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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(13): 7203-7218, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518258

RESUMO

Diabetes complications are associated with aldose reductase (AR) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Using bioassay-guided isolation by column chromatography, 10 flavonoids and one coumarin were isolated from Poncirus trifoliata Rafin and tested in vitro for an inhibitory effect against human recombinant AR (HRAR) and rat lens AR (RLAR). Prunin, narirutin, and naringin inhibited RLAR (IC50 0.48-2.84 µM) and HRAR (IC50 0.68-4.88 µM). Docking simulations predicted negative binding energies and interactions with the RLAR and HRAR binding pocket residues. Prunin (0.1 and 12.5 µM) prevented the formation of fluorescent AGEs and nonfluorescent Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML), as well as the fructose-glucose-mediated protein glycation and oxidation of human serum albumin (HSA). Prunin suppressed the formation of the ß-cross-amyloid structure of HSA. These results indicate that prunin inhibits oxidation-dependent protein damage, AGE formation, and AR, which may help prevent diabetes complications.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes , Cristalino , Florizina/análogos & derivados , Poncirus , Ratos , Humanos , Animais , Glucose/farmacologia , Poncirus/metabolismo , Reação de Maillard , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica Humana , Aldeído Redutase/metabolismo , Frutose
2.
J Comp Physiol B ; 194(1): 21-32, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308715

RESUMO

In salivary acinar cells, cholinergic stimulation induces elevations of cytosolic [Ca2+]i to activate the apical exit of Cl- through TMEM16A Cl- channels, which acts as a driving force for fluid secretion. To sustain the Cl- secretion, [Cl-]i must be maintained to levels that are greater than the electrochemical equilibrium mainly by Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter-mediated Cl- entry in basolateral membrane. Glucose transporters carry glucose into the cytoplasm, enabling the cells to produce ATP to maintain Cl- and fluid secretion. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-1 is a glucose transporter highly expressed in acinar cells. The salivary flow is suppressed by the sodium-glucose cotransporter-1 inhibitor phlorizin. However, it remains elusive how sodium-glucose cotransporter-1 contributes to maintaining salivary fluid secretion. To examine if sodium-glucose cotransporter-1 activity is required for sustaining Cl- secretion to drive fluid secretion, we analyzed the Cl- currents activated by the cholinergic agonist, carbachol, in submandibular acinar cells while comparing the effect of phlorizin on the currents between the whole-cell patch and the gramicidin-perforated patch configurations. Phlorizin suppressed carbachol-induced oscillatory Cl- currents by reducing the Cl- efflux dependent on the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter-mediated Cl- entry in addition to affecting TMEM16A activity. Our results suggest that the sodium-glucose cotransporter-1 activity is necessary for maintaining the oscillatory Cl- secretion supported by the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter activity in real time to drive fluid secretion. The concerted effort of sodium-glucose cotransporter-1, Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter, and apically located Cl- channels might underlie the efficient driving of Cl- secretion in different secretory epithelia from a variety of animal species.


Assuntos
Células Acinares , Florizina , Animais , Camundongos , Células Acinares/metabolismo , Carbacol/farmacologia , Cloretos/metabolismo , Glucose , Florizina/farmacologia , Sódio/metabolismo , Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio-Potássio
3.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 175: 110410, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340378

RESUMO

Prunin of desirable bioactivity and bioavailability can be transformed from plant-derived naringin by the key enzyme α-L-rhamnosidase. However, the production was limited by unsatisfactory properties of α-L-rhamnosidase such as thermostability and organic solvent tolerance. In this study, biochemical characteristics, and hydrolysis capacity of a novel α-L-rhamnosidase from Spirochaeta thermophila (St-Rha) were investigated, which was the first characterized α-L-rhamnosidase for Spirochaeta genus. St-Rha showed a higher substrate specificity towards naringin and exhibited excellent thermostability and methanol tolerance. The Km of St-Rha in the methanol cosolvent system was decreased 7.2-fold comparing that in the aqueous phase system, while kcat/Km value of St-Rha was enhanced 9.3-fold. Meanwhile, a preliminary conformational study was implemented through comparative molecular dynamics simulation analysis to explore the mechanism underlying the methanol tolerance of St-Rha for the first time. Furthermore, the catalytic ability of St-Rha for prunin preparation in the 20% methanol cosolvent system was explored, and 200 g/L naringin was transformed into 125.5 g/L prunin for 24 h reaction with a corresponding space-time yield of 5.2 g/L/h. These results indicated that St-Rha was a novel α-L-rhamnosidase suitable for hydrolyzing naringin in the methanol cosolvent system and provided a better alternative for improving the efficient production yield of prunin.


