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1.
J Med Virol ; 96(6): e29726, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828952

RESUMO

There is a lack of evidence on the optimal administration of intravenous (IV) fluids in hospitalized adult dengue patients without compensated and hypotensive shock. This study utilized a well-established cohort of dengue patients to compare risks of progressing to severe dengue (SD) over time for patients who were administered IV fluid versus others who were not. We included adult patients (n = 4781) who were hospitalized for dengue infection from 2005 to 2008. Cases were patients who developed SD (n = 689) and controls were patients who did not up until discharge (n = 4092). We estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) and risk of SD over time between groups administered different volumes of IV fluids versus the no IV fluid comparison group using Cox models with time-dependent covariates. The doubly-robust estimation approach was used to control for the propensity of fluid administration given clinical characteristics of patients. Subgroup analyses by age, sex, and dengue warning signs before IV fluid administration were conducted. High (>2000 mL/day) IV fluids volume was associated with a higher risk of development of SD for those who had warning signs (HR: 1.77 [1.05-2.97], p: 0.0713) and for those below 55 years old (HR: 1.53 [1.04-2.25], p: 0.0713). Low (<1000 mL/day) IV fluids volume was protective against SD for patients without warning signs (HR: 0.757 [0.578-0.990], p: 0.0883), no lethargy (HR: 0.770 [0.600-0.998], p: 0.0847), and females (HR: 0.711 [0.516-0.980], p: 0.0804). Over the course of hospitalization, there were no significant differences in IV fluid administration and SD risk in most subgroups, except in those who experienced lethargy and were administered IV fluid volume or quantity. Administering high volumes of IV fluids may be associated with an increased risk of SD during hospitalization for adult dengue patients without shock. Judicious use of IV fluids as supportive therapy is warranted.


Assuntos
Administração Intravenosa , Hidratação , Hospitalização , Dengue Grave , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Hidratação/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Dengue Grave/terapia , Adulto Jovem , Dengue/complicações , Dengue/terapia , Idoso , Adolescente , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1367916, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836222

RESUMO

Purpose: The optimal resuscitative fluid for patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) remains controversial. Therefore, our objective was to assess the effect of balanced crystalloids in contrast to normal saline on clinical outcomes among patients with DKA. Methods: We searched electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing balanced crystalloids versus normal saline in patients with DKA, the search period was from inception through October 20th, 2023. The outcomes were the time to resolution of DKA, major adverse kidney events, post-resuscitation chloride, and incidence of hypokalemia. Results: Our meta-analysis encompassed 11 trials, incorporating a total of 753 patients with DKA. There was no significant difference between balanced crystalloids and normal saline group for the time to resolution of DKA (MD -1.49, 95%CI -4.29 to 1.31, P=0.30, I2 = 65%), major adverse kidney events (RR 0.88, 95%CI 0.58 to 1.34, P=0.56, I2 = 0%), and incidence of hypokalemia (RR 0.80, 95%CI 0.43 to 1.46, P=0.46, I2 = 56%). However, there was a significant reduction in the post-resuscitation chloride (MD -3.16, 95%CI -5.82 to -0.49, P=0.02, I2 = 73%) among patients received balanced crystalloids. Conclusion: Among patients with DKA, the use of balanced crystalloids as compared to normal saline has no effect on the time to resolution of DKA, major adverse kidney events, and incidence of hypokalemia. However, the use of balanced crystalloids could reduce the post-resuscitation chloride. Systematic review registration: https://osf.io, identifier c8f3d.


Assuntos
Soluções Cristaloides , Cetoacidose Diabética , Hidratação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Humanos , Cetoacidose Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Soluções Cristaloides/uso terapêutico , Soluções Cristaloides/administração & dosagem , Hidratação/métodos , Solução Salina/administração & dosagem , Solução Salina/uso terapêutico , Hipopotassemia/epidemiologia
3.
Support Care Cancer ; 32(7): 423, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862857

