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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(3): 115, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564111

RESUMO

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with maggot meal (MM) in growing rabbits' diets on their performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics. In the 56 days feeding trials, sixty unsexed mixed breeds (New Zealand White x California) rabbits were allotted on a weight equalization basis into five dietary treatments where a standard corn-soybean meal based diet (0% of maggot meal) (MM0 diet) served as the while other diets had soybean meal replaced with MM at graded levels of 25, 50, 75 and 100% to give MM25, MM50, MM75, and MM100 diets respectively. Each treatment comprises of four replicates having three rabbits each (12 rabbits per treatment). Growth performance parameters were monitored and recorded weekly, carcass and organ weights evaluation was conducted on day 56. Nutrient digestibility commenced on the 56th day and lasted for 6 days. Feed and water were offered to the rabbits ad-libitum throughout the experimental period. All the performance parameters were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by MM inclusion in the diet of rabbits. Rabbits fed MM100 diet had the highest (P < 0.05) final weight (FW), total weight gain (TWG), and the best feed conversion ratio (FCR). The feed cost reduced (P < 0.05) with inclusion of MM in rabbit's diet. Feed cost per kg live weight (FC/LW) (1110.79 ₦/kg) and feed cost per kg weight gain (FC/WG) (1110.62 ₦/kg) was lowest (P < 0.05) for rabbits fed MM100 diet. Crude protein digestibility (CPD) (74.05%) was highest (P < 0.05) for rabbits fed the MM100 diet. The feeding of MM75 and MM100 diets to rabbits resulted in increased (P < 0.05) dry matter digestibility (DMD) (68.22 and 69.34%), nitrogen free extract digestibility (NFED) (65.52 and 65.22%) and neutral detergent fibre digestibility (NDFD) (70.05 and 69.58%). The highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen retained (NR) (2.10 g/d) occurred in rabbits fed the MM100 diet. The dressing percentage (DP) (71.01%) increased (P < 0.05) for rabbits fed the MM100 diet. The weight of forelimbs (10.48 and 10.45%) and hind limbs (17.42 and 18.07%) were highest (P < 0.05) for rabbits fed MM50 and MM100 diets respectively. Total gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and liver weight were highest (P < 0.05) for rabbits fed MM0 and MM100 diets respectively. It was concluded that MM can conveniently replace SBM in the diets of rabbits up to 100% for improved growth performance and increased nutrient digestibility. In addition, it can enhance DP and increase the carcass yield of rabbits.


Assuntos
Dieta , Farinha , Animais , Coelhos , Dieta/veterinária , Nutrientes , Larva , Aumento de Peso
2.
Food Microbiol ; 120: 104474, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431320

RESUMO

This work describes the characterization of an artisanal sourdough set of bakeries located in the city of Valencia. Culture-dependent and -independent analyses detected Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kazachstania humilis as dominant species. Nevertheless, specific technological parameters, including backslopping temperature, dough yield, or the addition of salt affected microbial counting, LAB/Yeast ratio, and gassing performance, favouring the appearance of several species of Lactobacillus sp., Limosilactobacillus pontis or Torulaspora delbrueckii as additional players. Sourdough leavening activity was affected positively by yeast counts and negatively by the presence of salt. In addition, the predominance of a particular yeast species appeared to impact the dynamics of CO2 release. Seven important flavour-active compounds (ethyl acetate, 1-hexanol, 2-penthylfuran, 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene, 2-octen-1-ol, nonanal and 1-nonanol) were detected in all samples and together with 3-methyl butanol and hexyl acetate represented more than the 53% of volatile abundancy in nine of the ten sourdoughs analysed. Even so, the specific microbial composition of each sample influenced the volatile profile. For example, the occurrence of K. humilis or S. cerevisiae as dominant yeast influenced the composition of major alcohol species, while F. sanfranciscensis and L. pontis positively correlated with aldehydes and octanoic acid content. In addition, relevant correlations could be also found among different technological parameters and between these, volatile compounds and microbial species. Overall, our study emphasises on how differences in technological parameters generate biodiversity in a relatively small set of artisan sourdoughs providing opportunities for excellence and quality baking products.