Assuntos
Florizina/análogos & derivados , Spirochaeta , Metanol , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Solventes
4.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338482

RESUMO

Phlorizin, as a flavonoid from a wide range of sources, is gradually becoming known for its biological activity. Phlorizin can exert antioxidant effects by regulating the IL-1ß/IKB-α/NF-KB signaling pathway. At the same time, it exerts its antibacterial activity by reducing intracellular DNA agglutination, reducing intracellular protein and energy synthesis, and destroying intracellular metabolism. In addition, phlorizin also has various pharmacological effects such as antiviral, antidiabetic, antitumor, and hepatoprotective effects. Based on domestic and foreign research reports, this article reviews the plant sources, extraction, and biological activities of phlorizin, providing a reference for improving the clinical application of phlorizin.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos , Florizina , Florizina/farmacologia , Florizina/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(9): 4703-4725, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38349207

RESUMO

Maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders (MDs) in offspring, which can be mediated by the gut microbiota. Phlorizin (PHZ) can improve gut dysbiosis and positively affect host health; however, its transgenerational metabolic benefits remain largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the potential of maternal PHZ intake in attenuating the adverse impacts of a maternal high-fat diet on obesity-related MDs in dams and offspring. The results showed that maternal PHZ reduced HFD-induced body weight gain and fat accumulation and improved glucose intolerance and abnormal lipid profiles in both dams and offspring. PHZ improved gut dysbiosis by promoting expansion of SCFA-producing bacteria, Akkermansia and Blautia, while inhibiting LPS-producing and pro-inflammatory bacteria, resulting in significantly increased fecal SCFAs, especially butyric acid, and reduced serum lipopolysaccharide levels and intestinal inflammation. PHZ also promoted intestinal GLP-1/2 secretion and intestinal development and enhanced gut barrier function by activating G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) in the offspring. Antibiotic-treated mice receiving FMT from PHZ-regulated offspring could attenuate MDs induced by receiving FMT from HFD offspring through the gut microbiota to activate the GPR43 pathway. It can be regarded as a promising functional food ingredient for preventing intergenerational transmission of MDs and breaking the obesity cycle.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Metabólicas , Obesidade Materna , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Feminino , Gravidez , Florizina , Disbiose , Obesidade/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
6.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 31(1): 159-169, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38057552

