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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571317

RESUMO

Two cost-effective packing materials were used for n-butyl acetate removal in lab-scale biofilters, namely waste spruce root wood chips and biochar obtained as a byproduct from a wood gasifier. Three biofilters packed with spruce root wood chips: without biochar (SRWC), a similar one with 10% of biochar (SRWC-B) and that with 10% of biochar impregnated with a nitrogen fertilizer (SRWC-IB) showed similar yet differing maximum elimination capacities of 206 ± 27, 275 ± 21 and 294 ± 20 g m-3 h-1, respectively, enabling high pollutant removal efficiency (>95% at moderate loads) and stable performance. The original biochar adsorption capacity was high (208 ± 6 mgtoluene g-1), but near 70% of it was lost after a 300-day biofilter operation. By contrast, the exposed impregnated biochar drastically increased its adsorption capacity in 300 days (149 ± 7 vs. 17 ± 5 mgtoluene g-1). Colony forming unit (CFU) and microscopic analyses revealed significant packing material colonization by microorganisms and grazing fauna in all three biofilters with an acceptable pressure drop, up to 1020 Pa m-1, at the end of biofilter operation. Despite a higher price (14 vs. 123 €m-3), the application of the best performing SRWC-IB packing can reduce the total investment costs by 9% due to biofilter volume reduction.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Carvão Vegetal , Filtração , Tolueno , Biodegradação Ambiental
2.
J Emerg Med ; 66(4): e477-e482, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical equipment can become scarce in disaster scenarios. Prior work has reported that four sheep could be ventilated together on a single ventilator. Others found that this maneuver is possible when needed, but no one has yet investigated whether cross-contamination occurs in co-ventilated individuals. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to investigate whether an infection could spread between co-ventilated individuals. METHODS: Four 2-L anesthesia bags were connected to a sterilized ventilator circuit that used heat and moisture exchange filters and bacterial and viral filters, as would be expected in this dire scenario. Serratia marcescens was inoculated into "lung" no. 1. After running for 24 h, each lung and three additional points in the circuit were cultured to see whether S. marcescens had spread. These cultures were examined at 24 and 48 h to assess for cross-contamination. This entire procedure was performed three times. RESULTS: S. marcescens was not found in lung no. 2, 3, or 4 or the three additional sites on the expiratory limb at 24 and 48 h in all three trials. CONCLUSIONS: Cross-contamination does not occur within 24 h using the described ventilator circuit configuration.


Assuntos
Pulmão , Ventiladores Mecânicos , Humanos , Ovinos , Animais , Respiração Artificial , Bactérias , Filtração
3.
Chemosphere ; 353: 141650, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462183

RESUMO

Recently, gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration has been adopted as an alternative solution for decentralized wastewater treatment due to easy installation and maintenance, reduced energy and operation cost, and low global warming impact. This study investigated the influence of microplastic size (0.5-0.8 µm and 40-48 µm) and amount (0.1 and 0.2 g/L) on the membrane performance and microbial community in GDM systems for primary municipal wastewater treatment. The results showed that dosing microplastics in the GDM systems led to 9-54% lower permeate flux than that in the control. This was attributed to more cake formation (up to 6.4-fold) with more deposition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, up to 1.5-fold) and divalent cations (up to 2.1-fold) in the presence of microplastics, especially with increasing microplastic amount or size. However, the dosed microplastics promoted formation of heterogeneous cake layers with more porous nature, possibly because microplastics created void space in the cake and also tended to bind with divalent cations to reduce EPS-divalent cations interactions. In the biofilm of the GDM systems, the presence of microplastics could lower the number of total species, but it greatly enhanced the abundance of certain dominant prokaryotes (Phenylobacterium haematophilum, Planctomycetota bacterium, and Flavobacteriales bacterium), eukaryotes (Stylonychia lemnae, Halteria grandinella, and Paramicrosporidium saccamoebae), and virus (phylum Nucleocytoviricota), as well as amino acid and lipid metabolic functions. Especially, the small-size microplastics at a higher dosed amount led to more variations of microbial community structure and microbial metabolic functions.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Microbiota , Purificação da Água , Águas Residuárias , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Cátions Bivalentes , Membranas Artificiais , Filtração/métodos , Purificação da Água/métodos
4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(14): 6181-6191, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536729

