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1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301911, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593166

RESUMO

Numerous pre-clinical and observational studies have explored the potential effects of fluoride (F) at varying concentrations on diverse systems and organs. While some have assessed the endocrinological conditions of children and adults, a consensus regarding the interaction between F and the thyroid remains elusive. This systematic review aimed to gather primary evidence on the association between F and changes in the thyroid at optimal and high levels in water supply as stipulated by the World Health Organization. A search strategy, incorporating terms pertinent to the studies, was employed across PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Lilacs, and Google Scholar. Following the review of studies, data were extracted and analyzed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations to assess the quality of the evidence. Our results yielded 3,568 studies, of which seven met the inclusion criteria for this review. Five of the seven studies identified an association between high F exposure and thyroid function. In the analysis of methodological quality, every study was found to have major or minor methodological issues and significant risk of bias. The overall confidence in the evidence was deemed low for all outcomes in the seven studies. The evidence compiled in this review suggests a potential association between chronic high levels of F exposure and thyroid damage. Nonetheless, further studies with robust design and high methodological quality are required to provide evidence for policy makers and health care practitioners.


Assuntos
Fluoretos , Glândula Tireoide , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos
2.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 10(2): e838, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506304

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The use of silver fluoride followed by stannous fluoride was designed for the treatment of open carious lesions in primary molars in dental outreach programs. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic when aerosol-producing procedures were inadvisable, one dental location started using it as the first stage in a two-visit restorative procedure for carious primary molars. If the gap between the fluoride application and the restoration placement stages was around 3-5 weeks it was noticed that a black friable crust appeared on the caries surface. To investigate further a normally discarded crust from one patient was retrieved and sent for analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two techniques suitable for identification and preliminary analysis of material of unknown composition, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used. The only preparation was that the specimen was dried and coated beforehand. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary examination showed two unexpected findings. The first was that the crust surface indicated a possible dentine derivation as it was covered with reasonably evenly spaced holes. In addition, the EDS spectrum showed it to be, at least, partially mineralized. The second unexpected finding was that the surface was coated with electron-dense particles. The size of the particles and the EDS spectrum pointed to the likelihood of the majority of them being nanosilver. These unexpected findings suggest a possible new direction for research.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos , Compostos de Prata , Fluoretos de Estanho , Humanos , Pandemias , Dente Molar/cirurgia
3.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 10(2): e876, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the remineralization potential of calcium sodium phosphosilicate and functionalized tri-calcium phosphate (f-TCP) dentifrices in deeper incipient carious lesions (ICLs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Artificial ICLs were created by placing premolars into demineralizing solutions. Teeth were randomly assigned into four groups: calcium sodium phosphosilicate (Group 1), f-TCP (Group 2), 1450 ppm fluoride (Group 3), and distilled water (Group 4), which were subjected to 10-day pH cycling. Mineral density (MD) was assessed using microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT), while hardness (H) and elastic modulus (EM) were assessed using nanomechanical testing. RESULTS: MD % gain was higher in Groups 1-3 than in Group 4. In addition, Groups 1 and 2 exhibited significantly higher MD % gain than Group 3. Also, Groups 1-3 showed significantly higher EM and H values than Group 4 in the outer enamel area; yet, Groups 1 and 2 displayed significantly higher EM and H values than Groups 3 and 4 in the inner enamel. CONCLUSIONS: The MD, EM, and H of ICLs significantly increased with the addition of calcium sodium phosphosilicate or f-TCP to fluoridated dentifrices compared to standard fluoride dentifrices. The added active ingredients remineralized the deeper parts of the ICLs, while remineralization at the lesion surface was similar between tested dentifrices.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Dentifrícios , Compostos de Flúor , Humanos , Fluoretos , Cariostáticos , Dentifrícios/farmacologia , Cálcio , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Fosfatos de Cálcio , Minerais , Sódio
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(16): 24412-24424, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441738