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) is imporant in glucose reabsorption. SGLT2 inhibitors suppress renal glucose reabsorption, therefore reducing blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. We and others have developed several SGLT2 inhibitors starting from phlorizin, a natural product. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we present the structures of human (h)SGLT2-MAP17 complexed with five natural or synthetic inhibitors. The four synthetic inhibitors (including canagliflozin) bind the transporter in the outward conformations, while phlorizin binds it in the inward conformation. The phlorizin-hSGLT2 interaction exhibits biphasic kinetics, suggesting that phlorizin alternately binds to the extracellular and intracellular sides. The Na+-bound outward-facing and unbound inward-open structures of hSGLT2-MAP17 suggest that the MAP17-associated bundle domain functions as a scaffold, with the hash domain rotating around the Na+-binding site. Thus, Na+ binding stabilizes the outward-facing conformation, and its release promotes state transition to inward-open conformation, exhibiting a role of Na+ in symport mechanism. These results provide structural evidence for the Na+-coupled alternating-access mechanism proposed for the transporter family.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Humanos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose , Florizina/farmacologia , Florizina/química , Florizina/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Glucose/metabolismo
7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 126: 111241, 2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37984253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory syndrome that can lead to multiple organ dysfunction and life-threatening complications. Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction (SIMD) has been confirmed to be present in half of patients with septic shock, increasing their mortality rate to 70-90%. The pathogenesis of SIMD is complex, and no specific clinical treatment has yet been developed. Caloric restriction mimetics (CRM), compounds that simulate the biochemical and functional properties of CR, can improve cardiovascular injury by activating autophagy. This study investigated the effect of a new type of CRM which can induce hypoxia, the SGLT nonspecific inhibitor phlorizin on SIMD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo, phlorizin was administered at 1 mg/kg/day intragastrically for 28 days. In vitro, AC16 was treated with 120 µM phlorizin for 48 h. Echocardiography was used to assess cardiac function. Myocardial injury markers were detected in serum and cell supernatant. Western blotting was employed to detect changed proteins associated with apoptosis and autophagy. Immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, co-immunoprecipitation, molecular docking, and other methods were also used to illustrate cellular changes. RESULTS: In vivo, phlorizin significantly improved the survival rate and cardiac function after sepsis injury, reduced markers of myocardial injury, inhibited myocardial apoptosis and oxidative stress, and promoted autophagy. In vitro, phlorizin alleviated the apoptosis of AC16, as well as inhibited oxidative stress and apoptotic enzyme activity. Phlorizin acts on autophagy at multiple sites through low energy (activation of AMPK) and hypoxia (release of Beclin-1 by Hif-1α/Bnip3 axis), promoting the formation and degradation of autophagosomes. CONCLUSION: We indicated for the first time that phlorizin could inhibit glucose uptake via GLUT-1 and conforms to the metabolic characteristics of CRM, it can induce the hypoxic transcriptional paradigm. In addition, it inhibits apoptosis and improves SIMD by promoting autophagy generation and unobstructing autophagy flux. Moreover, it affects autophagy by releasing Beclin-1 through the Hif-1α/Bnip3 axis.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Miócitos Cardíacos , Florizina , Sepse , Florizina/farmacologia , Hipóxia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepse/complicações , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Restrição Calórica , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Apoptose
8.
Food Chem ; 440: 138240, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38150907

RESUMO

As ubiquitous components among fruits, polyphenols, including flavonoids and phenolic acids, are somewhat embarrassed on their health benefits but low bioavailability, triggering a hotspot on their interaction with microbiota. Due to its structural characteristics similar to flavonoids and phenolic acids, dihydrochalcone phlorizin (PHZ) was selected as a reference, to illustrate its step-by-step metabolic fate associated with microbiota. The results confirmed that the metabolic flux of PHZ starts with its conversion to phloretin (PHT), sequentially followed by the formation of 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (PHA), and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPAA). Catabolic characteristics was comparatively elucidated by introducing apparent and potential kinetics. Besides, coupling catabolic processes with microbial changes suggested several potential bacteria involving in PHZ metabolism, as well as those regulated by PHZ and its metabolites. In particular, seven strains from Lactobacillus were selectively isolated and confirmed to be essential for deglycosylation of PHZ, implying a potential synergistic effect between PHZ and Lactobacillus.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hidroxibenzoatos , Florizina , Prebióticos , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo
9.
Food Funct ; 14(23): 10387-10400, 2023 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37933196

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to assess the inter-individual variation in phloretin absorption and metabolism and to seek possible phloretin metabotypes following apple snack consumption. Methods: The excreted phloretin metabolites in 24 h urine samples were determined by UPLC-MS/MS in 62 volunteers after acute and sustained (6 weeks) interventions in a randomized and parallel study with a daily supplementation of 80 g of a low-phloretin (39.5 µmol) or a high-phloretin (103 µmol) freeze-dried apple snacks. Results: absorption estimated as phloridzin equivalents for 62 volunteers varied almost 70-fold ranging from 0.1% to 6.94% of phloretin glycoside intake. Volunteers were stratified into low, medium and high producers and by the balance between glucuronidation and sulphation. For 74% of the volunteers phloretin-O-glucuronide was the dominant urinary metabolite, especially at the higher phloretin glycoside intake and for higher producers. Sulphate conjugation assumed greater significance for the remaining volunteers especially for low producers. Females dominated glucuronide profile (64.1%) and males dominated the low excretion group. Analysis of plasma glucose and insulin at the start and end of the sustained study showed a trend towards modest reductions for high producers. Furthermore, plausible factors contributing to the inter-individual variation in phloretin uptake are discussed. Conclusions: extensive inter-individual variability exists in the excretion of phloretin phase-II conjugates following consumption of apple snacks, which could be related to oral microbiota phloridzin-hydrolysing activity, lactase non-persistence trait or the metabotype to which the subject belongs. There were inconsistent effects on post-prandial serum glucose concentrations but there was a tendency for decreases to be associated with higher excretion of phloretin phase-II conjugates. Trial registration: The acute and sustained studies were registered at ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03795324.