RESUMO

Flow-electrode capacitive deionization (FCDI) is a promising technology for sustainable water treatment. However, studies on the process have thus far been limited to lab-scale conditions and select fields of application. Such limitation is induced by several shortcomings, one of which is the absence of a comprehensive process model that accurately predicts the operational performance and the energy consumption of FCDI. In this study, a simulation model is newly proposed with initial validation based on experimental data and is then utilized to elucidate the performance and the specific energy consumption (SEC) of FCDI under multiple source water conditions ranging from near-groundwater to high salinity brine. Further, simulated pilot-scale FCDI system was compared with actual brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) and seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant data with regard to SEC to determine the feasibility of FCDI as an alternative to the conventional membrane processes. Analysis showed that FCDI is competent for operation against brackish water solutions under all possible operational conditions with respect to the BWRO. Moreover, its distinction can be extended to the SWRO for seawater conditions through optimization of its total effective membrane area via scale-up. Accordingly, future directions for the advancement of FCDI was suggested to ultimately prompt the commercialization of the FCDI process.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio , Purificação da Água , Filtração , Eletrodos , Água do Mar
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(13): 5878-5888, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498471

RESUMO

Data-driven machine learning (ML) provides a promising approach to understanding and predicting the rejection of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) by polyamide (PA). However, various confounding variables, coupled with data scarcity, restrict the direct application of data-driven ML. In this study, we developed a data-knowledge codriven ML model via domain-knowledge embedding and explored its application in comprehending TrOC rejection by PA membranes. Domain-knowledge embedding enhanced both the predictive performance and the interpretability of the ML model. The contribution of key mechanisms, including size exclusion, charge effect, hydrophobic interaction, etc., that dominate the rejections of the three TrOC categories (neutral hydrophilic, neutral hydrophobic, and charged TrOCs) was quantified. Log D and molecular charge emerge as key factors contributing to the discernible variations in the rejection among the three TrOC categories. Furthermore, we quantitatively compared the TrOC rejection mechanisms between nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) PA membranes. The charge effect and hydrophobic interactions possessed higher weights for NF to reject TrOCs, while the size exclusion in RO played a more important role. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of the data-knowledge codriven ML method in understanding TrOC rejection by PA membranes, providing a methodology to formulate a strategy for targeted TrOC removal.


Assuntos
Nylons , Purificação da Água , Osmose , Purificação da Água/métodos , Membranas Artificiais , Filtração
6.
Water Res ; 254: 121383, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432002

RESUMO

The gravity-driven membrane (GDM) system is desirable for energy-efficient water treatment. However, little is known about the influence of cations on biofilm properties and GDM performance. In this study, typical cations (Ca2+ and Na+) were used to reveal the combined fouling behavior and mechanisms. Results showed that Ca2+ improved the stable flux and pollutant removal efficiency, while Na+ adversely affected the flux. Compared with GDM control, the concentration of pollutants was lower in Ca-GDM, as indicated by the low biomass, proteins, and polysaccharides. A heterogeneous and loose biofilm was observed in the Ca-GDM system, with roughness and porosity increasing by 43.06 % and 32.60 %, respectively. However, Na+ induced a homogeneous and dense biofilm, with porosity and roughness respectively reduced by 17.48 % and 22.04 %. The richness of bacterial communities increased in Ca-GDM systems, while it decreased in Na-GDM systems. High adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration in Ca-GDM system was consistent with the abundant bacteria and their high biological activity, which was helpful for the efficient removal of pollutants. The abundance of Apicomplexa, Platyhelminthes, Annelida and Nematoda increased after adding Ca2+, which was related to the formation of loose biofilms. Computational simulations indicated that the free volumes of the biofilms in Ca-GDM and Na-GDM were 13.7 and 13.2 nm3, respectively. The addition of cations changed intermolecular forces, Ca2+ induced bridging effects led to large and loose floc particles, while the significant dehydration of hydrated molecules in the Na-GDM caused obvious aggregation. Overall, microbiological characteristics and contaminant molecular interactions were the main reasons for differences in GDM systems.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Purificação da Água , Membranas Artificiais , Filtração/métodos , Biofilmes , Purificação da Água/métodos , Cátions
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 134064, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513444