Assuntos
Bioprospecção , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Fermentação , Pão/análise , Biodiversidade , Farinha/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos
3.
Food Microbiol ; 120: 104449, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431336

RESUMO

This research investigated the presence of Burkholderia gladioli pathovar cocovenenans (BGC) in wet rice and starch products, Tremella, and Auricularia auricula in Guangzhou, China. It examined BGC growth and bongkrekic acid (BA) production in wet rice noodles and vermicelli with varying rice flour, edible starch ratios, and oil concentrations. A qualitative analysis of 482 samples revealed a detection rate of 0.62%, with three positive for BGC. Rice flour-based wet rice noodles had BA concentrations of 13.67 ± 0.64 mg/kg, 2.92 times higher than 100% corn starch samples (4.68 ± 0.54 mg/kg). Wet rice noodles with 4% soybean oil had a BA concentration of 31.72 ± 9.41 mg/kg, 5.74 times higher than those without soybean oil (5.53 ± 1.23 mg/kg). The BA concentration correlated positively (r = 0.707, P < 0.05) with BGC contamination levels. Low temperatures (4 °C and -18 °C) inhibited BGC growth and BA production, while higher storage temperatures (26 °C and 32 °C) promoted BGC proliferation and increased BA production. Reducing edible oil use and increasing edible starch can mitigate the risk of BGC-related food poisoning in wet rice noodles and vermicelli production. Further research is needed to find alternative oils that do not enhance BA production. Strengthening prevention and control measures is crucial across the entire production chain to address BGC contamination and BA production.


Assuntos
Burkholderia gladioli , Oryza , Ácido Bongcréquico/análise , Óleo de Soja/análise , Amido , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Farinha/análise
4.
Food Res Int ; 181: 114119, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448102

RESUMO

Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa, Leguminosae) seed germ (TSG), a by-product of tara gum (E417) extraction, has been used as a protein- and polyphenol-rich food ingredient for human and animal nutrition. Nevertheless, TSG is the alleged culprit for a recent foodborne outbreak of even severe acute illnesses that have affected hundreds of individuals in the USA, perhaps triggered by nonprotein amino acids such as baikiain. Herein, the composition of TSG has been characterized at molecular level, with a focus on proteins, phenolics, lipids, and mineral composition. TSG contains 43.4 % (w/w) proteins, tentatively identified for the first time by proteomics, and 14 % lipids, consisting of 83.6 % unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid. Ash is surprising high (6.5 %) because of an elevated concentration of P, K, Ca, and Mg. The detection of a rare earth element such as gadolinium (Gd, 1.6 mg kg-1), likely sourced from anthropogenic pollution, suggests alternative hypotheses for the origin of TSG hazards.


Assuntos
Caesalpinia , Farinha , Animais , Humanos , Polifenóis , Sementes , Ácido Linoleico
5.
Vopr Pitan ; 93(1): 125-134, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555617

