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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15710, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977782

RESUMO

Although facial flushing after drinking alcohol (alcohol flushing response) is common in Asian populations, the epidemiological features in a large sample have been investigated in only a few studies. This study assessed the epidemiologic characteristics and associated factors for alcohol flushing in a Korean population. This study was based on data collected during the 2019 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 5572 Korean adults was included in the general population group, and the alcohol flushing group consisted of 2257 participants. Smoking and physical activity were evaluated as possible associated factors for alcohol flushing. The overall prevalence of alcohol flushing was estimated at 40.56% of the general population (43.74% in males and 37.4% in females), and the prevalence was highest at 60-69 years of age and lowest in individuals older than 80 years. Occasional, frequent, and persistent alcohol flushing was reported by 11.9%, 3.7% and 15.0% of current flushers, among whom persistent flushers consumed the least amount of alcohol. Subjects who currently smoke had a higher propensity of alcohol flushing (adjusted OR 1.525, 95% CI 1.2-1.938), and subjects with smoking history of 20-29 pack-years (PYs) showed the highest association (adjusted OR 1.725, 95% CI 1.266-2.349) with alcohol flushing after adjustment for confounders. In contrast, significant association was not found between physical activity and alcohol flushing. The results demonstrated that current smoking status is shown to be significantly associated with alcohol flushing, and that current smokers with a history of smoking ≥ 20 PYs had a higher likelihood of alcohol flushing than non-smokers or ex-smokers.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Rubor , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fumar , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Rubor/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Neurol ; 24(1): 247, 2024 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39020271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The harlequin syndrome is a rare disorder of the autonomic nervous system characterized by unilateral diminished flushing and sweating of the face following exposure to heat or physical activity. It results from sympathetic dysfunction and most commonly occurs idiopathically. A secondary development due to an underlying pathology (e.g., carotid artery dissection, tumors) must be excluded at first appearance. There is evidence that the cranial autonomic system is involved in the pathophysiology of trigeminal autonomic headaches like hemicrania continua. Therefore, an overlap in the pathophysiology of harlequin syndrome and trigeminal autonomic headache disorders seems plausible. However, the association of a harlequin syndrome with hemicrania continua was never reported. CASE PRESENTATION: This work describes the case of a 42-year-old female patient presenting to our headache unit. The patient reported persisting unilateral headache of the right side of dragging or squeezing character accompanied by trigeminal autonomic symptoms, including lacrimation, nasal congestion, conjunctival injection and Horner's syndrome, and was responsive to treatment with 75mg/d indomethacin. Five months after the initial consultation, the patient noted that the upper right quadrant of her face was pale after jogging. A harlequin syndrome was diagnosed. Further, she developed a short-lasting, bilateral headache of pulsatile character during strenuous exercise consistent with exertional headache. Comprehensive diagnostic evaluations, encompassing cranial and cervical MRI scans, laboratory tests, and biopsies, culminated in the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome. This finding suggests that the trigemino-autonomic dysfunction may either be idiopathic or a direct manifestation of Sjögren's syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: This report documents the case of a rare combination of a headache resembling probable hemicrania continua and the harlequin syndrome (and even exertional headache). It illustrates the underlying anatomy of the autonomic nervous system in a clinical context and emphasizes the hypothesis of a pathophysiological link between abnormal sympathetic activity and trigeminal autonomic headaches.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Rubor , Hipo-Hidrose , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Rubor/diagnóstico , Rubor/etiologia , Hipo-Hidrose/diagnóstico , Hipo-Hidrose/complicações , Hipo-Hidrose/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Cefaleia/fisiopatologia
6.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 25(5): 101, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Niacin, an established therapeutic for dyslipidemia, is hindered by its propensity to induce significant cutaneous flushing when administered orally in its unmodified state, thereby constraining its clinical utility. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to fabricate, characterize, and assess the in-vitro and in-vivo effectiveness of niacin-loaded polymeric films (NLPFs) comprised of carboxymethyl tamarind seed polysaccharide. The primary objective was to mitigate the flushing-related side effects associated with oral niacin administration. METHODS: NLPFs were synthesized using the solvent casting method and subsequently subjected to characterization, including assessments of tensile strength, moisture uptake, thickness, and folding endurance. Surface characteristics were analyzed using a surface profiler and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Potential interactions between niacin and the polysaccharide core were investigated through X-ray diffraction experiments (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The viscoelastic properties of the films were explored using a Rheometer. In-vitro assessments included drug release studies, swelling behavior assays, and antioxidant assays. In-vivo efficacy was evaluated through skin permeation assays, skin irritation assays, and histopathological analyses. RESULTS: NLPFs exhibited a smooth texture with favorable tensile strength and moisture absorption capabilities. Niacin demonstrated interaction with the polysaccharide core, rendering the films amorphous. The films displayed slow and sustained drug release, exceptional antioxidant properties, optimal swelling behavior, and viscoelastic characteristics. Furthermore, the films exhibited biocompatibility and non-toxicity towards skin cells. CONCLUSION: NLPFs emerged as promising carrier systems for the therapeutic transdermal delivery of niacin, effectively mitigating its flushing-associated adverse effects.