RESUMO

Water vapor from respiration can severely accelerate the charge dissipation of the face mask, reducing filtration efficiency. Moreover, the foul odor from prolonged mask wear tends to make people remove their masks, leading to the risk of infection. In this study, an electro-blown spinning electroactive nanofibrous membrane (Zn/CB@PAN) with antibacterial and deodorization properties was prepared by adding zinc (Zn) and carbon black (CB) nanoparticles to the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers, respectively. The filtration efficiency of Zn/CB@PAN for PM0.3 was > 99% and could still maintain excellent durability within 4 h in a high-humidity environment (25 â„ƒ and RH = 95%). Moreover, the bacterial interception rate of the Zn/CB@PAN could reach 99.99%, and it can kill intercepted bacteria. In addition, the deodorization rate of Zn/CB@PAN in the moist state for acetic acid was 93.75% and ammonia was 95.23%, respectively. The excellent filtering, antibacterial, and deodorizing performance of Zn/CB@PAN can be attributed to the synergistic effect of breath-induced Zn/CB galvanic couples' electroactivity, released metal ions, and generated reactive oxygen species. The developed Zn/CB@PAN could capture and kill airborne environmental pathogens under humid environments and deodorize odors from prolonged wear, holding promise for broad applications as personal protective masks.


Assuntos
Nanofibras , Humanos , Antibacterianos , Ácido Acético , Zinco , Amônia , Filtração
8.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 65(3): 6, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466285

RESUMO

Purpose: Isolating extracellular vesicles (EVs) with high yield, replicable purity, and characterization remains a bottleneck in the development of EV therapeutics. To address these challenges, the current study aims to establish the necessary framework for preclinical and clinical studies in the development of stem cell-derived intraocular EV therapeutics. Methods: Small EVs (sEVs) were separated from the conditioned cell culture medium (CCM) of the human embryogenic stem cell-derived fully polarized retinal pigment epithelium (hESC-RPE-sEV) by a commercially available microfluidic tangential flow filtration (TFF) device ExoDisc (ED) or differential ultracentrifugation (dUC). The scaling and concentration capabilities and purity of recovered sEVs were assessed. Size, number, and surface markers of sEVs were determined by orthogonal approaches using multiple devices. Results: ED yielded higher numbers of sEVs, ranging from three to eight times higher depending on the measurement device, compared to dUC using the same 5 mL of CCM input. Within the same setting, the purity of ED-recovered hESC-RPE-sEVs was higher than that for dUC-recovered sEVs. ED yielded a higher concentration of particles, which is strongly correlated with the input volume, up to 10 mL (r = 0.98, P = 0.016). Meanwhile, comprehensive characterization profiles of EV surface markers between ED- and dUC-recovered hESC-RPE-sEVs were compatible. Conclusions: Our study supports TFF as a valuable strategy for separating sEVs for the development of intraocular EV therapeutics. However, there is a growing need for diverse devices to optimize TFF for use in EV preparation. Using orthogonal approaches in EV characterization remains ideal for reliably characterizing heterogeneous EV.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas , Humanos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados , Filtração , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina
9.
Biotechnol J ; 19(3): e2300348, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472091

RESUMO

The development and manufacture of biopharmaceuticals are subject to strict regulations that specify the required minimum quality of the products. A key measure to meet these quality requirements is the integration of a sterile filtration step into the commercial manufacturing process. Whereas common procedures for most biologics exist, this is challenging for lentiviral vector (LVV) production for ex vivo gene therapy. LVVs nominal size is more than half the pore size (0.2 µm) of filters used for sterile filtration. Hence, highly concentrated virus solutions are prone to filter clogging if aggregation of viruses occurs or impurities attach to the viruses. Several filters were screened aiming to identify those which allow filtering highly concentrated stocks of LVVs of up to 1E + 9 transducing units mL-1 , which corresponds to 4.5E + 12 particles mL-1 . In addition, the effect of endonuclease treatment upstream of the purification process on filter performance was studied. In summary, three suitable filters were identified in a small-scale study (<15 mL) with virus yields >80% and the process was successfully scaled-up to a final scale of 100 mL LVV stock solution.


