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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 636-644, jul. 2024. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538072

RESUMO

Thechemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from aerial parts (leaves and flowers) of Chuquiraga arcuataHarling grown in the Ecuadorian Andes were studied. One hundred and twenty-six compounds were identified in the essential oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (45.8%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (44.1%) had the major percentages. The most abundant compounds were camphor (21.6%), myrcene (19.5%), and 1,8-cineole (13.4%). Antioxidant activity was examined using DPPH, ABTS,and FRAP assays. The essential oil had a moderate scavenging effect and reduction of ferric ion capacity through FRAP assay. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was observed against four pathogenic bacteria and a fungus. The essential oil exhibited activity against all microorganism strains under test, particularly against Candida albicansand Staphylococcus aureuswith MICs of 2.43-12.10 µg/mL.


Se estudió la composición química, actividades antioxidantes y antimicrobianas del aceite esencial procedente de las partes aérea (hojas y flores) de Chuquiraga arcuataHarling cultivadas en los Andes ecuatorianos. Se identificaron 126 compuestos en el aceite esencial. Los hidrocarburos monoterpénicos (45,8%) y los monoterpenos oxigenados (44,1%) tuvieron el mayor porcentaje. Los compuestos más abundantes fueron alcanfor (21,6%), mirceno (19,5%) y 1,8-cineol (13,4%). La actividadantioxidante se examinó mediante ensayos DPPH, ABTS y FRAP. El aceite esencial tuvo un efecto eliminador moderado y una reducción de la capacidad de iones férricos mediante el ensayo FRAP. Se observó actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial contra cuatro bacterias y un hongo patógenos. El aceite esencial mostró actividad contra todas las cepas de microorganismos bajo prueba, particularmente contra Candida albicansy Staphylococcus aureuscon CMI de 2,43-12,10 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Flores/química , Equador , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
2.
PeerJ ; 12: e17655, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952981

RESUMO

The augmentation of pollination success in lemon (Citrus limon Eureka) flowers remains contingent on the involvement of bee pollinators. With wild bee pollinator populations declining in agroecosystems, meliponiculture has emerged as a potential option in Indonesia. This study aimed to investigate the effects of meliponicultural use of Tetragonula laeviceps on diversity, foraging behavior, and monthly population of bee pollinators, as well as lemon pollination efficacy with and without meliponiculture treatment during two periods. Using scan and focal sampling methods in first and second periods, the study found that the diversity of wild bee pollinators was six species (Apis cerana, Lasioglossum albescens, Megachile laticeps, Xylocopa confusa, Xylocopa latipes, and Xylocopa caerulea), and T. laeviceps when using meliponiculture. The relative abundance and daily foraging activity of wild bee pollinators were initially reduced in the first period (March-June) and then maintained in the second period (July-October). T. laeviceps foraged on the flowers, involving specific sequences for 72 s with highest visitation rate of 0.25 flowers/h from 10:00-13:00. Light intensity was observed to be the most influential factor for bee pollinator density. Pollination efficacy results showed that meliponiculture usage has greater benefit compared to meliponiculture absence across various parameters, including fruit sets, fruit weight, yield, and estimated productivity. The effects of meliponicultural use of T. laeviceps can enhance lemon pollination efficacy while preserving the diversity of wild insect pollinators. This suggests that meliponiculture stingless bees could be a beneficial practice in agroecosystems, especially in tropical regions where wild bee populations and diversity are declining.


Assuntos
Citrus , Polinização , Animais , Abelhas/fisiologia , Indonésia , Flores
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15309, 2024 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961197