Assuntos
Administração Cutânea , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Niacina , Polissacarídeos , Ratos Wistar , Absorção Cutânea , Pele , Animais , Ratos , Niacina/administração & dosagem , Niacina/química , Niacina/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Rubor/induzido quimicamente , Resistência à Tração , Masculino , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Tamarindus/química , Polímeros/química
7.
JAMA Dermatol ; 160(6): 612-619, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630457

RESUMO

Importance: Treatment of erythema and flushing in rosacea is challenging. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been associated with the pathogenesis of rosacea, raising the possibility that inhibition of the CGRP pathway might improve certain features of the disease. Objective: To examine the effectiveness, tolerability, and safety of erenumab, an anti-CGRP-receptor monoclonal antibody, for the treatment of rosacea-associated erythema and flushing. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center, open-label, single-group, nonrandomized controlled trial was conducted between June 9, 2020, and May 11, 2021. Eligible participants included adults with rosacea with at least 15 days of either moderate to severe erythema and/or moderate to extreme flushing. No concomitant rosacea treatment was allowed throughout the study period. Visits took place at the Danish Headache Center, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants received 140 mg of erenumab subcutaneously every 4 weeks for 12 weeks. A safety follow-up visit was performed at week 20. Data analysis occurred from January 2023 to January 2024. Intervention: 140 mg of erenumab every 4 weeks for 12 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was mean change in the number of days with moderate to extreme flushing during weeks 9 through 12, compared with the 4-week run-in period (baseline). The mean change in number of days with moderate to severe erythema was a secondary outcome. Adverse events were recorded for participants who received at least 1 dose of erenumab. Differences in means were calculated with a paired t test. Results: A total of 30 participants (mean [SD] age, 38.8 [13.1] years; 23 female [77%]; 7 male [23%]) were included, of whom 27 completed the 12-week study. The mean (SD) number of days with moderate to extreme flushing was reduced by -6.9 days (95% CI, -10.4 to -3.4 days; P < .001) from 23.6 (5.8) days at baseline. The mean (SD) number of days with moderate to severe erythema was reduced by -8.1 days (95% CI, -12.5 to -3.7 days; P < .001) from 15.2 (9.1) days at baseline. Adverse events included transient mild to moderate constipation (10 participants [33%]), transient worsening of flushing (4 participants [13%]), bloating (3 participants [10%]), and upper respiratory tract infections (3 participants [10%]), consistent with previous data. One participant discontinued the study due to a serious adverse event (hospital admission due to gallstones deemed unrelated to the study), and 2 participants withdrew consent due to lack of time. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that erenumab might be effective in reducing rosacea-associated flushing and chronic erythema (participants generally tolerated the treatment well, which was consistent with previous data), and that CGRP-receptor inhibition holds potential in the treatment of erythema and flushing associated with rosacea. Larger randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm this finding. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04419259.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Eritema , Rubor , Rosácea , Humanos , Rosácea/tratamento farmacológico , Rosácea/complicações , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Eritema/tratamento farmacológico , Eritema/etiologia , Rubor/etiologia , Rubor/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Resultado do Tratamento , Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina/farmacologia , Idoso , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Injeções Subcutâneas
9.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 34(5): 139-148, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38465575