RESUMO

The crux of groundwater protection lies in a profound understanding of the sources of pollutants and their impacts on human health. This study selected 47 groundwater samples from the Fengshui mining area in central Shandong Province, China, employing advanced hydrogeochemical techniques, positive matrix factorization (PMF), and Monte Carlo analysis methods, aimed at unveiling the characteristics, origins, and health risks of water pollutants. The results indicated that the majority of samples exhibited a slightly alkaline nature. Notably, the concentrations of fluoride (F-) and nitrate (NO3-) exceeded China's safety standards in 40.43% and 23.40% of the samples, respectively. Moreover, a water quality index (WQI) below 50 was observed in approximately 68.09% of the sites, suggesting that the water quality in these areas generally met acceptable levels. However, regions with higher WQI values were predominantly located in the northern and southern parts of the mining area. PMF analysis revealed that regional geological and industrial activities were the primary factors affecting water quality, followed by mining discharges, fundamental geological and agricultural processes, and leachate enrichment activities. The health risk assessment highlighted the heightened sensitivity of the youth demographic to fluoride, with a more pronounced non-carcinogenic risk compared to nitrate, affecting about 31.89% of the youth population. Hence, it is imperative for local authorities and relevant departments to take prompt actions to remediate groundwater contamination to minimize public health risks.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adolescente , Humanos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Nitratos/análise , Fluoretos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água Subterrânea/análise , Qualidade da Água , Compostos Orgânicos , Medição de Risco , China
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(16): 24492-24511, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441742

RESUMO

High-altitude lakes (HALs) can be used as a supplement or alternative source of water in areas where there is a water shortage. When these lakes are efficiently managed, they can supply more water resources to fulfil the increasing demand. Water quality assessment aids in the identification of adequate and safe drinking water sources. It minimizes threats to the public's health by making sure that lake water extraction fulfills safety and health regulations. Water quality and hydrogeochemical study was conducted on six HALs of the Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh during the year 2022. The water quality index (WQI) values varied from excellent to poor (33.87 to 101.95). Lake 6 stands out with its exceptional water quality as it had the minimum average WQI value of 52.98. In contrast, Lake 5 had the lowest water quality among the studied lakes with the maximum average WQI value of 95.31. However, the water might not be safe to drink due to the elevated levels of fluoride in these lakes. It is crucial to address and minimize the high fluoride levels to ensure the safety and acceptability of the water for consumption. The Piper diagram showed that Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+ and HCO3- > Cl- > SO42-, respectively, were the primary cations and anions present in these lakes. The Gibbs diagram also demonstrated the effect of rock weathering and precipitation dominance on the water chemistry in the research area. These results provide insightful information about the water quality of HALs, which is essential information for concerned government departments and agencies to manage water issues more efficiently. Based on current research, the HALs in this region have a lot of potential to meet the growing demand for drinking water.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Qualidade da Água , Lagos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluoretos/análise , Altitude , Facies , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Índia
6.
Water Res ; 254: 121431, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471201

RESUMO

Fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTCAs) represent an important group of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) given their high toxicity, bioaccumulation potential, and frequent detection in landfill leachates and PFAS-impacted sites. In this study, we assessed the biodegradability of 6:2 FTCA and 5:3 FTCA by activated sludges from four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the New York Metropolitan area. Coupling with 6:2 FTCA removal, significant fluoride release (0.56∼1.83 F-/molecule) was evident in sludge treatments during 7 days of incubation. Less-fluorinated transformation products (TPs) were formed, including 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acid (6:2 FTUCA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA). In contrast, little fluoride (0.01∼0.09 F-/molecule) was detected in 5:3 FTCA-dosed microcosms, though 25∼68% of initially dosed 5:3 FTCA was biologically removed. This implies the dominance of "non-fluoride-releasing pathways" that may contribute to the formation of CoA adducts or other conjugates over 5:3 FTCA biotransformation. The discovery of defluorinated 5:3 FTUCA revealed the possibility of microbial attacks of the C-F bond at the γ carbon to initiate the transformation. Microbial community analysis revealed the possible involvement of 9 genera, such as Hyphomicrobium and Dechloromonas, in aerobic FTCA biotransformation. This study unraveled that biotransformation pathways of 6:2 and 5:3 FTCAs can be divergent, resulting in biodefluorination at distinctive degrees. Further research is underscored to uncover the nontarget TPs and investigate the involved biotransformation and biodefluorination mechanisms and molecular basis.