Assuntos
Lentivirus , Vírus , Lentivirus/genética , Vírus/genética , Filtração/métodos , Terapia Genética
10.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298015, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38421996

RESUMO

The evaluation of the structural integrity of mechanically dynamic organs such as lungs is critical for the diagnosis of numerous pathologies and the development of therapies. This task is classically performed by histology experts in a qualitative or semi-quantitative manner. Automatic digital image processing methods appeared in the last decades, and although immensely powerful, tools are highly specialized and lack the versatility required in various experimental designs. Here, a set of scripts for the image processing software ImageJ/Fiji to easily quantify fibrosis extend and alveolar airspace availability in Sirius Red or Masson's trichrome stained samples is presented. The toolbox consists in thirteen modules: sample detection, particles filtration (automatic and manual), border definition, air ducts identification, air ducts walls definition, parenchyma extraction, MT-staining specific pre-processing, fibrosis detection, fibrosis particles filtration, airspace detection, and visualizations (tissue only or tissue and airspace). While the process is largely automated, critical parameters are accessible to the user for increased adaptability. The modularity of the protocol allows for its adjustment to alternative experimental settings. Fibrosis and airspace can be combined as an evaluation of the structural integrity of the organ. All settings and intermediate states are saved to ensure reproducibility. These new analysis scripts allow for a rapid quantification of fibrosis and airspace in a large variety of experimental settings.


Assuntos
Corantes , Tórax , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Filtração , Pulmão
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(9): 4415-4427, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373279

RESUMO

Efficient mono- and divalent ion separation is pivotal for environmental conservation and energy utilization. Two-dimensional (2D) materials featuring interlayer nanochannels exhibit unique water and ion transport properties, rendering them highly suitable for water treatment membranes. In this work, we incorporated polydopamine/polyethylenimine (PDA/PEI) copolymers into 2D montmorillonite (MMT) nanosheet interlayer channels through electrostatic interactions and bioinspired bonding. A modified laminar structure was formed on the substrate surface via a straightforward vacuum filtration. The electrodialysis experiments reveal that these membranes could achieve monovalent permselectivity of 11.06 and Na+ flux of 2.09 × 10-8 mol cm-2 s-1. The enhanced permselectivity results from the synergistic effect of electrostatic and steric hindrance effect. In addition, the interaction between the PDA/PEI copolymer and the MMT nanosheet ensures the long-term operational stability of the membranes. Theoretical simulations reveal that Na+ has a lower migration energy barrier and higher migration rate for the modified MMT-based membrane compared to Mg2+. This work presents a novel approach for the development of monovalent permselective membranes.


Assuntos
Bentonita , Purificação da Água , Íons , Filtração , Purificação da Água/métodos
12.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 141: 102-128, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408813

RESUMO

Electrochemical filtration can not only enrich low concentrations of pollutants but also produce reactive oxygen species to interact with toxic pollutants with the assistance of a power supply, making it an effective strategy for drinking water purification. In addition, the application of electrochemical filtration facilitates the reduction of pretreatment procedures and the use of chemicals, which has outstanding potential for maximizing process simplicity and reducing operating costs, enabling the production of safe drinking water in smaller installations. In recent years, the research on electrochemical filtration has gradually increased, but there has been a lack of attention on its application in the removal of low concentrations of pollutants from low conductivity water. In this review, membrane substrates and electrocatalysts used to improve the performance of electrochemical membranes are briefly summarized. Meanwhile, the application prospects of emerging single-atom catalysts in electrochemical filtration are also presented. Thereafter, several electrochemical advanced oxidation processes coupled with membrane filtration are described, and the related working mechanisms and their advantages and shortcomings used in drinking water purification are illustrated. Finally, the roles of electrochemical filtration in drinking water purification are presented, and the main problems and future perspectives of electrochemical filtration in the removal of low concentration pollutants are discussed.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Membranas Artificiais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Filtração/métodos
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(8): 10148-10157, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363186