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Given the high prevalence of fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B*2 (ADH1B*2 ) and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2*2 (ALDH2*2 ) alleles in East Asians, we evaluated how the ADH1B / ALDH2 genotypes and alcohol flushing might affect the development of alcohol dependence (AD). METHODS: We evaluated how the ADH1B / ALDH2 genotypes and self-reported alcohol flushing affected history of drinking events and withdrawal symptoms and ICD-10 criteria in 4116 Japanese AD men. RESULTS: The ADH1B*1/*1 group and ALDH2*1/*1 group were 1-5 years younger than the ADH1B*2 (+) and ALDH2*1/*2 groups, respectively, for all of the ages at onset of habitual drinking, blackouts, daytime drinking, uncontrolled drinking, withdrawal symptoms, and first treatment for AD, and the current age. Blackouts were more common in the ADH1B*1/*1 group and ALDH2*1/*1 group. Daytime drinking, uncontrolled drinking, and withdrawal symptoms, such as hand tremor, sweating, convulsions, and delirium tremens/hallucinations were more common in the ADH1B*1/*1 group. The ADH1B*1/*1 was positively associated with the ICD-10 criteria for 'tolerance' and 'withdrawal symptoms'. The ADH1B*1/*1 group and ALDH2*1/*2 group had a larger ICD-10 score. Never flushing was reported by 91.7% and 35.2% of the ALDH2*1/*1 and ALDH2*1/*2 carriers, respectively. After a 1-2-year delay in the onset of habitual drinking in the former-/current-flushing group, no differences in the ages of the aforementioned drinking milestones were found according to the flushing status. CONCLUSION: The ADH1B*1/*1 and ALDH2*1/*1 accelerated the development of drinking events and withdrawal symptoms in Japanese AD patients. ICD-10 score was larger in the ADH1B*1/*1 group and ALDH2*1/*2 group. The effects of alcohol flushing on drinking events were limited.


Assuntos
Álcool Desidrogenase , Alcoolismo , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial , Aldeído Desidrogenase , Rubor , Genótipo , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Humanos , Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Masculino , Alcoolismo/genética , Adulto , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/genética , Rubor/genética , Rubor/induzido quimicamente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aldeído Desidrogenase/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Povo Asiático/genética , Japão/epidemiologia , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , População do Leste Asiático
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), first reported in December 2019, spread worldwide in a short period, resulting in numerous cases and associated deaths; however, the toll was relatively low in East Asia. A genetic polymorphism unique to East Asians, Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 rs671, has been reported to confer protection against infections. METHOD: We retrospectively investigated the association between the surrogate marker of the rs671 variant, the skin flushing phenomenon after alcohol consumption, and the timing of COVID-19 incidence using a web-based survey tool to test any protective effects of rs671 against COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 807 valid responses were received from 362 non-flushers and 445 flushers. During the 42 months, from 12/1/2019 to 5/31/2023, 40.6% of non-flushers and 35.7% of flushers experienced COVID-19. Flushers tended to have a later onset (Spearman's partial rank correlation test, p = 0.057, adjusted for sex and age). Similarly, 2.5% of non-flushers and 0.5% of flushers were hospitalized because of COVID-19. Survival analysis estimated lower risks of COVID-19 and associated hospitalization among flushers (p = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively; generalized Wilcoxon test). With the Cox proportional hazards model covering 21 months till 8/31/2021, when approximately half of the Japanese population had received two doses of COVID-19 vaccine, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of COVID-19 incidence was estimated to be 0.21 (0.10-0.46) for flusher versus non-flusher, with adjustment for sex, age, steroid use, and area of residence. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests an association between the flushing phenomenon after drinking and a decreased risk of COVID-19 morbidity and hospitalization, suggesting that the rs671 variant is a protective factor. This study provides valuable information for infection control and helps understand the unique constitutional diversity of East Asians.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , COVID-19 , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Rubor/epidemiologia , Rubor/genética , Internet , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética
11.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1939, 2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431681