Assuntos
Malus , Floretina , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Malus/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Glucuronídeos , Florizina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(19)2023 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37834020

RESUMO

The eradication of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is vital to successful cancer treatment and overall disease-free survival. CSCs are a sub-population of cells within a tumor that are defined by their capacity for continuous self-renewal and recapitulation of new tumors, demonstrated in vitro through spheroid formation. Flavonoids are a group of phytochemicals with potent anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. This paper explores the impact of the flavonoid precursor phloridzin (PZ) linked to the ω-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoate (DHA) on the growth of MCF-7 and paclitaxel-resistant MDA-MB-231-TXL breast cancer cell lines. Spheroid formation assays, acid phosphatase assays, and Western blotting were performed using MCF-7 cells, and the cell viability assays, Annexin-V-488/propidium iodide (PI) staining, and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) assays were performed using MDA-MB-231-TXL cells. PZ-DHA significantly reduced spheroid formation, as well as the metabolic activity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro. Treatment with PZ-DHA also suppressed the metabolic activity of MDA-MB-231-TXL cells and led to apoptosis. PZ-DHA did not have an observable effect on the expression of the drug efflux transporters ATP-binding cassette super-family G member 2 (ABCG2) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1). PZ-DHA is a potential treatment avenue for chemo-resistant breast cancer and a possible novel CSC therapy. Future pre-clinical studies should explore PZ-DHA as a chemo-preventative agent.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Florizina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(43): 16043-16056, 2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37856155

RESUMO

Phlorizin (PHZ) is the main active component of apple peel and presents a potential application value. In the past few years, some reports have suggested that PHZ may have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Herein, we have attempted to assess the protective effects of PHZ on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and to determine the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results suggested that early intervention with PHZ (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis in mice, as presented by a longer colon, improved tight junction protein, decreased disease activity index, and attenuated inflammatory factors. Additionally, early intervention with + (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) significantly inhibited ferroptosis by decreasing the surrogate ferroptosis marker levels (MDA and Iron Content). Additionally, PHZ (80 mg/kg) increased the diversity of intestinal flora in colitic mice by elevating the levels of beneficial bacteria (Lactobacillaceae and Muribaculaceae) and reducing the levels of harmful bacteria (Lachnospiraceae). This indirectly led to an increase in the amount of short-chain fatty acids. A fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) test was conducted to show that PHZ (80 mg/kg) ameliorated ulcerative colitis (UC) by regulating gut dysbiosis. In conclusion, early intervention with PHZ decreased DSS-induced colitis in mice by preserving their intestinal barrier and regulating their intestinal flora.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Ferroptose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Camundongos , Florizina , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais de Doenças
12.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 78(11-12): 383-387, 2023 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37608519

RESUMO

The exact structure of phloridzin was further confirmed as phloretin 6'-O-glucopyranoside by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment. The distribution changes of phloridzin in flowering, fruitlet, and fruit ripening phases of Malus rockii were quantified by an HPLC with an external standard. The concentrations of phloridzin in leaves, twigs, and bark and xylem of twigs increased at first and then decreased, and reached the highest value in the fruitlet period. The highest concentration of phloridzin was found in leaves, with the percentage contents of 10.92-14.43 %. What is more, the decreased value of the concentration of phloridzin in leaves from fruit ripening period was almost equivalent to the increased value of the concentration of phloretin. This interesting physiological phenomenon should be able to provide the readers, especially plant physiologists, with a new perspective for the development and utilization of phloridzin.