RESUMO

Axillary bud is an important aspect of plant morphology, contributing to the final tobacco yield. However, the mechanisms of axillary bud development in tobacco remain largely unknown. To investigate this aspect of tobacco biology, the metabolome and proteome of the axillary buds before and after topping were compared. A total of 569 metabolites were differentially abundant before and 1, 3, and 5 days after topping. KEGG analyses further revealed that the axillary bud was characterized by a striking enrichment of metabolites involved in flavonoid metabolism, suggesting a strong flavonoid biosynthesis activity in the tobacco axillary bud after topping. Additionally, 9035 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified before and 1, 3, and 5 days after topping. Subsequent GO and KEGG analyses revealed that the DEPs in the axillary bud were enriched in oxidative stress, hormone signal transduction, MAPK signaling pathway, and starch and sucrose metabolism. The integrated proteome and metabolome analysis revealed that the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) alteration in buds control dormancy release and sustained growth of axillary bud by regulating proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and lipid metabolism. Notably, the proteins related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and flavonoid biosynthesis were strongly negatively correlated with IAA content. These findings shed light on a critical role of IAA alteration in regulating axillary bud outgrowth, and implied a potential crosstalk among IAA alteration, ROS homeostasis, and flavonoid biosynthesis in tobacco axillary bud under topping stress, which could improve our understanding of the IAA alteration in axillary bud as an important regulator of axillary bud development.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos , Metaboloma , Nicotiana , Proteínas de Plantas , Proteoma , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Nicotiana/metabolismo , Nicotiana/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo
4.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 299(1): 68, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980531

RESUMO

The P-type ATPase superfamily genes are the cation and phospholipid pumps that transport ions across the membranes by hydrolyzing ATP. They are involved in a diverse range of functions, including fundamental cellular events that occur during the growth of plants, especially in the reproductive organs. The present work has been undertaken to understand and characterize the P-type ATPases in the pigeonpea genome and their potential role in anther development and pollen fertility. A total of 59 P-type ATPases were predicted in the pigeonpea genome. The phylogenetic analysis classified the ATPases into five subfamilies: eleven P1B, eighteen P2A/B, fourteen P3A, fifteen P4, and one P5. Twenty-three pairs of P-type ATPases were tandemly duplicated, resulting in their expansion in the pigeonpea genome during evolution. The orthologs of the reported anther development-related genes were searched in the pigeonpea genome, and the expression profiling studies of specific genes via qRT-PCR in the pre- and post-meiotic anther stages of AKCMS11A (male sterile), AKCMS11B (maintainer) and AKPR303 (fertility restorer) lines of pigeonpea was done. Compared to the restorer and maintainer lines, the down-regulation of CcP-typeATPase22 in the post-meiotic anthers of the male sterile line might have played a role in pollen sterility. Furthermore, the strong expression of CcP-typeATPase2 in the post-meiotic anthers of restorer line and CcP-typeATPase46, CcP-typeATPase51, and CcP-typeATPase52 in the maintainer lines, respectively, compared to the male sterile line, clearly indicates their potential role in developing male reproductive organs in pigeonpea.


Assuntos
Cajanus , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas , Pólen , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cajanus/genética , Cajanus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cajanus/enzimologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , ATPases do Tipo-P/genética , ATPases do Tipo-P/metabolismo , Fertilidade/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 626, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin-like (CML) proteins play regulatory roles in plant growth and development, responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, and other biological processes. As a popular fruit and ornamental crop, it is important to explore the regulatory mechanism of flower and fruit development of passion fruit. RESULTS: In this study, 32 PeCaM/PeCML genes were identified from passion fruit genome and were divided into 9 groups based on phylogenetic analysis. The structural analysis, including conserved motifs, gene structure and homologous modeling, illustrates that the PeCaM/PeCML in the same subgroup have relative conserved structural features. Collinearity analysis suggested that the expansion of the CaM/CML gene family likely took place mainly by segmental duplication, and the whole genome replication events were closely related with the rapid expansion of the gene group. PeCaM/PeCMLs were potentially required for different floral tissues development. Significantly, PeCML26 had extremely high expression levels during ovule and fruit development compared with other PeCML genes, suggesting that PeCML26 had potential functions involved in the development of passion fruit flowers and fruits. The co-presence of various cis-elements associated with growth and development, hormone responsiveness, and stress responsiveness in the promoter regions of these PeCaM/PeCMLs might contribute to their diverse regulatory roles. Furthermore, PeCaM/PeCMLs were also induced by various abiotic stresses. This work provides a comprehensive understanding of the CaM/CML gene family and valuable clues for future studies on the function and evolution of CaM/CML genes in passion fruit. CONCLUSION: A total of 32 PeCaM/PeCML genes were divided into 9 groups. The PeCaM/PeCML genes showed differential expression patterns in floral tissues at different development stages. It is worth noting that PeCML26, which is highly homologous to AtCaM2, not only interacts with multiple BBR-BPC TFs, but also has high expression levels during ovule and fruit development, suggesting that PeCML26 had potential functions involved in the development of passion fruit flowers and fruits. This research lays the foundation for future investigations and validation of the potential function of PeCaM/PeCML genes in the growth and development of passion fruit.