RESUMO

Increasing the number of chronic non-communicable diseases around the world is a critical social problem in many countries. In this regard, the creation of specialized foods that correct dysfunctions of the human body is a priority direction in science and food industry. Legumes are characterized by a high content of protein, minerals and trace elements, which determines their possible use as the main raw materials for creating specialized foods. The aim of this research was to present a medical, biological and technological justification for the possibility of producing pasta based on composite mixtures of durum wheat semolina and white bean flour as specialized foods with increased protein content and optimal mineral ratio. Material and methods. The objects of the study were grains of durum wheat (grade Krasnokutka-13), whole meal flour from white beans, composite mixtures in various percentages, and pasta from them. The nutritional and biological value of durum wheat semolina and bean flour was determined experimentally, the nutrient profile of the developed composite mixtures - by calculation. The rheological properties of dough from composite mixtures and the cooking properties of pasta made from them were assessed. Results. It has been established that increase in the proportion of white bean flour in composite mixes elevated calcium and protein content, optimized an amino acid profile, the ratio of calcium to phosphorus, significantly reduced the glycemic load. Bean flour introduction into composite mixtures positively affected the rheological properties of the dough and products from it, in particular, on the speed and energy intensity of dough kneading and aging processes of starched polysaccharides, however, lead to a decrease in dry pasta strength. The pasta made from composite mixtures meets the technological requirements for pasta in terms of a number of basic indicators, namely: the volume of dry pasta, the volume of pasta after cooking and the boilability coefficient. Conclusion. The rheological and technological properties of composite mixtures and their nutrient profile make it possible to recommend them for the production of pasta, as specialized foods.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Farinha , Humanos , Farinha/análise , Triticum/química , Cálcio , Culinária/métodos , Verduras , Grão Comestível
6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 334: 122029, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553229

RESUMO

To investigate the incubation conditions encountered by enzymes in cereal-based product transformation processes, this study aims to provide comprehensive information on the effect of low (18 %) to high (72 %) solid loading on the behavior of bacterial and fungal xylanases towards wheat grain fractions, i.e. white flour, ground whole grain and bran. Both enzymes are effective from 30 % water content. A water content of 50 % appears as the threshold for optimal arabinoxylan solubilisation. The specificity of enzymes was influenced by low hydration conditions, particularly in wheat bran, which contains arabinoxylan with diverse structures. Especially the bacterial xylanase became more tolerant to arabinose substitution as the water content decreased. Time Domain-NMR measurements revealed four water mobility domains in all the fractions. The water populations corresponding to 7.5 nm to 15 nm pores were found to be the most restrictive for enzyme activity. These results define the water content limits for the optimal xylanase action in cereal products.


Assuntos
Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases , Xilanos , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/química , Xilanos/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Farinha , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Grão Comestível/química , Água
7.
Food Funct ; 15(7): 3539-3551, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38465882

RESUMO

There has been an increase in the use of adoptable bioprocessing methods for the development of high-quality leguminous ingredients. The potential use of germinated green Altamura lentils as a food ingredient is closely related to the resulting properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of three germination times - 0 (C), 24 (G) and 48 (H) hours - on the physicochemical, microstructural, flavour, functional, and nutritional features of lentil flour samples (CF, GF and HF). Lentil flour samples were obtained by grinding both whole green seeds (C) and germinated seeds (G and H), and then sifting them to obtain a particle size < 300 µm. The germinated samples - GF (24 h) and HF (48 h) - exhibited differences (P < 0.05) in the physicochemical and bioactive properties of CF (control). Similarly, compared with those in the control sample, the total starch, amylose and total phenolic contents in the GF and HF samples decreased, while the protein content increased (p < 0.05). A decrease in the presence of intact starch granules was observed via SEM in the germinated samples. The germination time had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on the colour indices, L*, a*, and b* of the samples. Flavour attributes were significantly influenced by the germination time. Overall, a total of 14 (CF) and 17 (GF and HF) aromatic compounds were identified. The technological characteristics of the CF, GF and HF dough samples were studied using a Brabender farinograph. Germination time affects the flour properties, leading to a significant decrease in farinographic parameters such as water absorption (WA), dough development time (DT), and dough stability (DS) and an increase in the degree of dough weakening (DOS). Differential scanning calorimetry was employed to examine the gelatinization transition of the samples. Germination strongly influenced all the thermal properties of the samples. It also had a significant impact on the in vitro starch digestibility, starch fraction and glycaemic index (eGI) of the samples. In particular, the eGI of germinated lentils was lower than that of the CF. In conclusion, the germination time could be a key factor modulating some crucial lentil flour properties.