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic sparked public health concerns about the transmission of airborne viruses. Current methods mainly capture pathogens without inactivation, leading to potential secondary pollution. Herein, we evaluated the inactivation performance of a model viral species (MS2) in simulated bioaerosol by an electromagnetically enhanced air filtration system under a 300 kHz electromagnetic induction field. A nonwoven fabric filter was coated with a 2D catalyst, MXene (Ti3C2Tx), at a coating density of 4.56 mg·cm-2 to absorb electromagnetic irradiation and produce local heating and electromagnetic field for microbial inactivation. The results showed that the MXene-coated air filter significantly enhanced the viral removal efficiency by achieving a log removal of 3.4 ± 0.15 under an electromagnetic power density of 369 W·cm-2. By contrast, the pristine filter without catalyst coating only garnered a log removal of 0.3 ± 0.04. Though the primary antimicrobial mechanism is the local heating as indicated by the elevated surface temperature of 72.2 ± 4 °C under the electromagnetic field, additional nonthermal effects (e.g., dielectrophoresis) on enhanced viral capture during electromagnetically enhanced filtration were investigated by COMSOL simulation to delineate the potential transmission trajectories of bioaerosol. The results provide unique insights into the mechanisms of pathogen control and thus promote alternative solutions for preventing the transmission of airborne pathogens.


Assuntos
Nitritos , Pandemias , Elementos de Transição , Vírus , Humanos , Microbiologia do Ar , Aerossóis e Gotículas Respiratórios , Filtração/métodos , Campos Eletromagnéticos
14.
Biologicals ; 85: 101751, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387156

RESUMO

Viral clearance steps are routinely included in monoclonal antibody purification processes to safeguard product from potential virus contamination. These steps are often experimentally studied using product-specific feeds and parameters for each project to demonstrate viral clearance capability. However, published evidence suggests that viral clearance capability of many of these steps are not significantly impacted by variations in feed material or process parameter within commonly used ranges. The current investigation confirms robust retrovirus inactivation by low pH treatment and parvovirus removal by second-generation virus filters, independent to individual antibody molecules. Our results also reveal robust retrovirus removal by flowthrough anion exchange chromatography, inside the limits of protein load and host cell protein content. The cumulative viral clearance capability from these steps leads to an excess clearance safety factor of 10,000-fold for endogenous retrovirus-like particles. These results further justify the use of prior knowledge-based modular viral clearance estimation as opposed to repetitive experimentation.


Assuntos
Retrovirus Endógenos , Parvovirus , Vírus , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Filtração
15.
Water Res ; 253: 121241, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377922

RESUMO

Strontium (Sr) removal from water is required because excessive naturally occurring Sr exposure is hazardous to human health. Climate and seasonal changes cause water quality variations, in particular quality and quantity of organic matter (OM) and pH, and such variations affect Sr removal by nanofiltration (NF). The mechanisms for such variations are not clear and thus OM complexation and speciation require attention. Sr removal by NF was investigated with emphasis on the role of OM (type and concentration) and pH (2-12) on possible removal mechanisms, specifically size and/or charge exclusion as well as solute-solute interactions. The filtration results show that the addition of various OM (10 types) and an increase of OM concentration (2-100 mgC.L-1) increased Sr removal by 10-15%. The Sr-OM interaction was enhanced with increasing OM concentration, implying enhanced size exclusion via Sr-OM interaction as the main mechanism. Such interactions were quantified by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (FFFF) coupled with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Both extremely low and high pH increased Sr removal due to the enhanced charge exclusion and Sr-OM interactions. This work elucidated and verified the mechanism of OM and pH on Sr removal by NF membranes.