Assuntos
Malus , Malus/química , Frutas , Florizina/química , Floretina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
13.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 35(11): e14659, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37574874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus (POI) is a major complication of abdominal surgery (AS). Impaired gut barrier mediated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor is involved in the development of POI. Phlorizin is a nonselective inhibitor of sodium-linked glucose transporters (SGLTs) and is known to improve lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced impaired gut barrier. This study aimed to clarify our hypothesis that AS-induced gastric ileus is mediated via TLR4 and IL-1 signaling, and phlorizin improves the ileus. METHODS: AS consisted of a celiotomy and manipulation of the cecum for 1 min. Gastric emptying (GE) in 20 min with liquid meal was determined 3 h after the surgery in rats. The effect of subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of LPS (1 mg kg-1 ) was also determined 3 h postinjection. KEY RESULTS: AS delayed GE, which was blocked by TAK-242, an inhibitor of TLR4 signaling and anakinra, an IL-1 receptor antagonist. LPS delayed GE, which was also mediated via TLR4 and IL-1 receptor. Phlorizin (80 mg kg-1 , s.c.) significantly improved delayed GE induced by both AS and LPS. However, intragastrical (i.g.) administration of phlorizin did not alter it. As gut mainly expresses SGLT1, SGLT2 may not be inhibited by i.g. phlorizin. The effect of phlorizin was blocked by ghrelin receptor antagonist in the LPS model. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: AS-induced gastric ileus is mediated via TLR4 and IL-1 signaling, which is simulated by LPS. Phlorizin improves the gastric ileus via activation of ghrelin signaling, possibly by inhibition of SGLT2. Phlorizin may be useful for the treatment of POI.


Assuntos
Íleus , Obstrução Intestinal , Ratos , Animais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Florizina/farmacologia , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Íleus/tratamento farmacológico , Íleus/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Obstrução Intestinal/complicações , Interleucina-1 , Receptores de Interleucina-1
14.
Plant J ; 116(5): 1492-1507, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37648286

RESUMO

Dihydrochalcones (DHCs) including phlorizin (phloretin 2'-O-glucoside) and its positional isomer trilobatin (phloretin 4'-O-glucoside) are the most abundant phenylpropanoids in apple (Malus spp.). Transcriptional regulation of DHC production is poorly understood despite their importance in insect- and pathogen-plant interactions in human physiology research and in pharmaceuticals. In this study, segregation in hybrid populations and bulked segregant analysis showed that the synthesis of phlorizin and trilobatin in Malus leaves are both single-gene-controlled traits. Promoter sequences of PGT1 and PGT2, two glycosyltransferase genes involved in DHC glycoside synthesis, were shown to discriminate Malus with different DHC glycoside patterns. Differential PGT1 and PGT2 promoter activities determined DHC glycoside accumulation patterns between genotypes. Two transcription factors containing MYB-like DNA-binding domains were then shown to control DHC glycoside patterns in different tissues, with PRR2L mainly expressed in leaf, fruit, flower, stem, and seed while MYB8L mainly expressed in stem and root. Further hybridizations between specific genotypes demonstrated an absolute requirement for DHC glycoside production in Malus during seed development which explains why no Malus spp. with a null DHC chemotype have been reported.


Assuntos
Malus , Humanos , Malus/genética , Florizina , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Floretina , Sementes/genética , Glucosídeos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
15.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 21(Suppl 2): 105-108, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37496357

RESUMO

Diabetes has been acknowledged since ancient times. However, it was only during the late 1800s that we realized that the primary organ for blood glucose regulation was the pancreas. The 20th century witnessed insulin purification, which revolutionized the treatment of diabetes maigre; this was followed by the development of oral antidiabetic drugs. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors or gliflozins are the latest class. Unique cardio- and renoprotective effects separate them from other oral antidiabetic drugs. Here, we present the history behind the development of these inhibitors, arguably the hottest and the most pleasant topic in nephrology. The first serendipity was Koninck and Stas (assistants to Prof. Van Mons, a renowned pomology expert); these researchers isolated a crystalline glycoside called phloridzin (phlorizin) from the bark of apple trees while working at their boss's nursery. Their discovery was published in German in 1835. The second serendipity, after a half century, was from Prof. von Mering, who decided to administer phlorizin to dogs. Oskar Minkowski initially observed polyuria than glucosuria. Insightfully, von Mering postulated that phlorizin affects kidneys. In 1887, they reported that phlorizin induced glucosuria in people with diabetes. The third serendipity was that phlorizin causes several gastrointestinal side effects and has poor oral bioavailability. The first phlorizin-based drug to enter trials was T-1095. The first clinically available gliflozin was dapagliflozin, receiving approval in Europe and the United States in 2012 and 2014, respectively. The 2015 EMPA-REG Outcome trial reported extremely satisfying results that no one expected. Subsequent trials and real-world data have resulted in changes in all impactful guidelines. The impact of these agents on heart failure and chronic kidney disease seems independent of their antidiabetic properties. More than 100 years after von Mering's original discovery, descendants of phlorizin are fast becoming the most inspiring medicine for the 21st century physician.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Animais , Cães , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Florizina/efeitos adversos , Florizina/química , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina
16.
J Mass Spectrom ; 58(8): e4964, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37464563