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Audible upper airway secretions ("death rattle") is a common problem in cancer patients at the end-of-life. However, there is little information about its clinical features. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a cluster randomised trial of clinically-assisted hydration in cancer patients in the last days of life. Patients were assessed 4 hourly for end-of-life problems (including audible secretions), which were recorded as present or absent, excepting restlessness/agitation, which was scored using the modified Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale. Patients were followed up until death. RESULTS: 200 patients were recruited, and 186 patients died during the study period. Overall, 54.5% patients developed audible secretions at some point during the study, but only 34.5% patients had audible secretions at the time of death. The prevalence of audible secretions increased the closer to death, with a marked increase in the last 12-16 h of life (i.e. the prevalence of audible secretions was highest at the time of death). Of those with audible secretions at the time of death, 24 had had a previous episode that had resolved. Development of audible secretions was not associated with use of clinically-assisted hydration, but there was an association between audible secretions and restlessness/agitation, and audible secretions and pain. However, most patients with audible secretions were not restless/agitated, or in pain, when assessed. CONCLUSION: Audible secretions ("death rattle") are common in cancer patients at the end-of-life, but their natural history is extremely variable, with some patients experiencing multiple episodes during the terminal phase (although not necessarily experiencing an episode at the time of death).


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Assistência Terminal , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Assistência Terminal/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto , Hidratação/métodos , Secreções Corporais
4.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 186(16)2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704720

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that available antiemetics are equal to intravenous fluid treatment against acute nausea of other causes than motion sickness, pregnancy, anaesthesia, chemo- or radiation therapy. Each antiemetic is associated with adverse effects, which include movement disorders, sedation, and QT prolongation. Intravenous fluid and treatment directed against underlying pathology is recommended as a first-line treatment against nausea in these patients. If an antiemetic is clinically warranted, ondansetron has the most favourable ratio between side effects and price, as argued in this review.


Assuntos
Antieméticos , Náusea , Humanos , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Náusea/terapia , Náusea/etiologia , Náusea/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Ondansetron/uso terapêutico , Hidratação , Hospitalização , Feminino , Gravidez
5.
Am J Med Qual ; 39(3): 118-122, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713599

RESUMO

Electrolyte replacement protocols are routinely used in intensive care units (ICU) to guide magnesium replacement. Guided by serum levels, these protocols include no patient-specific factors despite a literature showing ICU patients routinely have significant deficits despite normal serum levels. The authors developed a checklist to help identify patients requiring more aggressive magnesium replacement than the electrolyte replacement protocol would provide. The checklist included risk factors for having significant magnesium deficits and for developing arrhythmias. The checklist was retrospectively applied to 364 medical ICU patients. Diabetic patients prescribed outpatient diuretics were defined as the highest-risk population. A total of 88% of patients in this subgroup had normal magnesium levels. Despite averaging 3.4 risk factors per patient, only 3 of 32 patients received magnesium. Applying the checklist would have suggested additional repletion for at least 85% of patients. A checklist can help identify ICU patients who may require more aggressive magnesium supplementation than protocols will provide.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Magnésio , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Magnésio/sangue , Idoso , Fatores de Risco , Deficiência de Magnésio , Hidratação/métodos
7.
BMC Med Ethics ; 25(1): 59, 2024 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38762493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Patient Right to Autonomy Act (PRAA), implemented in Taiwan in 2019, enables the creation of advance decisions (AD) through advance care planning (ACP). This legal framework allows for the withholding and withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment (LST) or artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) in situations like irreversible coma, vegetative state, severe dementia, or unbearable pain. This study aims to investigate preferences for LST or ANH across various clinical conditions, variations in participant preferences, and factors influencing these preferences among urban residents. METHODS: Employing a survey of legally structured AD documents and convenience sampling for data collection, individuals were enlisted from Taipei City Hospital, serving as the primary trial and demonstration facility for ACP in Taiwan since the commencement of the PRAA in its inaugural year. The study examined ADs and ACP consultation records, documenting gender, age, welfare entitlement, disease conditions, family caregiving experience, location of ACP consultation, participation of second-degree relatives, and the intention to participate in ACP. RESULTS: Data from 2337 participants were extracted from electronic records. There was high consistency in the willingness to refuse LST and ANH, with significant differences noted between terminal diseases and extremely severe dementia. Additionally, ANH was widely accepted as a time-limited treatment, and there was a prevalent trend of authorizing a health care agent (HCA) to make decisions on behalf of participants. Gender differences were observed, with females more inclined to decline LST and ANH, while males tended towards accepting full or time-limited treatment. Age also played a role, with younger participants more open to treatment and authorizing HCA, and older participants more prone to refusal. CONCLUSION: Diverse preferences in LST and ANH were shaped by the public's current understanding of different clinical states, gender, age, and cultural factors. Our study reveals nuanced end-of-life preferences, evolving ADs, and socio-demographic influences. Further research could explore evolving preferences over time and healthcare professionals' perspectives on LST and ANH decisions for neurological patients..