RESUMO

The Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2), also known as the niacin receptor or GPR109A, is a prototypical GPCR that plays a central role in the inhibition of lipolytic and atherogenic activities. Its activation also results in vasodilation that is linked to the side-effect of flushing associated with dyslipidemia drugs such as niacin. GPR109A continues to be a target for developing potential therapeutics in dyslipidemia with minimized flushing response. Here, we present cryo-EM structures of the GPR109A in complex with dyslipidemia drugs, niacin or acipimox, non-flushing agonists, MK6892 or GSK256073, and recently approved psoriasis drug, monomethyl fumarate (MMF). These structures elucidate the binding mechanism of agonists, molecular basis of receptor activation, and insights into biased signaling elicited by some of the agonists. The structural framework also allows us to engineer receptor mutants that exhibit G-protein signaling bias, and therefore, our study may help in structure-guided drug discovery efforts targeting this receptor.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias , Niacina , Receptores Nicotínicos , Humanos , Niacina/farmacologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Rubor , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo
12.
J Crit Care ; 81: 154545, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38395004

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Harlequin syndrome may occur in patients treated with venoarterial extracorporal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO), in whom blood from the left ventricle and the ECMO system supply different parts of the body with different paCO2-levels. The purpose of this study was to compare two variants of paCO2-analysis to account for the Harlequin syndrome during apnea testing (AT) in brain death (BD) determination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven patients (median age 48 years, 26-76 years; male n = 19) with VA-ECMO treatment were included who underwent BD determination. In variant 1, simultaneous arterial blood gas (ABG) samples were drawn from the right and the left radial artery. In variant 2, simultaneous ABG samples were drawn from the right radial artery and the postoxygenator ECMO circuit. Differences in paCO2-levels were analysed for both variants. RESULTS: At the start of AT, median paCO2-difference between right and left radial artery (variant 1) was 0.90 mmHg (95%-confidence intervall [CI]: 0.7-1.3 mmHg). Median paCO2-difference between right radial artery and postoxygenator ECMO circuit (variant 2) was 3.3 mmHg (95%-CI: 1.5-6.0 mmHg) and thereby significantly higher compared to variant 1 (p = 0.001). At the end of AT, paCO2-difference according to variant 1 remained unchanged with 1.1 mmHg (95%-CI: 0.9-1.8 mmHg). In contrast, paCO2-difference according to variant 2 increased to 9.9 mmHg (95%-CI: 3.5-19.2 mmHg; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous paCO2-analysis from right and left distal arterial lines is the method of choice to reduce the risk of adverse effects (e.g. severe respiratory acidosis) while performing AT in VA-ECMO patients during BD determination.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Rubor , Hipo-Hidrose , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Morte Encefálica , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono
13.
Dermatol Surg ; 50(4): 354-359, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flushing is a common dermatologic complaint and can be resistant to many treatments. As the utility of botulinum toxin continues to expand, recent data suggest that it may also be a therapeutic option for flushing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of cutaneous flushing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of Medline, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science databases was conducted to identify studies evaluating the effect of botulinum toxin on flushing 1 month after treatment. Prespecified outcome measures included a clinical flushing score, dermatology life quality index (DLQI), and erythema index (EI). Meta-analysis was performed to calculate the mean differences in these outcomes before and after treatment at 1-month follow-up. RESULTS: Nine studies (132 patients) were included in the analysis of this study (2 randomized controlled trials and 7 nonrandomized studies). All studies had a low risk of bias (high quality). The most frequent outcome reported was a clinical flushing score, which significantly decreased by 1.25 points overall (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.47; -0.04) 1 month after treatment with botulinum toxin. Mean DLQI scores decreased (i.e., improved) by 9.02 points (95% CI: -19.81; 1.77) 1 month after botulinum toxin injections. The EI (measured by Mexameter) before and after botulinum toxin was evaluated in 2 studies; however, not enough statistical information was provided to analyze with meta-analytic techniques. CONCLUSION: Based on this meta-analysis, botulinum toxin significantly improves clinical flushing scores 1 month after treatment.