RESUMO

Phlorizin (PRZ) is a natural product that belongs to a class of dihydrochalcones. The unique pharmacological property of PRZ is to block glucose absorption or reabsorption through specific and competitive inhibitors of the sodium/glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) in the intestine (SGLT1) and kidney (SGLT2). This results in glycosuria by inhibiting renal reabsorption of glucose and can be used as an adjuvant treatment for type 2 diabetes. The pharmacokinetic profile, metabolites of the PRZ, and efficacy of metabolites towards SGLTs are unknown. Therefore, the present study on the characterization of hitherto unknown in vivo metabolites of PRZ and pharmacokinetic profiling using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS) and accurate mass measurements is undertaken. Plasma, urine, and feces samples were collected after oral administration of PRZ to Sprague-Dawley rats to identify in vivo metabolites. Furthermore, in silico efficacy of the identified metabolites was evaluated by docking study. PRZ at an intraperitoneal dose of 400 mg/kg showed maximum concentration in the blood to 439.32 ± 8.84 ng/mL at 1 h, while phloretin showed 14.38 ± 0.33 ng/mL at 6 h. The pharmacokinetic profile of PRZ showed that the maximum concentration lies between 1 and 2 h after dosing. Decreased blood glucose levels and maximum excretion of glucose in the urine were observed when the PRZ and metabolites were observed in plasma. The identification and characterization of PRZ metabolites by LC/ESI/MS/MS further revealed that the phase I metabolites of PRZ are hydroxy (mono-, di-, and tri-) and reduction. Phase II metabolites are O-methylated, O-acetylated, O-sulfated, and glucuronide metabolites of PRZ. Further docking study revealed that the metabolites diglucuronide metabolite of mono-hydroxylated PRZ and mono-glucuronidation of PRZ could be considered novel inhibitors of SGLT1 and SGLT2, respectively, which show better binding affinities than their parent compound PRZ and the known inhibitors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemiantes , Ratos , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio , Florizina/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Glucose/metabolismo , Sódio , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
17.
Food Chem ; 425: 136494, 2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37270886

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of whey protein isolate (WPI) and four copigments, including ferulic acid (FA), phloridzin, naringin, and cysteine (Cys), on the thermal stability (80 °C/2h) of mulberry anthocyanin extract (MAE) pigment solution at pH 6.3 were studied. WPI addition or copigment (except for Cys) addition alone could protect anthocyanin from degradation to a certain degree, and FA exhibited the best effect among copigments. Compared with the MAE-WPI and MAE-FA binary systems, ΔE of the MAE-WPI-FA ternary system decreased by 20.9% and 21.1%, respectively, and the total anthocyanin degradation rate decreased by 38.0% and 39.3%, respectively, indicating the best stabilizing effect. Remarkably, interactions between anthocyanins and Cys, which generate four anthocyanin derivatives with 513-nm UV absorption during heat treatment, did not alter the color stability of MAE solution; however, they accelerated anthocyanin degradation. These results favor the combined use of multiple methods to stabilize anthocyanins at neutral conditions.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Morus , Proteínas do Soro do Leite , Cisteína , Florizina , Extratos Vegetais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(20): 7689-7702, 2023 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37167604

RESUMO

Arbutin, salidroside, polydatin, and phlorizin are typically natural bioactive phenolic glycosides. To improve the liposolubility and bioavailability, highly liposoluble derivatives including 6'-O-lauryl arbutin, 6'-O-lauryl salidroside, 6″-O-lauryl polydatin, and 6″-O-lauryl phlorizin were efficiently synthesized by enzymatic acylation in a green solvent 2-MeTHF. Their reaction conversions reached 84.4, 99.5, 99.8, and 89.1%, respectively, when catalyzed by Lipozyme 435 at 20 mg/mL at 50 °C. As expected, the derivatives had high log P (1.66-2.37) and retained good antioxidant activity, making them potential alternatives to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl-hydroquinone (TBHQ) in lipid systems. Then, the intestinal permeability characteristics and metabolism of phenolic glycosides and their derivatives were investigated based on Caco-2 monolayers. The permeability of polydatin and phlorizin was mainly through active transport, but that of arbutin and salidroside involved both passive diffusion and active uptake. The acylated derivatives suffered from severe CES-mediated hydrolysis but exhibited a larger transported amount than phenolic glycosides.