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , Preferência do Paciente , População Urbana , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Taiwan , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/ética , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Suspensão de Tratamento/ética , Hidratação/ética , Demência/terapia , Apoio Nutricional/ética , Assistência Terminal/ética , Adulto Jovem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estado Vegetativo Persistente/terapia
8.
FP Essent ; 540: 30-41, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767887

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis is among the most common gastrointestinal disorders requiring hospitalization. The main causes are gallstones and alcohol use. Patients typically present with upper abdominal pain radiating to the back, worse with eating, plus nausea and vomiting. Diagnosis requires meeting two of three criteria: upper abdominal pain, an elevated serum lipase or amylase level greater than 3 times the normal limit, and imaging findings consistent with pancreatitis. After pancreatitis is diagnosed, the Atlanta classification and identification of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome can identify patients at high risk of complications. Management includes fluid resuscitation and hydration maintenance, pain control that may require opioids, and early feeding. Feeding recommendations have changed and "nothing by mouth" is no longer recommended. Rather, oral feeding should be initiated, as tolerated, within the first 24 hours. If it is not tolerated, enteral feeding via nasogastric or nasojejunal tubes should be initiated. Antibiotics are indicated only with radiologically confirmed infection or systemic infection symptoms. Surgical or endoscopic interventions are needed for biliary pancreatitis or obstructive pancreatitis with cholangitis. One in five patients will have recurrent episodes of pancreatitis; alcohol and smoking are major risk factors. Some develop chronic pancreatitis, associated with chronic pain plus pancreatic dysfunction, including endocrine failure (insulin insufficiency) and/or exocrine failure that requires long-term vitamin supplementation.


Assuntos
Pancreatite , Humanos , Pancreatite/terapia , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Pancreatite/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Doença Aguda , Hidratação/métodos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Dor Abdominal/terapia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia
9.
Nefrologia (Engl Ed) ; 44(2): 119-128, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697693

RESUMO

Incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) remained relatively stable over the last decade and the adjusted risks for it and mortality are similar across different continents and regions. Also, the mortality of septic-AKI can reach 70% in critically-ill patients. These sole facts can give rise to a question: is there something we do not understand yet? Currently, there are no specific therapies for septic AKI and the treatment aims only to maintain the mean arterial pressure over 65mmHg by ensuring a good fluid resuscitation and by using vasopressors, along with antibiotics. On the other hand, there is an increased concern about the different hemodynamic changes in septic AKI versus other forms and the link between the gut microbiome and the severity of septic AKI. Fortunately, progress has been made in the form of administration of pre- and probiotics, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), especially acetate, and also broad-spectrum antibiotics or selective decontaminants of the digestive tract in a successful attempt to modulate the microbial flora and to decrease both the severity of AKI and mortality. In conclusion, septic-AKI is a severe form of kidney injury, with particular hemodynamic changes and with a strong link between the kidney and the gut microbiome. By modulating the immune response we could not only treat but also prevent severe forms. The most difficult part is to categorize patients and to better understand the key mechanisms of inflammation and cellular adaptation to the injury, as these mechanisms can serve in the future as target therapies.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sepse , Humanos , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Sepse/complicações , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Hidratação/métodos
10.
Crit Care Explor ; 6(5): e1082, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between early IV fluid volume and hospital outcomes, including death in-hospital or discharge to hospice, in septic patients with and without heart failure (HF). DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study using logistic regression with restricted cubic splines to assess for nonlinear relationships between fluid volume and outcomes, stratified by HF status and adjusted for propensity to receive a given fluid volume in the first 6 hours. An ICU subgroup analysis was performed. Secondary outcomes of vasopressor use, mechanical ventilation, and length of stay in survivors were assessed. SETTING: An urban university-based hospital. PATIENTS: A total of 9613 adult patients were admitted from the emergency department from 2012 to 2021 that met electronic health record-based Sepsis-3 criteria. Preexisting HF diagnosis was identified by the International Classification of Diseases codes. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There were 1449 admissions from patients with HF. The relationship between fluid volume and death or discharge to hospice was nonlinear in patients without HF, and approximately linear in patients with HF. Receiving 0-15 mL/kg in the first 6 hours was associated with lower likelihood of death or discharge to hospice compared with 30-45 mL/kg (odds ratio = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.41-0.90; p = 0.01) in HF patients, but no significant difference for non-HF patients. A similar pattern was identified in ICU admissions and some secondary outcomes. Volumes larger than 15-30 mL/kg for non-HF patients and 30-45 mL/kg for ICU-admitted non-HF patients were not associated with improved outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Early fluid resuscitation showed distinct patterns of potential harm and benefit between patients with and without HF who met Sepsis-3 criteria. Restricted cubic splines analysis highlighted the importance of considering nonlinear fluid outcomes relationships and identified potential points of diminishing returns (15-30 mL/kg across all patients without HF and 30-45 mL/kg when admitted to the ICU). Receiving less than 15 mL/kg was associated with better outcomes in HF patients, suggesting small volumes may be appropriate in select patients. Future studies may benefit from investigating nonlinear fluid-outcome associations and a focus on other conditions like HF.