Assuntos
Calmodulina , Flores , Frutas , Passiflora , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas , Passiflora/genética , Passiflora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Calmodulina/genética , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Genes de Plantas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
6.
PeerJ ; 12: e17586, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38974413

RESUMO

The development of floral organs, crucial for the establishment of floral symmetry and morphology in higher plants, is regulated by MADS-box genes. In sunflower, the capitulum is comprised of ray and disc florets with various floral organs. In the sunflower long petal mutant (lpm), the abnormal disc (ray-like) floret possesses prolongated petals and degenerated stamens, resulting in a transformation from zygomorphic to actinomorphic symmetry. In this study, we investigated the effect of MADS-box genes on floral organs, particularly on petals, using WT and lpm plants as materials. Based on our RNA-seq data, 29 MADS-box candidate genes were identified, and their roles on floral organ development, especially in petals, were explored, by analyzing the expression levels in various tissues in WT and lpm plants through RNA-sequencing and qPCR. The results suggested that HaMADS3, HaMADS7, and HaMADS8 could regulate petal development in sunflower. High levels of HaMADS3 that relieved the inhibition of cell proliferation, together with low levels of HaMADS7 and HaMADS8, promoted petal prolongation and maintained the morphology of ray florets. In contrast, low levels of HaMADS3 and high levels of HaMADS7 and HaMADS8 repressed petal extension and maintained the morphology of disc florets. Their coordination may contribute to the differentiation of disc and ray florets in sunflower and maintain the balance between attracting pollinators and producing offspring. Meanwhile, Pearson correlation analysis between petal length and expression levels of MADS-box genes further indicated their involvement in petal prolongation. Additionally, the analysis of cis-acting elements indicated that these three MADS-box genes may regulate petal development and floral symmetry establishment by regulating the expression activity of HaCYC2c. Our findings can provide some new understanding of the molecular regulatory network of petal development and floral morphology formation, as well as the differentiation of disc and ray florets in sunflower.


Assuntos
Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Helianthus , Proteínas de Domínio MADS , Proteínas de Plantas , Helianthus/genética , Helianthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Helianthus/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
7.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(3): 435-446, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Farfarae Flos has the effect of cough suppression and phlegm elimination, with cough suppression as the main function. Studies have revealed that certain components of Farfarae Flos may be related to its cough suppressant effect, and some components have been confirmed to have cough suppressant activity. However, the antitussive material basis of Farfarae Flos has not been systematically elucidated. This study aims to elucidate the group of active ingredients in Farfarae Flos with cough suppressant activity by correlating the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint of Farfarae Flos extract with its cough suppressant activity. METHODS: HPLC was used to establish the fingerprint profiles of 10 batches of Farfarae Flos extract and obtain their chemical composition data. Guinea pigs were selected as experimental animals and the citric acid-induced cough model was used to evaluate the antitussive efficacy data of 10 batches of Farfarae Flos extract. SPF-grade healthy male Hartley guinea pigs were randomly divided into the S1 to S10 groups, a positive control group, and a blank control group (12 groups in total), with 10 guinea pigs in each group. The S1 to S10 groups were respectively administered Farfarae Flos extract S1 to S10 (4 g/kg), the positive control group was administered pentoverine citrate (10 mg/kg), and the blank control group was administered purified water. Each group received continuous oral administration for 5 days. The guinea pigs were placed in 5 L closed wide-mouth bottles, and 17.5% citric acid was sprayed into the bottle with an ultrasonic atomizer at the maximum spray intensity for 0.5 minutes. The cough latency period and cough frequency in 5 minutes were recorded for each guinea pig. Grey relational analysis (GRA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) were used to conduct spectral-effect correlation analysis of the chemical composition data of Farfarae Flos extract and the antitussive efficacy data, and predict the group of active ingredients in Farfarae Flos with antitussive activity. The bioequivalence verification was conducted to verify the predicted group of active ingredients in Farfarae Flos with antitussive activity: SPF-grade healthy male Hartley guinea pigs were randomly divided into a S9 group, an active ingredient group, a positive control group, and a blank control group (4 groups in total), with 10 guinea pigs in each group. The S9 group was administered Farfarae Flos extract S9 (4 g/kg), the active ingredient group was administered the predicted combination of antitussive active ingredients (dose equivalent to 4 g/kg of Farfarae Flos extract S9), the positive control group was administered pentoverine citrate (10 mg/kg), and the blank control group was administered purified water. Each group received continuous oral administration for 5 days, and animal modeling and observation of efficacy indicators were the same as above. RESULTS: The HPLC fingerprint of 10 batches of Farfarae Flos extract was established, and the peak area data of 14 main common peaks were obtained. The antitussive effect data of 10 batches of Farfarae Flos extract were obtained. Compared with the blank control group, the cough latence in the positive control group and S1, S2, S3, S4, S6, S7, S8, S9, S10 groups was prolonged (all P<0.01), while the cough frequency in 5 minutes in the positive control group and S1, S2, S4, S6, S8, S9, S10 groups was decreased (all P<0.05). The analysis of spectrum-effect relationship revealed that isochlorogenic acid C, isochlorogenic acid A, chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid B, isoquercitrin, and rutin had high contribution to the antitussive effect of Farfarae Flos, and the 6 components were predicted to be the antitussive component group of Farfarae Flos. The verification of bioequivalence showed that there were no statistically significant differences in the antitussive effect between the S9 group and the antitussive component composition group(all P>0.05), which confirmed that isochlorogenic acid C, isochlorogenic acid A, chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid B, isoquercetin, and rutin were the antitussive component group of Farfarae Flos. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of spectrum-effect relationship combined with the verification of bioequivalence could be used to study the antitussive material basis of Farfarae Flos. The antitussive effect of Farfarae Flos is the result of the joint action of many components.