Assuntos
Lens (Planta) , Lens (Planta)/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Amido/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Sementes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Germinação
8.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 27(2): 90-99, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38516750

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> Vaname shrimp (<i>Litopenaeus vannamei</i>) is one of the main economic commodities in aquaculture in the world. Biofloc is a cultivation technology that effectively improves the growth and health status of vaname shrimp. This research aimed to analyze the use of bagasse as a carbon source in the biofloc system for white shrimp cultivation. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> The shrimp used were 18 g/individual shrimp obtained from the Bone Marine and Fisheries Polytechnic Pond. Sugarcane bagasse processed from sugar factory waste was dried in an oven at 60°C and ground using a flouring machine. The research treatments included biofloc application where sugarcane bagasse played a role as a carbon source (L), biofloc application where wheat flour's role was as a carbon source (T) and control or no biofloc application (K). <b>Results:</b> This research showed that sugarcane bagasse could be used as a carbon source for white shrimp biofloc cultivation where the growth value tended to be the same as wheat flour. Total hemolytic count (THC) and shrimp survival in sugarcane bagasse biofloc were as good as wheat flour biofloc. Sugarcane bagasse biofloc had the same ability as wheat flour biofloc in reducing ammonia levels in the rearing media. Sugarcane bagasse biofloc had the same ability as wheat flour biofloc in reducing ammonia levels in the rearing media. The application of bagasse had no effect on temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and salinity of the rearing media because this treatment was in the optimal range for the growth of vaname shrimp. <b>Conclusion:</b> Sugarcane bagasse has the potential to be a carbon source in biofloc systems because it could improve growth, health status, survival and water quality.


Assuntos
Penaeidae , Saccharum , Animais , Celulose , Carbono , Amônia , Farinha , Triticum , Aquicultura
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6865, 2024 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514864

RESUMO

Cronobacter sakazakii (Cz) infections linked with powdered milk/flour (PMF) are on the increase in recent times. The current study aimed at assessing worldwide and regional prevalence of Cz in PMF. Cz-PMF-directed data were conscientiously mined in four mega-databases via topic-field driven PRISMA protocol without any restriction. Bivariate analysis of datasets was conducted and then fitted to random-intercept logistic mixed-effects regressions with leave-one-study-out-cross-validation (LOSOCV). Small-study effects were assayed via Egger's regression tests. Contributing factors to Cz contamination/detection in PMF were determined using 1000-permutation-bootstrapped meta-regressions. A total of 3761 records were found out of which 68 studies were included. Sample-size showed considerable correlation with Cz positivity (r = 0.75, p = 2.5e-17), Milkprod2020 (r = 0.33, p = 1.820e-03), and SuDI (r = - 0.30, p = 4.11e-03). The global prevalence of Cz in PMF was 8.39% (95%CI 6.06-11.51, PI: 0.46-64.35) with LOSOCV value of 7.66% (6.39-9.15; PI: 3.10-17.70). Cz prevalence in PMF varies significantly (p < 0.05) with detection methods, DNA extraction method, across continents, WHO regions, and world bank regions. Nation, detection method, world bank region, WHO region, and sample size explained 53.88%, 19.62%, 19.03%, 15.63%, and 9.22% of the true differences in the Cz prevalence in PMF, respectively. In conclusion, the results indicated that national will power in the monitoring and surveillance of Cz in PMF matched with adequate sample size and appropriate detection methods will go a long way in preventing Cz contamination and infections.


Assuntos
Cronobacter sakazakii , Cronobacter , Animais , Cronobacter sakazakii/genética , Fórmulas Infantis , Farinha , Leite , Pós , Prevalência , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cronobacter/genética
10.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299203, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483864