Assuntos
Hidratação , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Sepse , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Masculino , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hidratação/métodos , Sepse/mortalidade , Sepse/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação
11.
Eur J Med Res ; 29(1): 283, 2024 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether additional fluid supplementation is necessary during the acute resuscitation period for patients with combined inhalational injury (INHI) under the guidance of the Third Military Medical University (TMMU) protocol. METHODS: A 10-year multicenter, retrospective cohort study, involved patients with burns ≥ 50% total burn surface area (TBSA) was conducted. The effect of INHI, INHI severity, and tracheotomy on the fluid management in burn patients was assessed. Cumulative fluid administration, cumulative urine output, and cumulative fluid retention within 72 h were collected and systematically analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 108 patients were included in the analysis, 85 with concomitant INHI and 23 with thermal burn alone. There was no significant difference in total fluid administration during the 72-h post-burn between the INHI and non-INHI groups. Although no difference in the urine output and fluid retention was shown in the first 24 h, the INHI group had a significantly lower cumulative urine output and a higher cumulative fluid retention in the 48-h and 72-h post-burn (all p < 0.05). In addition, patients with severe INHI exhibited a significantly elevated incidence of complications (Pneumonia, 47.0% vs. 11.8%, p = 0.012), (AKI, 23.5% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.037). For patients with combined INHI, neither the severity of INHI nor the presence of a tracheotomy had any significant influence on fluid management during the acute resuscitation period. CONCLUSIONS: Additional fluid administration may be unnecessary in major burn patients with INHI under the guidance of the TMMU protocol.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Hidratação , Ressuscitação , Humanos , Hidratação/métodos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Queimaduras/terapia , Queimaduras/complicações , Ressuscitação/métodos
12.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 322, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730351

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diarrhea is a common public health problem and the third leading cause of death in the world among children under the age of five years. An estimated 2 billion cases and 1.9 million deaths are recorded among children under the age of five years every year. It causes body fluid loss and electrolyte imbalance. Even though, early initiation of recommended homemade fluid is a simple and effective approach to prevent diarrhea-related complications and mortality of children, recommended homemade fluid utilization for the treatment of diarrhea is still low in sub-Saharan African countries. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the magnitude of recommended homemade fluid utilization for the treatment of diarrhea and associated factors among children under five in sub-Saharan African countries. METHOD: The most recent Demographic and Health Survey dataset of 21 sub-Saharan African countries from 2015 to 2022 was used for data analysis. A total of 33,341 participants were included in this study as a weighted sample. Associated factors were determined using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model. Significant factors in the multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression model were declared significant at p-values < 0.05. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and confidence interval (CI) were used to interpret the results. RESULT: The overall recommended homemade fluid utilization for the treatment of diarrhea among children under five in sub-Saharan African countries was 19.08% (95% CI = 18.66, 19.51), which ranged from 4.34% in Burundi to 72.53% in South Africa. In the multivariable analysis, being an educated mother/caregiver (primary and secondary level) (AOR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.27) and (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.1.47), the primary and secondary level of fathers education (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.37, 1.71) and (AOR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.1.68), having antenatal care follow-up (AOR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.33), having multiple children (AOR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.28), and being an urban dweller (AOR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.27) were factors associated with recommended homemade fluid utilization. CONCLUSION: The overall recommended homemade fluid utilization for the treatment of diarrhea was low. Individual and community-level variables were associated with recommended homemade fluid utilization for the treatment of diarrhea. Therefore, special consideration should be given to rural dwellers and caregivers who have three and below children. Furthermore, better to strengthen the antenatal care service, mother/caregiver education, and father's education to enhance recommended homemade fluid utilization for the treatment of diarrhea.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Hidratação , Humanos , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Hidratação/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Análise Multinível , Modelos Logísticos , Recém-Nascido
13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1360989, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38752172