Assuntos
Antitussígenos , Tosse , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Flores , Animais , Antitussígenos/uso terapêutico , Antitussígenos/farmacologia , Cobaias , Flores/química , Masculino , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Cordyceps/química
8.
Planta ; 260(2): 50, 2024 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38990341

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: BcERF98 is induced by ethylene signaling and inhibits the expression of BcFT by interacting with BcNF-YA2 and BcEIP9, thereby inhibiting plant flowering. Several stresses trigger the accumulation of ethylene, which then transmits the signal to ethylene response factors (ERFs) to participate in the regulation of plant development to adapt to the environment. This study clarifies the function of BcERF98, a homolog of AtERF98, in the regulation of plant flowering time mediated by high concentrations of ethylene. Results indicate that BcERF98 is a nuclear and the cell membrane-localized transcription factor and highly responsive to ethylene signaling. BcERF98 inhibits the expression of BcFT by interacting with BcEIP9 and BcNF-YA2, which are related to flowering time regulation, thereby participating in ethylene-mediated plant late flowering regulation. The results have enriched the theoretical knowledge of flowering regulation in non-heading Chinese cabbage (NHCC), providing the scientific basis and gene reserves for cultivating new varieties of NHCC with different flowering times.


Assuntos
Etilenos , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Etilenos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Brassica/genética , Brassica/fisiologia , Brassica/metabolismo , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo
9.
Physiol Plant ; 176(4): e14425, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982330

RESUMO

Flowering plants adjust their reproductive period to maximize the success of the offspring. Monocarpic plants, those with a single reproductive cycle that precedes plant senescence and death, tightly regulate both flowering initiation and flowering cessation. The end of the flowering period involves the arrest of the inflorescence meristem activity, known as proliferative arrest, in what has been interpreted as an evolutionary adaptation to maximize the allocation of resources to seed production and the viability of the progeny. Factors influencing proliferative arrest were described for several monocarpic plant species many decades ago, but only in the last few years studies performed in Arabidopsis have allowed to approach proliferative arrest regulation in a comprehensive manner by studying the physiology, hormone dynamics, and genetic factors involved in its regulation. However, these studies remain restricted to Arabidopsis and there is a need to expand our knowledge to other monocarpic species to propose general mechanisms controlling the process. In this work, we have characterized proliferative arrest in Pisum sativum, trying to parallel available studies in Arabidopsis to maximize this comparative framework. We have assessed quantitatively the role of fruits/seeds in the process, the influence of the positional effect of these fruits/seeds in the behavior of the inflorescence meristem, and the transcriptomic changes in the inflorescence associated with the arrested state of the meristem. Our results support a high conservation of the factors triggering arrest in pea and Arabidopsis, but also reveal differences reinforcing the need to perform similar studies in other species.