RESUMO

This study was performed to assess the impacts of introducing diets containing different levels of soybean meal (SBM) to sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus) larvae on growth performance, body composition, and molecular responses in the juvenile stage. The sterlet larvae (57.68 ± 0.66 mg) were weaned onto the formulated diets as follows: a control diet containing 60% fishmeal (FM), and three experimental diets with replacement levels of 15% (SBM15), 30% (SBM30), and 45% (SBM45) of FM with SBM. Then, a total of 260 fish (initial weight: 323.33 ± 11.76 mg) were fed the four different diets for 28 days in triplicates (phase 1, nutritional programming, NP). All treatments were then fed with the FM diet in phase 2 (common phase), and in phase 3 (challenge phase), all experimental groups (6.14 ± 0.08 g) were transitioned to SBM45 for 28 days. At the end of phases 1 and 2, growth performance showed no significant differences among the groups (P > 0.05), while significantly improved in SBM45 than the control at the end of phase 3 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found among the groups in any phases for whole body composition (P > 0.05). Additionally, the total saturated fatty acids were significantly higher in SBM-based diets than FM at the end of phase 3 (P < 0.05). The mRNA of GH, IGF-I was significantly affected by variation of FM replacement level (P < 0.05). The expression level of Ghrelin was up-regulated in fish fed SBM at the end of phase 3 (P < 0.05). Our findings revealed that NP can positively enhance the adaptation of juvenile sterlet sturgeon to 45% SBM when exposed to the same diets at the larval stage. Further research is being carried out to provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of digestive performance for this species.


Assuntos
Grelina , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Animais , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Farinha , Dieta/veterinária , Peixes , Composição Corporal , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
11.
Birth Defects Res ; 116(3): e2321, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folic acid is a micronutrient that is effective at preventing neural tube defects (NTDs). In 2016, the FDA authorized the voluntary fortification of corn masa flour (CMF) with folic acid to reduce disparities in NTDs among infants of women who do not regularly consume other fortified cereal grains, in particular Hispanic women of reproductive age (WRA). METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2011 to March 2020 assessing the impact of voluntary fortification of CMF on the folate status of Hispanic WRA. We analyzed folic acid usual intake and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations among non-pregnant, non-lactating Hispanic WRA, comparing pre-fortification (2011-2016) to post-fortification (2017-March 2020) data. RBC folate concentrations were used to create model-based estimation of NTD rates. RESULTS: The proportion of Hispanic WRA with folic acid usual intakes <400 µg/d did not change (2011-2016: 86.1% [95% Confidence Interval, CI: 83.7-88.5]; 2017-March 2020: 87.8% [95% CI: 84.8-90.7]; p = .38) nor did the proportion of Hispanic WRA with RBC folate below optimal concentrations (<748 nmol/L, 2011-2016: 16.0% [95% CI: 13.7-18.2]; 2017-March 2020: 18.1% [95% CI: 12.1-24.0]; p = 0.49). Model-based estimates of NTD rates suggest further improvements in the folate status of Hispanic WRA might prevent an additional 157 (95% Uncertainty Interval: 0, 288) NTDs/year. CONCLUSIONS: Voluntary fortification of CMF with folic acid has yet to have a significant impact on the folate status of WRA. Continued monitoring and further research into factors such as fortified product availability, community knowledge, and awareness of folic acid benefits would inform and improve future public health interventions.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico , Defeitos do Tubo Neural , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Zea mays , Farinha , Alimentos Fortificados , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/prevenção & controle , Eritrócitos
12.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299922, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457435