RESUMO

Purpose: This feasibility study aimed to investigate the use of exhaled breath analysis to capture and quantify relative changes of metabolites during resolution of acute diabetic ketoacidosis under insulin and rehydration therapy. Methods: Breath analysis was conducted on 30 patients of which 5 with DKA. They inflated Nalophan bags, and their metabolic content was subsequently interrogated by secondary electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (SESI-HRMS). Results: SESI-HRMS analysis showed that acetone, pyruvate, and acetoacetate, which are well known to be altered in DKA, were readily detectable in breath of participants with DKA. In addition, a total of 665 mass spectral features were found to significantly correlate with base excess and prompt metabolic trajectories toward an in-control state as they progress toward homeostasis. Conclusion: This study provides proof-of-principle for using exhaled breath analysis in a real ICU setting for DKA monitoring. This non-invasive new technology provides new insights and a more comprehensive overview of the effect of insulin and rehydration during DKA treatment.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios , Cetoacidose Diabética , Insulina , Humanos , Cetoacidose Diabética/metabolismo , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insulina/metabolismo , Estudos de Viabilidade , Hidratação/métodos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(20): e38187, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758894

RESUMO

Cytoreductive surgery is a surgical treatment approach that has been applied over the last 3 decades in patients with peritoneal metastases originating from intraabdominal organs. Goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) is an approach in which a patient fluid therapy during a medical procedure or surgery is carefully managed based on a specific goal. In this study, we aimed to present the results of GDFT in patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) during the perioperative period. This retrospective study included 398 patients patient who underwent cytoreductive surgery + hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS + HIPEC) due to PC originating from intraabdominal malignancies. Of the cases, 233 (58.6%) were female, and 165 (41.4%) were male patients. The mean age was 58.9. Perioperative findings revealed an average PC score of 12 (3-24), average lactate levels of 3 (2-7) mmol/L, Pao2/fio2 of 3.3 (2.4-4.1) mm Hg, mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 60 (55-70), average surgery duration of 6.5 hours (3-14), and average blood loss of 400 (200-4000) cc. The mean intraoperative fluid rate was 6.4 mL/kg/h (IQR 5.8-7.1). Sixteen (16.3%) patients experienced Clavien-Dindo Grade 3-4 adverse events. Within 30 days, 25 patients (6.3%) died. CRS + HIPEC procedures utilizing perioperative GDFT along with advanced anesthesia monitoring devices have shown successful application, offering an alternative to traditional and restrictive fluid management approaches.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Hidratação , Quimioterapia Intraperitoneal Hipertérmica , Neoplasias Peritoneais , Humanos , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/métodos , Quimioterapia Intraperitoneal Hipertérmica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hidratação/métodos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Adulto
15.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303193, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is the second leading cause of under-five deaths claiming half a million children every year. Most of these deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Oral rehydration solution (ORS) has been described as the most effective treatment of diarrhea. However, only 36% of children with diarrhea received ORS in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined the factors associated with ORS use for children with diarrhea in the sub-region. METHODS: Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data sets of 31 countries in sub-Saharan Africa were used in this study. The data involved 30,102 under-five children with diarrhea. The multivariable analysis involved binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Prevalence of ORS use was 38% in sub-Saharan Africa with countries such as Namibia (71.8%), Zambia (66.4%) and Malawi (63.8%) having the highest rates. Use of ORS was most common among children whose mothers had secondary or higher education (45%), were exposed to media (41%) and attended antenatal care (41%). ORS use was significantly associated with secondary or higher education (OR = 1.63; 95%CI: [1.47-1.81]; p<0.001), exposure to media (OR = 1.17; 95%CI: [1.07-1.27]; p<0.001), antenatal care attendance (OR = 2.33; 95%CI: [1.08-1.27]; p<0.001), child's age (OR = 1.46; 95%CI: [1.35-1.59]; p<0.001), child's size at birth (OR = 1.08; 95%CI: [1.00-1.17]; p<0.05), household size (OR = 1.28; 95%CI:[1.06-1.54]; p<0.05) and source of drinking water (OR = 1.18; 95%CI: [1.09-1.29]; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: This study revealed a 38% prevalence of ORS use during diarrhea episodes in sub-Saharan Africa. This is low as it is less than the 44% recorded for developing countries as a whole. While this study emphasises the need for a further study on effects of severity of diarrhea on ORS use and factors determining differences in ORS use among countries, it also calls for interventions that will increase use of ORS is sub-Saharan Africa. Such interventions should include increase in literacy rate among girls and women, increase in the proportion of women with access to media, involvement of health workers in programmes that would promote antenatal care utilization among women at community level and provision of social amenities like pipe-borne water.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Hidratação , Soluções para Reidratação , Humanos , Feminino , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Lactente , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia , Hidratação/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Soluções para Reidratação/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Adolescente , Recém-Nascido , Adulto Jovem
16.
Crit Care ; 28(1): 166, 2024 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Non-resuscitation fluids constitute the majority of fluid administered for septic shock patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). This multicentre, randomized, feasibility trial was conducted to test the hypothesis that a restrictive protocol targeting non-resuscitation fluids reduces the overall volume administered compared with usual care. METHODS: Adults with septic shock in six Swedish ICUs were randomized within 12 h of ICU admission to receive either protocolized reduction of non-resuscitation fluids or usual care. The primary outcome was the total volume of fluid administered within three days of inclusion. RESULTS: Median (IQR) total volume of fluid in the first three days, was 6008 ml (interquartile range [IQR] 3960-8123) in the restrictive fluid group (n = 44), and 9765 ml (IQR 6804-12,401) in the control group (n = 48); corresponding to a Hodges-Lehmann median difference of 3560 ml [95% confidence interval 1614-5302]; p < 0.001). Outcome data on all-cause mortality, days alive and free of mechanical ventilation and acute kidney injury or ischemic events in the ICU within 90 days of inclusion were recorded in 98/98 (100%), 95/98 (98%) and 95/98 (98%) of participants respectively. Cognition and health-related quality of life at six months were recorded in 39/52 (75%) and 41/52 (79%) of surviving participants, respectively. Ninety out of 134 patients (67%) of eligible patients were randomized, and 15/98 (15%) of the participants experienced at least one protocol violation. CONCLUSION: Protocolized reduction of non-resuscitation fluids in patients with septic shock resulted in a large decrease in fluid administration compared with usual care. A trial using this design to test if reducing non-resuscitation fluids improves outcomes is feasible. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT05249088, 18 February 2022. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05249088.


Assuntos
Estudos de Viabilidade , Hidratação , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Choque Séptico , Humanos , Masculino , Choque Séptico/terapia , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hidratação/métodos , Hidratação/normas , Idoso , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Suécia
17.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1329, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755544