Assuntos
Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inflorescência , Meristema , Pisum sativum , Sementes , Meristema/genética , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/fisiologia , Pisum sativum/genética , Pisum sativum/fisiologia , Pisum sativum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inflorescência/genética , Inflorescência/fisiologia , Inflorescência/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/fisiologia , Dormência de Plantas/genética , Dormência de Plantas/fisiologia
10.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e284946, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985062

RESUMO

In vitro androgenesis is a unique model for producing homozygous doubled haploid plants. The use of haploid biotechnology accelerates to obtain of doubled haploid plants, which is very important in rice breeding. The purpose of this work is to improve the production of doubled haploids in rice anther culture in vitro and selection of doubled haploid plants with valuable traits. The study the influence of nutrient media on the production of calli and plant regeneration processes in anther culture of 35 rice genotypes was revealed a significant influence of nutrient media on callus production. It was shown that the addition to culture medium phytohormones ratio with high level of cytokinin (5.0 mg/L BAP) and a low level of auxin (0.5 mg/L NAA), supplemented with amino acid composition promotes high production of green regenerated plants (68.75%) compared to albino plants (31.25%). As a result, doubled haploid lines of the glutinous variety Violetta were selected, which characterized by a low amylose content variation (from 1.86 to 2.80%). These doubled haploids are superior to the original variety in some yield traits and represent valuable breeding material.


Assuntos
Amilose , Haploidia , Oryza , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amilose/análise , Amilose/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura , Genótipo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Flores/genética , Flores/química , Melhoramento Vegetal
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2827: 243-266, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985275

RESUMO

Doubled haploid (DH) techniques remain valuable tools for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genetic improvement, and DH populations are used extensively in breeding and research endeavors. Several techniques are available for DH production in wheat and barley. Here, we describe two simple, robust anther culture methods used to produce more than 15,000 DH wheat and barley lines annually in Australia.


Assuntos
Flores , Haploidia , Hordeum , Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos
12.
Naturwissenschaften ; 111(4): 37, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951237

RESUMO

Studies of reproductive biology and resources availability to floral visitors by plant species are important to understand the plant-pollinator interactions that drive species adaptation. We aim to understand the relationship between reproduction mechanisms of Deuterocohnia meziana (Bromeliaceae) and pollinators. The species occurs in Bolivia and Paraguay, and it is the only species of the genus found in Brazil, where it is restricted to ironstone outcrops. These areas are currently threatened by the iron mining industry. Additionally, they face risks from fire occurrence and grazing by cattle. We analyzed the floral biology, reproductive system, phenology, and pollination ecology of a natural population of Deuterocohnia meziana, from ironstone outcrops in Brazil. The species exhibits diurnal anthesis, with stigma receptive throughout anthesis, and 77% of pollen viability. Deuterocohnia meziana produces relatively large amounts of nectar, especially early in the morning (32.8 ± 9.4 µl), with a mean sugar concentration of 23.5 (± 3.2) ºBrix. It is self-incompatible with a peak flowering occurring in August (dry season), although flowers are observed continuously throughout the year. The species exhibits two types of inflorescences, young and mature, among which an average of 13.1 and 3.6 flowers open per day, respectively. Hummingbirds and bees are the effective pollinators, although butterflies and ants also visit D. meziana flowers. The species is reliant on exogenous pollen and pollinators for fruit set. The continuous conservation of D. meziana populations and their communities is essential for preserving plant-pollinator mutualism and the floral community adapted to ironstone outcrops.