RESUMO

Foodborne outbreaks associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) contaminated wheat flour have been an increasing food safety concern in recent decades. However, there is little literature aimed at investigating the impact of different flour types on the persistence of STEC during storage and thermal inactivation. Therefore, two serovars of STEC, O121 and O157, were selected to inoculate each of five different types of common wheat flours: whole wheat, bleached, unbleached, bread, and self-rising. Inoculated flours were examined for the stability of STEC during storage for up to 42 days at room temperature (RT) and aw ~0.56. Additionally, the thermal resistance of O121 and O157 under isothermal conditions at 60, 70, 80, and 90°C was analyzed for the inoculated flours. STEC storage persistence at RT was generally not affected by flour type, however, decreases of 1.2 and 2.4 log CFU/day within whole wheat flour for O121 and O157, respectively, were significantly lower than other flours. Though few differences were identified in relation to flour type, O121 exhibited significantly better survival rates than O157 during both equilibrium and storage periods. Compared to an approximate 6 log reduction in the population of O157, O121 population levels were reduced by a significantly lower amount (~3 log) during the entire storage period at RT. At each isothermal temperature, the impact of flour type on the thermal resistance capabilities of O121 or O157 was not a significant factor and resulted in similar survival curves regardless of serovar. Instead of exhibiting linear survival curves, both O121 and O157 displayed nonlinear curves with some shoulder/tail effect. Similar for both O121 and O157, the predicted decimal reduction time (D-value) decreased from approximately 25 min to around 8 min as the isothermal temperature increased from 60°C to 90°C. Results reported here can contribute to risk assessment models concerning contamination of STEC in wheat flour and add to our understanding of the impacts of flour type and STEC serovar on desiccation stability during storage and isothermal inactivation during thermal treatment.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Farinha , Sorogrupo , Triticum , Temperatura , Microbiologia de Alimentos
13.
Food Chem ; 447: 138953, 2024 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479144

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterize the thermomechanical transitions of meat-analog (MA) based coated fried foods. Wheat and rice flour-based batters were used to coat the MA and fried at 180 °C in canola oil for 2, 4 and 6 min. Glass-transition-temperature (Tg) of the coatings were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry, directly after frying or after post-fry holding. Mechanical texture analyzer and X-ray microtomography were employed to assess textural attributes and internal microstructure, respectively. Batter-formulation substantially impacted the Tg of fried foods coating i.e., crust. Tg of fried foods crust were ranged between -20 °C to -24 °C. Tg was positively correlated with frying time and internal microporosity (%), whereas negatively correlated with moisture content. Internal microstructure greatly influenced the textural attributes (hardness, brittleness, crispiness). Post-fry textural stability considerably impacted by Tg. Negative Tg value explains post-fry textural changes (hard-to-soft, brittle-to-ductile, crispy-to-soggy) of MA-based coated products at room-temperature (25 °C) and under IR-heating (65 °C).


Assuntos
Culinária , Farinha , Culinária/métodos , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Óleo de Brassica napus , Carne/análise
14.
Food Chem ; 447: 138932, 2024 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484546

RESUMO

The thawing method is critical for the final quality of products based on the frozen dough. The effects of ultrasound thawing, proofer thawing, refrigerator thawing, water bath thawing, ambient thawing, and microwave thawing on the rheology, texture, water distribution, fermentation characteristics, and microstructure of frozen dough and the properties of steamed bread were investigated. The results indicated that the ultrasound thawing dough had better physicochemical properties than other doughs. It was found that ultrasound thawing restrained the water migration of dough, improved its rheological properties and fermentation capacity. The total gas volume value of the ultrasound thawing dough was reduced by 21.35% compared with that of unfrozen dough. The ultrasound thawing dough displayed a thoroughly uniform starch-gluten network, and an enhanced the specific volume and internal structure of the steamed bread. In conclusion, ultrasound thawing effectively mitigated the degradation of the frozen dough and enhanced the quality of steamed bread.


Assuntos
Pão , Vapor , Pão/análise , Água/química , Glutens/química , Congelamento , Farinha/análise
15.
Food Chem ; 447: 138996, 2024 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492293

RESUMO

Freeze-thaw cycles (FTC) could cause damage to food during storage. The effects of different FTC on Hot-dry noodles (HDN) in terms of quality, moisture, starch, and protein characteristics were studied. This study showed that FTC decreased the texture properties and water absorption of HDN. Meanwhile, cooking loss was significantly increased after FTC. The water content of HDN was decreased and water migration was increased during FTC. In addition, results showed that FTC destroyed the order structure and increased the crystallinity of starch in HDN. Under FTC, the disulfide bond of HDN was broken, the free sulfhydryl group was increased, and the electrophoretic patterns confirmed the protein depolymerization. The microstructure also showed that the gluten network became incomplete and starch was exposed outside the substrate. This study expounded the mechanism of HDN quality deterioration during FTC, which laid a foundation for the development and improvement of frozen and freeze-thaw noodles.