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Even though childhood diarrhea is treated with a simple treatment solution, it continues to be one of the leading causes of under-five child mortality and malnutrition globally. In resource-limited settings such as Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the combination of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc is regarded as an effective treatment for diarrhea; however, its utilization is very low. The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion and associated factors of co-utilization of ORS and zinc among under-five children with diarrhea in SSA. METHODS: The proportion and associated factors of co-utilization of ORS and zinc among under-five children with diarrhea in SSA were determined using secondary data analysis of recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 35 SSA countries. The study included a total of 44,341 under-five children with diarrhea in weighted samples. A generalized linear mixed-effects model with robust error variance was used. For the variables included in the final model, adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. A model with the lowest deviance value were considered as the best-fitted model. RESULT: The pooled proportion of co-utilization of ORS and zinc for the treatment of diarrhea among under five children in SSA countries was 43.58% with a 95% CI (43.15%, 44.01%). Sex of the child, maternal age, residence, maternal educational and employment status, wealth index, media exposure, perceived distance to health facility and insurance coverage were statistically significant determinants of ORS and Zinc co-utilization for treating diarrhea among under five children in SSA. CONCLUSION: Only less than half of under-five children with diarrhea in SSA were treated with a combination of ORS and zinc. Thus, strengthening information dissemination through mass media, and community-level health education programs are important to scale up the utilization of the recommended combination treatment. Furthermore, increasing health insurance coverage, and establishing strategies to address the community with difficulty in accessing health facilities is also crucial in improving the use of the treatment.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Hidratação , Zinco , Humanos , Diarreia/terapia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Lactente , África Subsaariana , Feminino , Masculino , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Hidratação/estatística & dados numéricos , Soluções para Reidratação/uso terapêutico , Modelos Lineares , Recém-Nascido
18.
Clin Nutr ; 43(6): 1599-1626, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dementia is accompanied by a variety of changes that result in an increased risk of malnutrition and low-intake dehydration. This guideline update aims to give evidence-based recommendations for nutritional care of persons with dementia in order to prevent and treat these syndromes. METHODS: The previous guideline version was reviewed and expanded in accordance with the standard operating procedure for ESPEN guidelines. Based on a systematic search in three databases, strength of evidence of appropriate literature was graded by use of the SIGN system. The original recommendations were reviewed and reformulated, and new recommendations were added, which all then underwent a consensus process. RESULTS: 40 recommendations for nutritional care of older persons with dementia were developed and agreed, seven at institutional level and 33 at individual level. As a prerequisite for good nutritional care, organizations caring for persons with dementia are recommended to employ sufficient qualified staff and offer attractive food and drinks with choice in a functional and appealing environment. Nutritional care should be based on a written care concept with standardized operating procedures. At the individual level, routine screening for malnutrition and dehydration, nutritional assessment and close monitoring are unquestionable. Oral nutrition may be supported by eliminating potential causes of malnutrition and dehydration, and adequate social and nursing support (including assistance, utensils, training and oral care). Oral nutritional supplements are recommended to improve nutritional status but not to correct cognitive impairment or prevent cognitive decline. Routine use of dementia-specific ONS, ketogenic diet, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and appetite stimulating agents is not recommended. Enteral and parenteral nutrition and hydration are temporary options in patients with mild or moderate dementia, but not in severe dementia or in the terminal phase of life. In all stages of the disease, supporting food and drink intake and maintaining or improving nutrition and hydration status requires an individualized, comprehensive approach. Due to a lack of appropriate studies, most recommendations are good practice points. CONCLUSION: Nutritional care should be an integral part of dementia management. Numerous interventions are available that should be implemented in daily practice. Future high-quality studies are needed to clarify the evidence.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Demência , Desnutrição , Humanos , Demência/terapia , Demência/dietoterapia , Desidratação/terapia , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Desnutrição/terapia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Estado Nutricional , Avaliação Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Apoio Nutricional/normas , Idoso , Terapia Nutricional/normas , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Hidratação/métodos , Hidratação/normas
19.
West Afr J Med ; 41(3): 258-264, 2024 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38787729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhoea is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five, especially in subSaharan Africa. The WHO recommends using oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc therapy for its management, but the metallic taste of zinc often hinders adherence. METHOD: This prospective open-label intervention study took place at three health facilities in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria, involving children aged 3 to 59 months with acute diarrhoea. Sociodemographic and diarrhoea-related data were obtained. Palatability was assessed using a 5-point hedonic scale, and adherence was determined by the proportion of prescribed zinc sulfate tablets consumed. Caregivers received a 10-day supply of the study drug and ORS sachets for each child, along with participant diaries for tracking drug intake, palatability scores, and adverse events. Follow-up was conducted on Days 3 and 7, and diaries were collected between Days 10 and 14. RESULTS: Out of the 294 participants, most caregivers were mothers (86.0%), had at least a secondary education (88.1%), and were employed (70.7%). The majority of children were male (54.2%), and under 18 months old (52.2%). The average palatability score was 2.65 (±0.78), with no significant differences based on age or gender. Mean adherence was 93.03%, with 89.3% achieving ≥80% adherence, and adherence did not significantly differ by age or gender. The only reported adverse event, vomiting, decreased from 18.8% on Day 1 to 0.5% on Day 10. CONCLUSION: The study indicates that the orange-flavored dispersible zinc sulfate tablet is well-accepted by children aged 3 to 59 months with acute diarrhoea in Lagos, Nigeria.