Assuntos
Bromeliaceae , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Polinização , Reprodução , Polinização/fisiologia , Brasil , Bromeliaceae/fisiologia , Animais , Reprodução/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia
13.
Planta ; 260(2): 38, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951258

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Our findings shed light on the regulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in chickpea seed coats. Expression of R2R3-MYB transcription factors CaLAP1 and CaLAP2 enhanced the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins content in chickpea. The seed coat color is a major economic trait in leguminous crop chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) are two classes of flavonoids that mainly contribute to the flower, seed coat and color of Desi chickpea cultivars. Throughout the land plant lineage, the accumulation of anthocyanins and PAs is regulated by MYB and bHLH transcription factors (TFs), which form an MBW (MYB, bHLH, and WD40) complex. Here, we report two R2R3-MYB TFs in chickpea belonging to the anthocyanin-specific subgroup-6, CaLAP1 (Legume Anthocyanin Production 1), and CaLAP2 (Legume Anthocyanin Production 2), which are mainly expressed in the flowers and developmental stages of the seeds. CaLAP1 and CaLAP2 interact with TT8-like CabHLH1 and WD40, forming the MBW complex, and bind to the promoter sequences of anthocyanin- and PA biosynthetic genes CaCHS6, CaDFR2, CaANS, and CaANR, leading to anthocyanins and PA accumulation in the seed coat of chickpea. Moreover, these CaLAPs partially complement the anthocyanin-deficient phenotype in the Arabidopsis thaliana sextuple mutant seedlings. Overexpression of CaLAPs in chickpea resulted in significantly higher expression of anthocyanin and PA biosynthetic genes leading to a darker seed coat color with higher accumulation of anthocyanin and PA. Our findings show that CaLAPs positively modulate anthocyanin and PA content in seed coats, which might influence plant development and resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Cicer , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Proantocianidinas , Sementes , Fatores de Transcrição , Cicer/genética , Cicer/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/biossíntese , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 662, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The MADS-box gene family is widely distributed in the plant kingdom, and its members typically encoding transcription factors to regulate various aspects of plant growth and development. In particular, the MIKC-type MADS-box genes play a crucial role in the determination of floral organ development and identity recognition. As a type of androdioecy plant, Chionanthus retusus have unique gender differentiation. Manifested as male individuals with only male flowers and female individuals with only bisexual flowers. However, due to the lack of reference genome information, the characteristics of MIKC-type MADS-box genes in C. retusus and its role in gender differentiation of C. retusus remain largely unknown. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and characterize the MADS-box gene family within the genome of the C. retusus. RESULTS: In this study, we performed a genome-wide identification and analysis of MIKC-type MADS-box genes in C. retusus (2n = 2x = 46), utilizing the latest reference genome, and studied its expression pattern in individuals of different genders. As a result, we identified a total of 61 MIKC-type MADS-box genes in C. retusus. 61 MIKC-type MADS-box genes can be divided into 12 subfamilies and distributed on 18 chromosomes. Genome collinearity analysis revealed their conservation in evolution, while gene structure, domains and motif analysis indicated their conservation in structure. Finally, based on their expression patterns in floral organs of different sexes, we have identified that CrMADS45 and CrMADS60 may potentially be involved in the gender differentiation of C. retusus. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies have provided a general understanding of the conservation and characteristics of the MIKC-type MADS-box genes family in C. retusus. And it has been demonstrated that members of the AG subfamily, CrMADS45 and CrMADS60, may play important roles in the gender differentiation of C. retusus. This provides a reference for future breeding efforts to improve flower types in C. retusus and further investigate the role of MIKC-type MADS-box genes in gender differentiation.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS , Filogenia , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genoma de Planta , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Família Multigênica
15.
Physiol Plant ; 176(4): e14385, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956782

RESUMO

The main purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the course of anther development, including post-meiotic maturation, dehiscence and senescence, is ensured by the interdependencies between jasmonic acid (JA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.). The concentration of JA peaked during anther dehiscence when IAA level was low, whereas the inverse relationship was specific to anther senescence. Cellular and tissue localization of JA and IAA, in conjunction with broad expression profile for genes involved in biosynthesis, signalling, response, and homeostasis under different conditions, allowed to complete and define the role of studied phytohormones during late anther development, as well as predict events triggered by them. The development/degeneration of septum and anther wall cells, dehydration of epidermis, and rupture of stomium may involve JA signalling, while the formation of secondary thickening in endothecial cell walls is rather JA independent. The IAA is involved in programmed cell death (PCD)-associated processes during anther senescence but does not exclude its participation in the anther dehiscence processes, mainly related to cell disintegration and degeneration. A detailed understanding of these multistage processes, especially at the level of phytohormonal interplay, can contribute to the effective control of male fertility, potentially revolutionizing the breeding of L. luteus.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Lupinus , Oxilipinas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Lupinus/metabolismo , Lupinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lupinus/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 651, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977969