Assuntos
Culinária , Amido , Amido/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Farinha/análise , Água
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 264(Pt 1): 130561, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431011

RESUMO

Beta-glucans possess the ability of retarding starch retrogradation. However, ß-glucans from different sources might show various influences on retrogradation process and the structure-function relationships of ß-glucans related to the feature still remains unclear. In the study, the ß-glucans from oat (OG), highland barley (HBG), and yeast (YG) were selected. Each ß-glucans formed aggregate as observed by atomic force microscopy. OG and HBG with a lower Mw aggregated more obviously and exhibited higher intrinsic and apparent viscosity. The two ß-glucans showed more restraining effect on the short-term starch retrogradation in the sol-like test system (RVA) and the long-term starch retrogradation in the gel-like test system (DSC). However, YG with a higher Mw exerted a greater retarding effect on the short-term starch retrogradation in gel-like test systems (Mixolab and rheology). LF-NMR indicated that OG and HBG increased the population of less-bound water by wrapping around the starch. In summary, the structural characteristics of ß-glucan (Mw and aggregation state) and experiment condition (solid content) jointly influenced starch retrogradation, because a lower Mw and higher aggregation capacity ß-glucan interacted more readily with starch and inhibited more starch re-association due to the higher diffusion rate in the sol-like system.


Assuntos
Amido , beta-Glucanas , Amido/química , beta-Glucanas/química , Farinha , Triticum/química , Viscosidade
17.
Food Chem ; 447: 138896, 2024 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458133

RESUMO

Dehulled pea, lentil, and faba bean grains were milled into flours with 0.5- to 2.5-mm sieves. As the particle size decreased, damaged-starch contents of the flours from the same pulse crop increased. At a holding temperature of 95 °C in RVA, peak and final viscosities and gelling ability of the flours generally increased as the particle size decreased. When the holding temperature increased from 95 to 140 °C, pasting viscosities of pea and lentil flours and gel hardness of lentil flours gradually decreased. In contrast, pasting viscosities and gel hardness of faba bean flours reached the highest values at 120 °C. The comparison of the pulse flours varying in particle size across the three market classes revealed that coarse particles comprising agglomerated starch, protein, and dietary fiber (i.e., particles of the second peak in the bimodal particle-size distribution curves) showed significant correlations with certain important functional properties of pulse flours.


Assuntos
Lens (Planta) , Vicia faba , Temperatura , Calefação , Farinha/análise , Amido , Tamanho da Partícula , Géis
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 264(Pt 2): 130719, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460625

RESUMO

The starch digestibility of flour is influenced by both physicochemical treatment and flour particle size, but the interactive effect of these two factors is still unclear. In this study, the effect of pullulanase debranching, combined with heat-moisture treatment (P-HMT), on starch digestibility of multi-grain flours (including oat, buckwheat and wheat) differing in particle size was investigated. The results showed that the larger-size flour always resulted in a higher resistant starch (RS) content either in natural or treated multi-grain flour (NMF or PHF). P-HMT doubled the RS content in NMFs and the large-size PHF yielded the highest RS content (78.43 %). In NMFs, the cell wall integrity and flour particle size were positively related to starch anti-digestibility. P-HMT caused the destruction of cell walls and starch granules, as well as the formation of rigid flour aggregates with B + V starch crystallite. The largest flour aggregates with the most ordered B + V starch were found in large-size PHF, which contributed to its highest RS yield, while the medium- and small-size PHFs with smaller aggregates were sensitive to P-HMT, resulting in the lower ordered starch but stronger interactions between starch and free lipid or monomeric proteins, eventually leading to their lower RS but higher SDS yield.