Assuntos
Fluorocarbonos , Esgotos , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Fluoretos , Fluorocarbonos/química , Biotransformação
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 134023, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492393

RESUMO

Chronic exposure to high fluoride (F-) levels in groundwater causes community fluorosis and non-carcinogenic health concerns in local people. This study described occurrence, dental fluorosis, and origin of high F-groundwater using δ2H and δ18O isotopes at semiarid Gilgit, Pakistan. Therefore, groundwater (n = 85) was collected and analyzed for F- concentrations using ion-chromatography. The lowest F- concentration was 0.4 mg/L and the highest 6.8 mg/L. F- enrichment is linked with higher pH, NaHCO3, NaCl, δ18O, Na+, HCO3-, and depleted Ca+2 aquifers. The depleted δ2H and δ18O values indicated precipitation and higher values represented the evaporation effect. Thermodynamic considerations of fluorite minerals showed undersaturation, revealing that other F-bearing minerals viz. biotite and muscovite were essential in F- enrichment in groundwater. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) and principal component analysis multilinear regression (PCAMLR) models were used to determine four-factor solutions for groundwater contamination. The PMF model results were accurate and reliable compared with those of the PCAMLR model, which compiled the overlapping results. Therefore, 28.3% exceeded the WHO permissible limit of 1.5 mg/L F-. Photomicrographs of granite rocks showed enriched F-bearing minerals that trigger F- in groundwater. The community fluorosis index values were recorded at > 0.6, revealing community fluorosis and unsuitability of groundwater for drinking.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Fluoretos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Minerais/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Isótopos/análise
8.
Chemosphere ; 354: 141735, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499075

RESUMO

In Japan, the concentration of fluoride (F-) leached from rocks, such as tuff breccia, excavated in tunnel construction projects often exceeds the Japanese environmental standard of 0.8 mg/L. Because of this, proper disposal methods are necessary for managing F--bearing excavated rocks. One effective solution based on circular economy is the use of an adsorption layer system. This system can simultaneously prevent the migration of F- released from excavated rocks and allow the recycling of this construction waste material. To determine the most suitable material for the disposal of excavated F--bearing tuff breccia from a tunnel construction in Hokkaido, Japan, four types of natural geological materials (S-1, S-2, S-3, and S-4) obtained near the tunnel construction site, as well as three types of commercial adsorbents (calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and CaMg adsorbents) were selected for evaluation. The batch adsorption test results showed that S-1 and S-4 had high adsorption capacities for F-, and the adsorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption of F- to the natural adsorbents was strongly influenced by the pH and the presence of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-), but unaffected by chloride (Cl-) and sulfate (SO42-). There was also a strong positive correlation between the abundance of amorphous aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) extracted and the adsorption of F-, indicating the importance of ion exchange reactions associated with surface OH- in immobilizing F-. Meanwhile, the Mg-bearing adsorbent exhibited the highest adsorption affinity for F- among the commercial adsorbents. This was attributed to adsorption through electrostatic interactions and coprecipitation with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) formed during the hydration of magnesium oxide (MgO). To effectively incorporate these adsorbents into the adsorption layer system, parameters such as permeability and residence time need to be determined in order to maximize the retention of F- through adsorption, ion exchange and coprecipitation reactions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Fluoretos , Purificação da Água/métodos , Óxido de Magnésio , Alumínio , Magnésio , Adsorção , Cinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
9.
Pediatr Dent ; 46(1): 52-57, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38449037

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the effect of potassium iodide (KI) on the black/gray staining caused by silver diammine fluoride (SDF) when applied to carious lesions. Methods: Extracted caries-free molar surfaces had caries induced to examine the use of SDF and SDF followed by KI (SDF+KI) on extracted permanent molars that had caries induced on their surfaces and were monitored for a period after application. To monitor the color changes, CIELAB color space readings???a color space defined by the International Commission on Illumination???were used. The system is composed of three values, of which the L* measures black to white across a span of zero (black) to 100 (white). Measurements were taken at eight intervals between days zero to 72. Results: L* values were found to be significantly different between SDF and SDF+KI groups and from baseline. On average, the SDF+KI group versus the SDF group was 9.47 units lighter. Conclusion: The findings indicate the application of silver diammine fluoride followed by potassium iodide can reduce the black staining SDF alone causes, potentially making it a viable esthetic option for patients with anterior tooth caries.