RESUMO

Soybean is a major source of protein and edible oil worldwide. Originating from the Huang-Huai-Hai region, which has a temperate climate, soybean has adapted to a wide latitudinal gradient across China. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for the widespread latitudinal adaptation in soybean, as well as the genetic basis, adaptive differentiation, and evolutionary implications of theses natural alleles, are currently lacking in comprehensive understanding. In this study, we examined the genetic variations of fourteen major gene loci controlling flowering and maturity in 103 wild species, 1048 landraces, and 1747 cultivated species. We found that E1, E3, FT2a, J, Tof11, Tof16, and Tof18 were favoured during soybean improvement and selection, which explained 75.5% of the flowering time phenotypic variation. These genetic variation was significantly associated with differences in latitude via the LFMM algorithm. Haplotype network and geographic distribution analysis suggested that gene combinations were associated with flowering time diversity contributed to the expansion of soybean, with more HapA clustering together when soybean moved to latitudes beyond 35°N. The geographical evolution model was developed to accurately predict the suitable planting zone for soybean varieties. Collectively, by integrating knowledge from genomics and haplotype classification, it was revealed that distinct gene combinations improve the adaptation of cultivated soybeans to different latitudes. This study provides insight into the genetic basis underlying the environmental adaptation of soybean accessions, which could contribute to a better understanding of the domestication history of soybean and facilitate soybean climate-smart molecular breeding for various environments.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Variação Genética , Glycine max , Glycine max/genética , Glycine max/fisiologia , Glycine max/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , China , Haplótipos , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/fisiologia
17.
Planta ; 260(2): 48, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980389

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: We studied the D3-type cyclin function during gynoecium development in Arabidopsis and how they are related to the hormone cytokinin and the transcription factor SPATULA. Growth throughout the life of plants is sustained by cell division and differentiation processes in meristematic tissues. In Arabidopsis, gynoecium development implies a multiphasic process where the tissues required for pollination, fertilization, and seed development form. The Carpel Margin Meristem (CMM) is a mass of undifferentiated cells that gives rise to the gynoecium internal tissues, such as septum, ovules, placenta, funiculus, transmitting tract, style, and stigma. Different genetic and hormonal factors, including cytokinin, control the CMM function. Cytokinin regulates the cell cycle transitions through the activation of cell cycle regulators as cyclin genes. D3-type cyclins are expressed in proliferative tissues, favoring the mitotic cell cycle over the endoreduplication. Though the role of cytokinin in CMM and gynoecium development is highly studied, its specific role in regulating the cell cycle in this tissue remains unclear. Additionally, despite extensive research on the relationship between CYCD3 genes and cytokinin, the regulatory mechanism that connects them remains elusive. Here, we found that D3-type cyclins are expressed in proliferative medial and lateral tissues. Conversely, the depletion of the three CYCD3 genes showed that they are not essential for gynoecium development. However, the addition of exogenous cytokinin showed that they could control the division/differentiation balance in gynoecium internal tissues and outgrowths. Finally, we found that SPATULA can be a mechanistic link between cytokinin and the D3-type cyclins. The data suggest that the role of D3-type cyclins in gynoecium development is related to the cytokinin response, and they might be activated by the transcription factor SPATULA.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos , Citocininas , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Citocininas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Ciclina D3/metabolismo , Ciclina D3/genética , Meristema/genética , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/metabolismo , Ciclinas
18.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 124, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beneficial associations between plants and soil microorganisms are critical for crop fitness and resilience. However, it remains obscure how microorganisms are assembled across different root compartments and to what extent such recruited microbiomes determine crop performance. Here, we surveyed the root transcriptome and the root and rhizosphere microbiome via RNA sequencing and full-length (V1-V9) 16S rRNA gene sequencing from genetically distinct monogenic root mutants of maize (Zea mays L.) under different nutrient-limiting conditions. RESULTS: Overall transcriptome and microbiome display a clear assembly pattern across the compartments, i.e., from the soil through the rhizosphere to the root tissues. Co-variation analysis identified that genotype dominated the effect on the microbial community and gene expression over the nutrient stress conditions. Integrated transcriptomic and microbial analyses demonstrated that mutations affecting lateral root development had the largest effect on host gene expression and microbiome assembly, as compared to mutations affecting other root types. Cooccurrence and trans-kingdom network association analysis demonstrated that the keystone bacterial taxon Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae) is associated with root functional genes involved in flowering time and overall plant biomass. We further observed that the developmental stage drives the differentiation of the rhizosphere microbial assembly, especially the associations of the keystone bacteria Massilia with functional genes in reproduction. Taking advantage of microbial inoculation experiments using a maize early flowering mutant, we confirmed that Massilia-driven maize growth promotion indeed depends on flowering time. CONCLUSION: We conclude that specific microbiota supporting lateral root formation could enhance crop performance by mediating functional gene expression underlying plant flowering time in maize. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Flores , Microbiota , Raízes de Plantas , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Zea mays , Zea mays/microbiologia , Zea mays/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Flores/microbiologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Transcriptoma , Mutação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 643, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38973005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flower load in peach is an important determinant of final fruit quality and is subjected to cost-effective agronomical practices, such as the thinning, to finely balance the sink-source relationships within the tree and drive the optimal amount of assimilates to the fruits. Floral transition in peach buds occurs as a result of the integration of specific environmental signals, such as light and temperature, into the endogenous pathways that induce the meristem to pass from vegetative to reproductive growth. The cross talk and integration of the different players, such as the genes and the hormones, are still partially unknown. In the present research, transcriptomics and hormone profiling were applied on bud samples at different developmental stages. A gibberellin treatment was used as a tool to identify the different phases of floral transition and characterize the bud sensitivity to gibberellins in terms of inhibition of floral transition. RESULTS: Treatments with gibberellins showed different efficacies and pointed out a timeframe of maximum inhibition of floral transition in peach buds. Contextually, APETALA1 gene expression was shown to be a reliable marker of gibberellin efficacy in controlling this process. RNA-Seq transcriptomic analyses allowed to identify specific genes dealing with ROS, cell cycle, T6P, floral induction control and other processes, which are correlated with the bud sensitivity to gibberellins and possibly involved in bud development during its transition to the reproductive stage. Transcriptomic data integrated with the quantification of the main bioactive hormones in the bud allowed to identify the main hormonal regulators of floral transition in peach, with a pivotal role played by endogenous gibberellins and cytokinins. CONCLUSIONS: The peach bud undergoes different levels of receptivity to gibberellin inhibition. The stage with maximum responsiveness corresponded to a transcriptional and hormonal crossroad, involving both flowering inhibitors and inductors. Endogenous gibberellin levels increased only at the latest developmental stage, when floral transition was already partially achieved, and the bud was less sensitive to exogenous treatments. A physiological model summarizes the main findings and suggests new research ideas to improve our knowledge about floral transition in peach.