Assuntos
Estrôncio , Purificação da Água , Humanos , Purificação da Água/métodos , Filtração/métodos , Soluções , Qualidade da Água
16.
Water Res ; 253: 121203, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38402751

RESUMO

Gravity-driven filtration through slow sand filters (SSFs) is one of the oldest methods for producing drinking water. As water passes through a sand bed, undesired microorganisms and chemicals are removed by interactions with SSF biofilm and its resident microbes. Despite their importance, the processes through which these microbial communities form are largely unknown, as are the factors affecting these processes. In this study, two SSFs constructed using different sand sources were compared to an established filter and observed throughout their maturation process. One SSF was inoculated through addition of sand scraped from established filters, while the other was not inoculated. The operational and developing microbial communities of SSFs, as well as their influents and effluents, were studied by sequencing of 16S ribosomal rRNA genes. A functional microbial community resembling that of the established SSF was achieved in the inoculated SSF, but not in the non-inoculated SSF. Notably, the non-inoculated SSF had significantly (p < 0.01) higher abundances of classes Armatimonadia, Elusimicrobia, Fimbriimonadia, OM190 (phylum Planctomycetota), Parcubacteria, Vampirivibrionia and Verrucomicrobiae. Conversely, it had lower abundances of classes Anaerolineae, Bacilli, bacteriap25 (phylum Myxococcota), Blastocatellia, Entotheonellia, Gemmatimonadetes, lineage 11b (phylum Elusimicrobiota), Nitrospiria, Phycisphaerae, subgroup 22 (phylum Acidobacteriota) and subgroup 11 (phylum Acidobacteriota). Poor performance of neutral models showed that the assembly and dispersal of SSF microbial communities was mainly driven by selection. The temporal turnover of microbial species, as estimated through the scaling exponent of the species-time relationship, was twice as high in the non-inoculated filter (0.946 ± 0.164) compared to the inoculated filter (0.422 ± 0.0431). This study shows that the addition of an inoculum changed the assembly processes within SSFs. Specifically, the rate at which new microorganisms were observed in the biofilm was reduced. The reduced temporal turnover may be driven by inoculating taxa inhibiting growth, potentially via secondary metabolite production. This in turn would allow the inoculation community to persist and contribute to SSF function.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Microbiota , Purificação da Água , Purificação da Água/métodos , Bactérias/genética , Firmicutes , Filtração/métodos , Dióxido de Silício/química
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 200: 116094, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335638

RESUMO

Optimizing nanoplastics (NPs) removal performance of rapid sand filter (RSF) in water treatment plants is significant for NP pollution prevention and remediation. This study investigated the application prospect of natural granular manganese sand, zeolite and limestone in RSF for NP removal through column experiments. Pristine, amino-modified, and carboxyl-modified polystyrene NPs (100 nm) were selected as experimental subjects. Quartz sand filter showed negligible NP removal, zeolite and manganese sand showed no obvious optimization on NP filtration. Limestone amended RSF significantly enhanced the removal of three NPs, the removal efficiency increased with decreasing size and increasing limestone grains dosage. The excellent performance of limestone was attributed to its special physicochemical properties in terms of synthetical action of electrostatic interaction, cationic bridging and especially the surface roughness morphology, and the mechanisms overcame the influence of functional groups of NPs. The results indicate the prospective applications of granular limestone in RSF for NP filtration.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Zeolitas , Humanos , Poliestirenos , Microplásticos , Manganês , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Filtração , Purificação da Água/métodos
18.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(3): 109, 2024 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369664