Assuntos
Amônia , Cárie Dentária , Potássio , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Compostos de Prata , Humanos , Iodeto de Potássio , Fluoretos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Coloração e Rotulagem , Fluoretos Tópicos
10.
Lasers Med Sci ; 39(1): 96, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556568

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While silver diamine fluoride has been used extensively for caries arrest and desensitising, silver fluoride (AgF) at neutral pH may also have value as a minimally invasive dental caries treatment. This study explored the effectiveness of two AgF products (AgF/KI and AgF/SnF2) when used in adult patients with special needs (SN) who had high caries risk and salivary gland hypofunction. METHODS: This split-mouth clinical study, over two appointments 3-months apart, compared the impact of a single application of AgF/KI (Riva Star Aqua, SDI) and AgF/SnF2 (Creighton Dental CSDS, Whiteley) on matched carious lesions in the same arch, by clinical visual-tactile (cVT) assessment of caries status and laser fluorescence (LF, DIAGNOdent) evaluation of bacterial load in the lesions, using repeated measures analysis. RESULTS: Twelve participants were recruited in the study. A total of 56 teeth (28 pairs) were included. Both AgF products gave a significant decrease in caries activity as measured by cVT (P < 0.0001) and LF (P = 0.0027). There were no statistically significant differences between the two AgF treatments, with response rates for improvements in active lesions of 92% in the AgF/KI arm, and 96% in the AgF/SnF2 arm. There was no effect of tooth type, lesion type, arch type, plaque metabolism and plaque area at the site level on outcomes, nor was there a clustering effect of sites in a patient level analysis. Overall, LF was superior to cVT for detecting lesions that still progressed despite treatment (P = 0.0027). CONCLUSION: A single application of AgF/KI or AgF/SnF2 has high predictability (over 90%) for achieving arrest in active caries lesions in adult patients with SN and high caries risk. Clinical assessment should use visual-tactile examination combined with LF readings to detect lesions that are still progressing and that require additional treatments. Future studies should compare these AgF modalities with SDF and explore factors such as time between applications and the need for repeated applications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered with the Australian Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12621001139864p) on 23/08/2021.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos , Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos , Compostos de Prata , Humanos , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Austrália , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Lasers
11.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 155(4): 319-328.e2, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients who are oral hygiene noncompliant (OHNC) are more likely to lose teeth after radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC), which increases the risk of developing osteoradionecrosis. A previous study revealed that patients who were OHNC at baseline (BL) who became oral hygiene compliant during follow-up had the best tooth-failure outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with oral hygiene compliance (OHC), overall, and among those who were BL OHNC. METHODS: This was an observational, prospective, cohort study of 518 patients with HNC assessed before RT and at post-RT follow-up visits every 6 months for 2 years. Patient and treatment-related information was collected at BL and during follow-up, including self-reported OHC. OHC was defined as toothbrushing at least twice daily and flossing at least once daily. RESULTS: Of the 296 patients who self-reported being BL OHNC, 44 (14.9%) became oral hygiene compliant at all follow-up visits. Among this group, those who had dental insurance (P = .026), surgery before RT (P = .008), limited mouth opening before RT (P = .001), compliant fluoride use (P = .023), primary RT site of oral cavity (P = .004), and primary surgical site of larynx and hypopharynx (P = .042) were more likely to become oral hygiene compliant post-RT. CONCLUSIONS: The reasons for the cohort of patients with HNC in this study being OHNC are multifaceted and relate to socioeconomic factors and cancer characteristics. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Finding ways to increase OHC and fluoride use among patients with HNC who are at greatest risk of being OHNC should be explored.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Higiene Bucal , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Fluoretos , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia
12.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 48(2): 72-81, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548635

RESUMO

Fluoridated dentifrices have antibacterial effects on children's teeth. On the other hand, the side effects encountered with the use of them have led researchers to look for safe alternatives. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial effect of different commercially available fluoride-free dentifrices on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in comparison with different concentrations of fluoridated dentifrices. Study groups comprised of fluoride-free dentifrices, which contain Probiotic (Activated Charcoal Probiotic Dentifrice-Group P), Aloe Vera-Group AV and Salivary Proteins-Group SP. Fluoridated dentifrices containing 1450 ppm fluoride-Control Group 1 and 500 ppm fluoride-Control Group 2 served as control groups. Antibacterial activity was assessed by Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations and agar well diffusion assays on S. mutans. Biofilm inhibition assay was performed with dentifrices, which had antibacterial activities, and a negative control phosphate-buffered saline (Group PBS) on sterile hydroxyapatite discs against S. mutans. Statistical evaluation was performed. Only group AV showed an antibacterial effect on S. mutans, while control groups showed a similar antibacterial effect. The mean number of viable bacteria present in S. mutans biofilm in Control Group 1 and 2 and Group AV were statistically significantly lower than that in Group PBS, but there were no statistically significant differences between Control Groups and Group AV. Antibacterial activity of commercial dentifrices against S. mutans may be exerted by antibacterial components other than fluoride. Aloe vera-containing toothpaste showed an antibacterial effect on S. mutans, although not as much as the fluoride-containing toothpastes in the control groups. However, further in vivo and long-term studies are required.