Assuntos
Farinha , Amido , Amido/química , Farinha/análise , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Amido Resistente , Digestão , Temperatura Alta
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 264(Pt 2): 130773, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467211

RESUMO

This work reports on the development of starch-rich thermoplastic based formulations produced by using mango kernel flour, avoiding the extraction process of starch from mango kernel to produce these materials. Glycerol, sorbitol and urea at 15 wt% are used as plasticizers to obtain thermoplastic starch (TPS) formulations by extrusion and injection-moulding processes. Mechanical results show that sorbitol and urea allowed to obtain samples with tensile strength and elongation at break higher than the glycerol-plasticized sample, achieving values of 2.9 MPa of tensile strength and 42 % of elongation at break at 53 % RH. These results are supported by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) micrographs, where a limited concentration of voids was observed in the samples with sorbitol and urea, indicating a better interaction between starch and the plasticizers. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that urea and sorbitol increase the thermal stability of TPS in comparison to the glycerol-plasticized sample. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic-mechanical-thermal analysis (DMTA) verify the increase in stiffness of the sorbitol and urea plasticized TPS and also illustrate an increase in the glass transition temperature of both samples in comparison to the glycerol-plasticized sample. Glass transition temperatures of 45 °C were achieved for the sample with sorbitol.


Assuntos
Mangifera , Plastificantes , Plastificantes/química , Amido/química , Glicerol/química , Farinha , Plásticos , Sorbitol/química , Ureia/química
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(3): 1812-1820, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471892

RESUMO

Heavy metal contamination of soil has become a hot issue of social concern due to its impact on the safety of agricultural products in recent years. Wheat is one of the most dominant staple food crops worldwide and has become a major source of toxic metals in human diets. Foliar application was considered to be a more efficient and economical method of heavy metal remediation. Field experiments were carried out in Cd-, As-, and Pb-contaminated farmland soils. The effects of foliar conditioners on the accumulation of Cd, As, and Pb in wheat grains were investigated after being sprayed with Zn (0.2% ZnSO4), Mg (0.4% MgSO4), and Mn (0.2% MnSO4) separately and in combination. Thus, the effective foliar conditioners were selected to block the accumulation of Cd, As, and Pb in wheat grains grown in combined heavy metal-contaminated farmland in north China. The results showed that, compared with that in the control, the Cd, As, and Pb contents in wheat grains of the Zn+Mg+Mn foliar treatment were significantly decreased by 18.96%, 23.87%, and 51.31%, respectively, and TFgrain/straw decreased by 14.62%, 27.73%, and 47.70%, respectively. Thus, spraying the compound foliar conditioner of Zn+Mg+Mn could effectively reduce heavy metal accumulation in wheat grains through inhibition translocation of those metals from stem leaves to grain. In addition, the results indicated that Cd and As were mainly distributed at the central endosperm (34.08%-37.08%), whereas Pb was primarily distributed at the pericarp and seed coat (27.78%) of the wheat grain. Compared with that in the control, spraying the compound foliar conditioner of Zn+Mg+Mn extremely decreased Cd and As accumulation in the aleurone layer of the wheat grain by 81.10% and 82.24%, respectively. Except for the pericarp, seed coat, and central endosperm layers, the Pb content in each grain layer was dramatically decreased by 42.85% to 91.15%. There was only a significant negative correlation between heavy metal content and Zn content in the aleurone layer (P2) of wheat flour. In summary, the accumulation of Cd, As, and Pb in wheat grains, especially in the aleurone layer, could be effectively reduced by foliar conditioner application at the jointing, booting, and early filling stages of wheat, separately. Furthermore, besides the foliar treatment, removing wheat bran to reduce Cd contamination in wheat grains is highly recommended to ensure the safe production of wheat.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Cádmio/análise , Zinco , Chumbo , Fazendas , Farinha , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triticum , Solo , Grão Comestível/química
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