Assuntos
Arbutina , Glicosídeos , Humanos , Florizina , Células CACO-2 , Permeabilidade
19.
Exp Physiol ; 108(6): 865-873, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37022128

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Body mass and food intake change during the female ovarian cycle: does glucose transport by the small intestine also vary? What is the main finding and its importance? We have optimised Ussing chamber methodology to measure region-specific active glucose transport in the small intestine of adult C57BL/6 mice. Our study provides the first evidence that jejunal active glucose transport changes during the oestrous cycle in mice, and is higher at pro-oestrus than oestrus. These results demonstrate adaptation in active glucose uptake, concurrent with previously reported changes in food intake. ABSTRACT: Food intake changes across the ovarian cycle in rodents and humans, with a nadir during the pre-ovulatory phase and a peak during the luteal phase. However, it is unknown whether the rate of intestinal glucose absorption also changes. We therefore mounted small intestinal sections from C57BL/6 female mice (8-9 weeks old) in Ussing chambers and measured active ex vivo glucose transport via the change in short-circuit current (∆Isc ) induced by glucose. Tissue viability was confirmed by a positive ∆Isc response to 100 µM carbachol following each experiment. Active glucose transport, assessed after addition of 5, 10, 25 or 45 mM d-glucose to the mucosal chamber, was highest at 45 mM glucose in the distal jejunum compared to duodenum and ileum (P < 0.01). Incubation with the sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) inhibitor phlorizin reduced active glucose transport in a dose-dependent manner in all regions (P < 0.01). Active glucose uptake induced by addition of 45 mM glucose to the mucosal chamber in the absence or presence of phlorizin was assessed in jejunum at each oestrous cycle stage (n = 9-10 mice per stage). Overall, active glucose uptake was lower at oestrus compared to pro-oestrus (P = 0.025). This study establishes an ex vivo method to measure region-specific glucose transport in the mouse small intestine. Our results provide the first direct evidence that SGLT1-mediated glucose transport in the jejunum changes across the ovarian cycle. The mechanisms underlying these adaptations in nutrient absorption remain to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Glucose , Florizina , Humanos , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Glucose/metabolismo , Florizina/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Jejuno , Absorção Intestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo
20.
Life Sci ; 322: 121668, 2023 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37023949

RESUMO

AIMS: The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and accompanying insulin resistance is alarming globally. Natural and synthetic agonists of PPARγ are potentially attractive candidates for diabetics and are known to efficiently reverse adipose and hepatic insulin resistance, but related side effects and escalating costs are the causes of concern. Therefore, targeting PPARγ with natural ligands is advantageous and promising approach for the better management of T2DM. The present research aimed to assess the antidiabetic potential of phenolics Phloretin (PTN) and Phlorizin (PZN) in type 2 diabetic mice. MAIN METHODS: In silico docking was performed to check the effect of PTN and PZN on PPARγ S273-Cdk5 interactions. The docking results were further validated in preclinical settings by utilizing a mice model of high fat diet-induced T2DM. KEY FINDINGS: Computational docking and further MD-simulation data revealed that PTN and PZN inhibited the activation of Cdk5, thereby blocking the phosphorylation of PPARγ. Our in vivo results further demonstrated that PTN and PZN administration significantly improved the secretory functions of adipocytes by increasing adiponectin and reducing inflammatory cytokine levels, which ultimately reduced the hyperglycaemic index. Additionally, combined treatment of PTN and PZN decreased in vivo adipocyte expansion and increased Glut4 expression in adipose tissues. Furthermore, PTN and PZN treatment reduced hepatic insulin resistance by modulating lipid metabolism and inflammatory markers. SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, our findings strongly imply that PTN and PZN are candidates as nutraceuticals in the management of comorbidities related to diabetes and its complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Camundongos , Animais , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Florizina/farmacologia , Florizina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Floretina/farmacologia , Floretina/uso terapêutico , Obesidade
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