RESUMO

A horizontal biotrickling filter (HBTF) was designed to understand the toluene removal process and microbial community structures. The start-up time of the HBTF, immobilized by the dominant fungi was only about 6 days and the toluene removal efficiency was found to be more than 95% when the inlet toluene concentration remained at around 1560.0 mg/m3. In the stable operation stage of the HBTF, based on not greatly reducing the removal efficiency, a simple and convenient periodic commutation was adopted to reduce the pressure drop (△P) and regulate the distribution of microorganisms in the packing area of the HBTF. The △P decreased from about 90 Pa to 10 Pa after the commutation, which indicated its feasibility. The performance of the HBTF was improved by changing the inlet direction of waste gas flow. When the inlet concentration of toluene was about 640 mg/m3, the removal efficiency was nearly 70.0% before commutation and it remained 95.0-98.0% after commutation. Microbial abundance and diversity analysis showed that the corresponding Shannon-Weiner index was 2.73 and 1.84, respectively. The front section of the HBTF, which was exposed to toluene earlier, consistently exhibited higher microbial diversity than that in the back section. Following commutation, microbial diversity decreased in both the front and back sections, with a maximum decline of around 50%. The main fungi treating toluene were Aplanochytrium, Boletellus, and Exophiala.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Tolueno , Biodegradação Ambiental , Filtração , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia
19.
Chemosphere ; 352: 141526, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401863

RESUMO

Reducing irreversible fouling in polymer membranes by integrating photocatalytic and membrane processes as the self-cleaning photocatalytic membrane is a promising candidate for improving membrane filtration performance. In this study, mixed matrix photocatalytic membranes were prepared from the combination of different morphologies ZnO-g-C3N4 heterostructure in the polymer matrix by the phase-separation method. To investigate the self-cleaning and performance properties of mixed matrix photocatalytic membranes prepared from different morphologies heterostructures, the photocatalytic membrane reactor with a visible-light source was applied. Nanoflower/nanosheet (NF/NS) ZnO-g-C3N4 photocatalytic membrane showed good self-cleaning performance owing to the high photocatalytic performance of NF/NS ZnO-g-C3N4 heterostructure by the reduction of irreversible membrane fouling, thus improving the antifouling and filtration performance of the membrane. Also, the morphology and the uniform distribution of the NF/NS ZnO-g-C3N4 heterostructure in the membrane matrix caused good hydrophilic properties, high porosity, and a more symmetrical structure in the (NF/NS) ZnO-g-C3N4 photocatalytic membrane (F4). For the F4 membrane, the permeability and rejection values increased from 40.35 L m-2 h-1 and 90.9% in the dark environment to 84.37 L m-2 h-1 and 97.4% under visible-light for dye pollutants. Accordingly, F4 had the best filtration and self-cleaning performance, which can be used as a promising visible-light photocatalytic membrane in wastewater treatment processes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Óxido de Zinco , Membranas , Filtração , Polímeros
20.
Chemosphere ; 352: 141501, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401864

RESUMO

As a key step in disposal and reutilization, sludge dewatering is very difficult, since extracellular polymers substances (EPS) binds the water, and compressible organic matter deforms and causes water filtration channels to collapse. Sludge dewaterability was demonstrated to enhance by carbonaceous skeleton (CSkel)-assisted thermal hydrolysis in our previously study. This work further investigated the assisting role of different types of CSkel in EPS decomposition during sludge thermal hydrolysis stage and channels reformation during press filtration stage. Two major types of CSkel, lignocellulosic waste (waste sawdust, waste straw, processing by-product) and protein-rich waste (shrimp shells, jatropha oil cake), were selected. The experimental results showed that in the thermal hydrolysis stage, the decomposition of lignocellulosic waste would increase fatty acids production by 28%, resulting in an acidic environment that reduced the total amount of three hydrophilic amino acids, i.e., glycine, serine and threonine. These promoted the release of water from the sludge. In the press filtration stage, average pore size of sludge was reduced by approximately 87% and nanoscale holes began to appear and increase. Assisting of CSkel rebuilt the filtration channels which brought good connectivity between the pores in sludge cake. Lignocellulosic waste proved significantly more effective than protein-rich waste in achieving a water removal rate of 88.63% under 1 MPa. This study provided a basis for selecting suitable CSkel to optimize sludge dewatering for subsequent utilization.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Esgotos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Hidrólise , Filtração , Proteínas/química , Água/química , Esqueleto
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