Assuntos
Dentifrícios , Criança , Humanos , Dentifrícios/farmacologia , Fluoretos , Streptococcus mutans , Cremes Dentais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 925: 171326, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460703

RESUMO

Environmental fluoride exposure has been linked to numerous cases of fluorosis worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that long-term exposure to fluoride can result in intellectual damage among children. However, a comprehensive health risk assessment of fluorosis-induced intellectual damage is still pending. In this research, we utilized the Bayesian Benchmark Dose Analysis System (BBMD) to investigate the dose-response relationship between urinary fluoride (U-F) concentration and Raven scores in adults from Nayong, Guizhou, China. Our research findings indecate a dose-response relationship between the concentration of U-F and intelligence scores in adults. As the benchmark response (BMR) increased, both the benchmark concentration (BMCs) and the lower bound of the credible interval (BMCLs) increased. Specifically, BMCs for the association between U-F and IQ score were determined to be 0.18 mg/L (BMCL1 = 0.08 mg/L), 0.91 mg/L (BMCL5 = 0.40 mg/L), 1.83 mg/L (BMCL10 = 0.83 mg/L) when using BMRs of 1 %, 5 %, and 10 %. These results indicate that U-F can serve as an effective biomarker for monitoring the loss of IQ in population. We propose three interim targets for public policy in preventing interllectual harm from fluoride exposure.


Assuntos
Fluoretos , Fluorose Dentária , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Fluoretos/análise , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , Benchmarking , Teorema de Bayes , Inteligência , China/epidemiologia
14.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 52(1): 112-116, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aim: This research is focused at analyzing the indicators and substantiating the peculiarities of caries prevention in permanent teeth in schoolchildren of Poltava region, taking into account the endemic features of the Poltava region. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: A comparative study was conducted among 608 pupils of secondary schools in Kremenchuk, who consumed drinking water with fluoride concentrations in the lower limits of the norm, and 1214 pupils of secondary schools in Poltava, who consumed drinking water with fluoride concentrations in the optimal upper limits of the norm. RESULTS: Results: The rates of caries in permanent teeth in children living in a region with fluoride concentrations in drinking water in the optimal-upper normal range are several times lower than in children of the same age living in a region with fluoride concentrations in drinking water in the lower normal range, and a significant increase in the prevalence and intensity of caries is observed from 7 to 9 to 12 years of age, as teeth after eruption are most vulnerable to caries. In a region where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is in the optimal-upper range of the norm, children with early forms of fluorosis have the lowest prevalence and intensity of caries. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Endemic features of the region directly affect the prevalence and intensity of the caries process. In regions with a fluoride concentration in drinking water within the optimal upper limits of the norm, prevention of caries in permanent teeth in children should be carried out taking into account the presence of fluorosis.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Água Potável , Fluorose Dentária , Criança , Humanos , Fluoretos/análise , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , Água Potável/análise , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Prevalência , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle
15.
J Dent ; 143: 104906, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Remineralising composites with antibacterial properties may seal the cavity and prevent secondary caries. This study aimed at developing experimental flowable composites containing different concentrations of fluoride-doped calcium phosphate fillers and evaluating their remineralising and antibacterial properties. METHODS: Experimental resin-based composites containing different concentrations (0-20 %) of fluoride-doped calcium phosphate fillers (VS10/VS20) were formulated. The release of calcium (Ca), phosphate (PO) and fluoride (F) ions was assessed for 30 days. Remineralisation properties were evaluated through ATR-FTIR and SEM/EDX after storage in simulated body fluid (SBF). The metabolic activity and viability of Streptococcus gordonii was also evaluated through ATP, CFU and live/dead confocal microscopy. The evaluation of specific monomer elution from the experimental composites was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: The composites containing VS10 showed the highest release of Ca, those containing VS20 released more F over time (p < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in terms of PO ions release between the groups (p > 0.05). A quick 7-day mineral precipitation was observed in the tested composites containing VS10 or VS20 at 10 %; these materials also showed the greatest antibacterial activity (p < 0.05). Moreover, the tested composites containing VS10 presented the lowest elution of monomers (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Innovative composites were developed with low monomers elution, evident antibacterial activity against S. gordonii and important remineralisation properties due to specific ions release. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Novel composites containing fluoride-doped calcium phosphates may be promising to modulate bacteria growth, promote remineralisation and reduce the risk of cytotoxicity related to monomers' elution.