Assuntos
Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Giberelinas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Prunus persica , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Prunus persica/genética , Prunus persica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
20.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 213: 108841, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879987

RESUMO

Epigenetic modifications, such as histone alterations, play crucial roles in regulating the flowering process in Arabidopsis, a typical long-day model plant. Histone modifications are notably involved in the intricate regulation of FLC, a key inhibitor of flowering. Although sirtuin-like protein and NAD+-dependent deacetylases play an important role in regulating energy metabolism, plant stress responses, and hormonal signal transduction, the mechanisms underlying their developmental transitions remain unclear. Thus, this study aimed to reveal how Arabidopsis NAD + -dependent deacetylase AtSRT1 affects flowering by regulating the expression of flowering integrators. Genetic and molecular evidence demonstrated that AtSRT1 mediates histone deacetylation by directly binding near the transcriptional start sites (TSS) of the flowering integrator genes FT and SOC1 and negatively regulating their expression by modulating the expression of the downstream gene LFY to inhibit flowering. Additionally, AtSRT1 directly down-regulates the expression of TOR, a glucose-driven central hub of energy signaling, which controls cell metabolism and growth in response to nutritional and environmental factors. This down-regulation occurs through binding near the TSS of TOR, facilitating the addition of H3K27me3 marks on FLC via the TOR-FIE-PRC2 pathway, further repressing flowering. These results uncover a multi-pathway regulatory network involving deacetylase AtSRT1 during the flowering process, highlighting its interaction with TOR as a hub for the coordinated regulation of energy metabolism and flowering initiation. These findings significantly enhance understanding of the complexity of histone modifications in the regulation of flowering.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/genética
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