, not provided for by statute. This is interesting from a philosophical perspective, assuming that ethics is a discipline of philosophy. It prompts the question what role philosophers play in those committees they can be found in. Eight qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore the self-perception of philosophers regarding their contribution to research ethics committees. The results show that the participants generally don't view themselves as ethics experts. They are rather unanimous on the competencies they think they contribute to the committee but not as to whether those are philosophical competencies or applied ethical ones. In some cases they don't see a big difference between their role and the role of the jurist member. In the discussion section of this paper I bring up three topics, prompted by the interviews, that need to be addressed: (1) I argue that the interviewees' unwillingness to call themselves ethics experts might have to do with a too narrow understanding of ethics expertise. (2) I argue that the disagreement among the interviewees concerning the relationship between moral philosophy and applied ethics might be explained on a theoretical or on a practical level. (3) I argue that there is some lack of clarity concerning the relationship between ethics and law in research ethics committees and that further work needs to be done here. All three topics, I conclude, need further investigation.


Assuntos
Eticistas , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa , Dissidências e Disputas , Análise Ética , Humanos , Filosofia
18.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 33(5): 443-445, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370599
19.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(3): 89, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251537

RESUMO

We invite systematic consideration of the metaphors of cycles and circulation as a long-term theme in the history of the life and environmental sciences and medicine. Ubiquitous in ancient religious and philosophical traditions, especially in representing the seasons and the motions of celestial bodies, circles once symbolized perfection. Over the centuries cyclic images in western medicine, natural philosophy, natural history and eventually biology gained independence from cosmology and theology and came to depend less on strictly circular forms. As potent 'canonical icons', cycles also interacted with representations of linear and irreversible change, including arrows, arcs, scales, series and trees, as in theories of the Earth and of evolution. In modern times life cycles and reproductive cycles have often been held to characterize life, in some cases especially female life, while human efforts selectively to foster and disrupt these cycles have harnessed their productivity in medicine and agriculture. But strong cyclic metaphors have continued to link physiology and climatology, medicine and economics, and biology and manufacturing, notably through the relations between land, food and population. From the grand nineteenth-century transformations of matter to systems ecology, the circulation of molecules through organic and inorganic compartments has posed the problem of maintaining identity in the face of flux and highlights the seductive ability of cyclic schemes to imply closure where no original state was in fact restored. More concerted attention to cycles and circulation will enrich analyses of the power of metaphors to naturalize understandings of life and their shaping by practical interests and political imaginations.


Assuntos
Biologia/história , História da Medicina , Filosofia/história , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval
20.
Nurs Philos ; 22(4): e12363, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288326

RESUMO

This article summarizes a virtual live-streamed panel event that occurred in August 2020 and was cosponsored by the International Philosophy of Nursing Society (IPONS) and the University of California, Irvine's Center for Nursing Philosophy. The event consisted of a series of three self-contained panel discussions focusing on the past, present and future of IPONS and was moderated by the current Chair of IPONS, Catherine Green. The first panel discussion explored the history of IPONS and the journal Nursing Philosophy. The second panel involved a reflection on the challenges of doing nursing philosophy in a research-intensive context of a Canadian university and the history and current movements in nursing philosophy in the Nordic countries. The final panel involved presentations on the future potential for philosophy in/and for nursing, the critical connections between nursing philosophy and nursing theory, dismantling racism in nursing and the potential for process philosophy to help explore nursing's unique efficacy in creating possibilities for health. The panels were followed by a lively Q&A session with participants, of which there were 252 registrants from across the globe. The event underscored the wide and diverse interests of nurses in philosophical discussion and the need for more virtual events and other connective modalities bringing nurses together to discuss and analyze the value and potential of philosophy to better understand and advance nursing theory and practice.


Assuntos
Teoria de Enfermagem , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Canadá , Humanos , Filosofia , Universidades
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