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Fármacos Neuromusculares , Humanos , Administração Cutânea , Eritema/tratamento farmacológico , Rubor/induzido quimicamente , Fármacos Neuromusculares/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
J Invest Dermatol ; 144(5): 934-935, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38099889
18.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 815, 2023 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37940887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differences in the niacin skin flushing response of adolescent depressed patients and healthy adolescents and its diagnostic value in adolescent depression. METHODS: Thirty-eight cases of acute episodes of depression in unmedicated adolescents and 47 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included as study subjects, and sociodemographic and clinical data were collected, all of which were stimulated with six concentration gradients (up to 60 mmol/L, followed by sequential 3-fold gradient dilution to a minimum of 0.25 mmol/L) of niacin solution on the forearm skin, and the skin flushing area was applied as an assessment index. RESULTS: The total area of redness of the skin in response to niacin was significantly lower in the adolescent depression group than in the healthy adolescent group (Z=-3.36, p = 0.001) and was able to distinguish the adolescent depression group from the healthy adolescent group (area under curve = 0.713, sensitivity 51.1%, specificity 83.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Niacin sensitivity is reduced in adolescent depressed patients, and the niacin skin flush response has potential clinical value as a diagnostic biomarker for adolescent depression.


Assuntos
Niacina , Humanos , Adolescente , Depressão/diagnóstico , Rubor/diagnóstico , Pele
20.
BMC Genomics ; 24(1): 638, 2023 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37875790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although it is known that variation in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene family influences the East Asian alcohol flushing response, knowledge about other genetic variants that affect flushing symptoms is limited. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis and heritability analysis of alcohol flushing in 15,105 males of East Asian ancestry (Koreans and Chinese) to identify genetic associations with alcohol flushing. We also evaluated whether self-reported flushing can be used as an instrumental variable for alcohol intake. RESULTS: We identified variants in the region of ALDH2 strongly associated with alcohol flushing, replicating previous studies conducted in East Asian populations. Additionally, we identified variants in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) gene region associated with alcohol flushing. Several novel variants were identified after adjustment for the lead variants (ALDH2-rs671 and ADH1B-rs1229984), which need to be confirmed in larger studies. The estimated SNP-heritability on the liability scale was 13% (S.E. = 4%) for flushing, but the heritability estimate decreased to 6% (S.E. = 4%) when the effects of the lead variants were controlled for. Genetic instrumentation of higher alcohol intake using these variants recapitulated known associations of alcohol intake with hypertension. Using self-reported alcohol flushing as an instrument gave a similar association pattern of higher alcohol intake and cardiovascular disease-related traits (e.g. stroke). CONCLUSION: This study confirms that ALDH2-rs671 and ADH1B-rs1229984 are associated with alcohol flushing in East Asian populations. Our findings also suggest that self-reported alcohol flushing can be used as an instrumental variable in future studies of alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , População do Leste Asiático , Rubor , Humanos , Masculino , Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , População do Leste Asiático/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Rubor/induzido quimicamente
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