Assuntos
Fluoretos , Fosfatos , Fosfatos/farmacologia , Fosfatos/química , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Fluoretos/química , Teste de Materiais , Resinas Compostas/farmacologia , Resinas Compostas/química , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Fluoreto de Cálcio , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
16.
J Dent ; 143: 104909, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of resin infiltration combined with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride (CPP-ACPF) or bioactive glass (BAG) on the stability of enamel white spot lesions (WSLs) treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-four enamel blocks were prepared from the buccal surfaces of sound human premolars. All enamel blocks were placed in a demineralisation solution for 3 days to establish the artificial enamel WSLs. Enamel blocks with WSLs were randomly divided into three groups (n = 28 each group): RI/B: one-off resin infiltration followed by twice daily BAG treatment; RI/C: one-off resin infiltration followed by twice daily CPP-ACPF treatment; RI: one-off resin infiltration treatment only (as control) and subjected to pH cycling for 7 days. Surface morphology, elemental analysis, crystal characteristics, surface roughness and microhardness of enamel surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry observation, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope and Vickers' hardness testing, respectively. RESULTS: Mean values of the surface roughness (mean±standard deviation (nm)) were 24.52±5.07, 27.39±5.87 and 34.36±4.55 for groups RI/B, RI/C and RI respectively (p = 0.003). The calcium to phosphate ratios were 1.32±0.16, 1.22±0.26 and 0.69±0.24 for groups RI/B, RI/C and RI respectively (p < 0.001). XRD revealed apatite formation in all three groups. The mean enamel surface microhardness (kg/mm2) of the groups were 353.93±28.49, 339.00±27.32 and 330.38±22.55 for groups RI/B, RI/C and RI respectively (p = 0.216). CONCLUSIONS: Resin infiltration combined with CPP-ACPF or BAG remineralisation appears to improve the surface properties of WSLs. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The combination of resin infiltration and CPP-ACPF/BAG remineralisation may be a potential treatment for the management of the WSLs.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Esmalte Dentário , Humanos , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Fluoretos/análise , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Fosfatos de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/patologia
17.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 376, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519884

RESUMO

Dental fluorosis (DF) is a prevalent developmental defect of tooth enamel caused by exposure to excessive fluoride, with the severity dependent on various factors. This study aimed to investigate the association between DF and a specific genetic polymorphism (rs412777) in the COL1A2 gene among a Tunisian population. A case-control study was conducted from July to November 2022, involving a total of 95 participants including 51 cases and 44 controls. Dental examinations and genetic analysis were performed to assess the relationship between the COL1A2 gene polymorphism and DF.The results of allelic distribution revealed that A allele carriers were significantly protected against (DF) when compared to those with the C allele (C vs. A, p = 0.001; OR = 0.375 (0.207-0.672)). This suggests a strong correlation between the presence of the C allele and the risk of developing DF. Additionally, significant association between the CC genotype of rs412777 and an increased risk of DF was found under both codominant and dominant genetic models (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001 respectively).The findings suggest that genetic predisposition plays a relevant role in the development of DF. Further research is needed to explore the potential use of genetic markers for DF and their implications for public health. This study provides the first insights into the genetic factors associated with DF in the Tunisian population, contributing to our understanding of this prevalent dental condition.