CONTEXTE: La diarrhée aiguë est une cause significative de morbidité et de mortalité chez les enfants de moins de cinq ans, en particulier en Afrique subsaharienne. L'OMS recommande l'utilisation de la solution de réhydratation orale (SRO) et de la thérapie au zinc pour sa prise en charge, mais le goût métallique du zinc entrave souvent l'observance. MÉTHODE: L'étude d'intervention prospective à ciel ouvert a eu lieu dans trois établissements de santé à Lagos, dans le sud-ouest du Nigeria, impliquant des enfants de 3 à 59 mois souffrant de diarrhée aiguë. Des données sociodémographiques et liées à la diarrhée ont été obtenues. La palatabilité a été évaluée à l'aide d'une échelle hédonique à 5 points, et l'observance a été déterminée par la proportion de comprimés de sulfate de zinc prescrits consommés. Les aidants ont reçu une provision de 10 jours du médicament de l'étude et des sachets de SRO pour chaque enfant, ainsi que des journaux de suivi pour noter la prise du médicament, les scores de palatabilité et les événements indésirables. Un suivi a été effectué aux jours 3 et 7, et les journaux ont été collectés entre les jours 10 et 14. RÉSULTATS: Sur les 294 participants, la plupart des aidants étaient des mères (86,0%), avaient au moins une éducation secondaire (88,1%), et étaient employées (70,7%). La majorité des enfants étaient de sexe masculin (54,2%) et avaient moins de 18 mois (52,2%). La note moyenne de palatabilité était de 2,65 (±0,78), sans différences significatives en fonction de l'âge ou du sexe. L'observance moyenne était de 93,03%, avec 89,3% atteignant une observance ≥ 80%, et l'observance ne différait pas de manière significative en fonction de l'âge ou du sexe. Le seul événement indésirable signalé, les vomissements, est passé de 18,8% le jour 1 à 0,5% le jour 10. CONCLUSION: L'étude indique que le comprimé de sulfate de zinc dispersible à l'arôme d'orange est bien accepté par les enfants de 3 à 59 mois souffrant de diarrhée aiguë à Lagos, au Nigeria. MOTS-CLÉS: Diarrhée, moins de cinq ans, Enfants, Arôme d'orange, Comprimés de zinc, Palatabilité, Acceptabilité, Échelle hédonique, Lagos, Nigeria.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Comprimidos , Sulfato de Zinco , Humanos , Nigéria , Masculino , Lactente , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Prospectivos , Sulfato de Zinco/administração & dosagem , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Hidratação/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11649, 2024 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773192

RESUMO

Recent research has revealed that hemodynamic changes caused by lung recruitment maneuvers (LRM) with continuous positive airway pressure can be used to identify fluid responders. We investigated the usefulness of stepwise LRM with increasing positive end-expiratory pressure and constant driving pressure for predicting fluid responsiveness in patients under lung protective ventilation (LPV). Forty-one patients under LPV were enrolled when PPV values were in a priori considered gray zone (4% to 17%). The FloTrac-Vigileo device measured stroke volume variation (SVV) and stroke volume (SV), while the patient monitor measured pulse pressure variation (PPV) before and at the end of stepwise LRM and before and 5 min after fluid challenge (6 ml/kg). Fluid responsiveness was defined as a ≥ 15% increase in the SV or SV index. Seventeen were fluid responders. The areas under the curve for the augmented values of PPV and SVV, as well as the decrease in SV by stepwise LRM to identify fluid responders, were 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.88), 0.78 (0.62-0.89), and 0.69 (0.53-0.82), respectively. The optimal cut-offs for the augmented values of PPV and SVV were > 18% and > 13%, respectively. Stepwise LRM -generated augmented PPV and SVV predicted fluid responsiveness under LPV.


Assuntos
Hidratação , Salas Cirúrgicas , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hidratação/métodos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia
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