Assuntos
Fluorose Dentária , Humanos , Fluorose Dentária/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Genótipo , Fluoretos , Colágeno Tipo I/genética
18.
J Phys Chem B ; 128(11): 2697-2706, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447081

RESUMO

CLCF fluoride/proton antiporters move fluoride ions out of bacterial cells, leading to fluoride resistance in these bacteria. However, many details about their operating mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report a combined quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical (QM/MM) study of a CLCF homologue from Enterococci casseliflavus (Eca), in accord with the previously proposed windmill mechanism. Our multiscale modeling sheds light on two critical steps in the transport cycle: (i) the external gating residue E118 pushing a fluoride in the external binding site into the extracellular vestibule and (ii) an incoming fluoride reconquering the external binding site by forcing out E118. Both steps feature competitions for the external binding site between the negatively charged carboxylate of E118 and the fluoride. Remarkably, the displaced E118 by fluoride accepts a proton from the nearby R117, initiating the next transport cycle. We also demonstrate the importance of accurate quantum descriptions of fluoride solvation. Our results provide clues to the mysterious E318 residue near the central binding site, suggesting that the transport activities are unlikely to be disrupted by the glutamate interacting with a well-solvated fluoride at the central binding site. This differs significantly from the structurally similar CLC chloride/proton antiporters, where a fluoride trapped deep in the hydrophobic pore causes the transporter to be locked down. A free-energy barrier of 10-15 kcal/mol was estimated via umbrella sampling for a fluoride ion traveling through the pore to repopulate the external binding site.


Assuntos
Antiporters , Prótons , Antiporters/química , Antiporters/metabolismo , Fluoretos/química , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Cloretos/química , Canais de Cloreto/química , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(12): 5567-5577, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488517

RESUMO

The development of efficient defluorination technology is an important issue because the kind of emerging pollutant of hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (GenX) as an alternative to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has the higher environmental risks. In the UV/bisulfite system, we first developed a hydrophobic confined α-Fe2O3 nanoparticle layer rich in oxygen vacancies, which accelerated the enrichment of HSO3- and GenX on the surface and pores through electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic interaction, retaining more hydrated electrons (eaq-) and rapidly destroying GenX under UV excitation. Especially, under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, the degradation percentage of GenX obtain nearly 100%, defluorination of GenX to 88 and 57% respectively. It was amazed to find that the three parallel H/F exchange pathways triggered by the rapid reactions of eaq- and GenX, which were unique to anaerobic conditions, improved the efficiency of fluoride removal and weaken the interference of dissolved oxygen and H+. Therefore, this study provided an available material and mechanism for sustainable fluoride removal from wastewater in aerobic and anaerobic conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorocarbonos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Elétrons , Fluoretos , Caprilatos/química
20.
Trials ; 25(1): 167, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluoridation of public water systems is known as a safe and effective strategy for preventing dental caries based on evidence from non-randomized studies. Yet 110 million Americans do not have access to a fluoridated public water system and many others do not drink tap water. This article describes the study protocol for the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) of fluoridated water that assesses its potential dental caries preventive efficacy when delivered in bottles. METHODS: waterBEST is a phase 2b proof-of-concept, randomized, quadruple-masked, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial designed to estimate the potential efficacy of fluoridated versus non-fluoridated bottled water to prevent dental caries incidence in the first 4 years of life. Two hundred children living in eastern North Carolina, USA, and aged 2-6 months at screening are being allocated at random in a 1:1 ratio to receive fluoridated (0.7 mg/L F) or non-fluoridated bottled water sourced from two local public water systems. Throughout the 3.5-year intervention, study water is delivered monthly in 5-gallon bottles to each child's home with instructions to use it whenever the child consumes water as a beverage or in food preparation. Parents are interviewed quarterly to monitor children's water consumption and health. At annual visits, the presence of dental caries is evaluated with a dental screening examination. Clippings from fingernails and toenails are collected to quantify fluoride content as a biomarker of total fluoride intake. The primary endpoint is the number of primary tooth surfaces decayed, missing, or filled due to dental caries measured by the study dentist near the time of the child's fourth birthday. Tooth decay is assessed at the threshold of macroscopic enamel loss. For the primary aim, a least-squares, generalized linear model will estimate efficacy and its one-tailed, upper 80% confidence limit. DISCUSSION: waterBEST is the first evaluation of a randomized intervention of fluoridated drinking water in bottles to prevent dental caries in the primary dentition. This innovative method of delivering fluoridated water has the potential to prevent early childhood caries in a large segment of the US population that currently does not benefit from fluoridated public water. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04893681. Registered on March 2022. Last update posted on 10 October 2023. https://clinicaltrials.gov/study/NCT04893681?cond=Dental%20Caries%20in%20Children&term=fluoride&locStr=North%20Carolina,%20USA&country=United%20States&state=North%20Carolina&distance=50&rank=1.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Água Potável , Fluoretos , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Bebidas , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Dente Decíduo , Lactente
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