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2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(42): 12494-12504, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664500

RESUMO

Zanthoxylum ailanthoides is a traditional spice crop in Taiwan with unique smells and tastes that differ between prickly (young) and nonprickly (mature) leaves. Different volatile terpenes between prickly young and nonprickly mature leaves were identified and considered to be one of the sources of their aromas. A transcriptome database was established to explore the biosynthesis of these compounds, and candidate terpene synthase genes were identified. The functions of these synthases were investigated using recombinant protein reactions in both purification and coexpression assays. ZaTPS1, ZaTPS2, and ZaTPS3 are germacrene D synthases, with different amino acid sequences. The main products of ZaTPS4 are trans-α-bergamotene and (E)-ß-farnesene, whereas ZaTPS5 forms multiple products, and ZaTPS6 produces ß-caryophyllene. ZaTPS7 forms monoterpene (E)-ß-ocimene and sesquiterpene (E,E)-α-farnesene. Reverse transcription PCR of ZaTPS gene expression in young and mature leaves revealed that ZaTPS1 was responsible for the mellow aroma in mature leaves. The expression of ZaTPS6 suggested that it plays a role in the background aromas of both types of leaves. Our findings deepened the understanding of the volatile compounds of Z. ailanthoides and revealed the source of its unique aromas by clarifying the biosynthesis of these compounds.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases , Sesquiterpenos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Zanthoxylum , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Folclore , Odorantes , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Taiwan , Terpenos/análise
3.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 15(1): 78-86, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465412

RESUMO

Globally, disasters appear to be growing in frequency, intensity and cost. While national governments provide varying levels of assistance to affected populations and regions, are local agencies doing what they can to prepare for the next disaster? This article discusses what can be done, sometimes at minimal cost, to be better prepared to recover economically from the next disaster.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Folclore , Ouro
4.
Geriatr Nurs ; 42(5): 1156-1163, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419868

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to develop a simultaneous cognitive-physical dual-task training program based on familiar cultural backgrounds using fairy tales and to explore its feasibility and preliminary effects, including effects on neurophysiological, cognitive, and physical functions. A single-group pretest-posttest design (n = 9) was employed to evaluate the effects of the cognitive-physical intervention performed for 60-90 min once a week for 12 weeks. The findings showed that perceived memory and physical self-efficacy, muscle strength, and cognitive function were significantly increased after the intervention. Although the relative beta band power measured using electroencephalography showed a tendency to increase in eight brain domains after the 12-week intervention, the changes were not significant. Findings suggested that the intervention was feasible and provided beneficial effects on cognitive and physical functions in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Future research on larger sample sizes using randomized controlled trials is needed to determine the effectiveness of such interventions on neurophysiological functions.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Folclore , Idoso , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
5.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246404, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571219

RESUMO

In the age of network, network culture is gestated, and the emergence of security issues makes the governance of network culture put on the agenda. In order to explore ways to protect and inherit folk art and culture, This article mainly uses the mathematical model established by the principal component analysis method and the multiple regression method to analyze the current folk arts such as the lack of professional talents and other problems faced by the current folk arts. From the perspective of network cultural governance Analyze the number of audiences, etc., and reflect the inadequacy of the inheritance and protection of folk art and culture through the model, Therefore, it is proposed to cultivate compound talents, build cultural brands, and build a "gatekeeper" defense line. While creating a clear cyberspace, it can achieve better protection and inheritance of folk art and culture.


Assuntos
Arte , Folclore , Cultura , Humanos , Internet , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise de Regressão
7.
Work ; 68(1): 235-241, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musicians and dancers can be considered an at-risk population for developing noise-induced hearing loss. OBJECTIVES: To determine the audiological profile of members of a folklore-related music group and quantify noise exposure at their rehearsal venue. METHODS: This was a quantitative and descriptive study. The musicians and dancers were evaluated in two stages: an interview about their working life, followed by high frequency tonal audiometry. The sound pressure level in the group's rehearsal venue was measured using a BEK 2270 Noise Analyzer. RESULTS: A total of 7.2% of the subjects had noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and 39% of the audiometric tests were notch type. During the interview 31.7% of the subjects mentioned discomfort from loud noise, although none of them used ear protection. The environmental assessment showed inadequate humidity and oscillating temperature. Twenty sound pressure level measurements were performed for Leq (equivalent sound pressure levels) and the results ranged from 88 dB (A) to 99 dB (A) with a mean of 97.05. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to high levels of sound pressure has led to NIHL in some members of the group. Some of those with normal hearing also presented a notch configuration characteristic of NIHL. Tinnitus, indicating that a change in hearing has occurred, was the most frequent auditory symptom.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Música , Ruído Ocupacional , Doenças Profissionais , Brasil , Folclore , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/etiologia , Humanos , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
8.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0243151, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439877

RESUMO

The current study describes ethnobotanical (EB) and traditional ethnomedicinal (TEMs) uses of medicinal plants (MPs) of Tehsil Samahni area of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Indigenous inhabitants of the area mostly reside in remote mountainous areas and depend on wild plants for life necessities and treatment of different diseases. This paper presents first quantitative ethnobotanical study describing the popularity level of MPs in indigenous communities by using relative popularity level (RPL) and rank order of priority (ROP) indices. The data of TEMs and EB uses were collected from 200 interviewees consisting of traditional herbal practioners (110) and farmers (90) from study area using structured and semi-structured interview methodology during year 2019. It was found that illiterate peasants have more knowledge and practice of TEMs than other people. A total of 150 plant species belonging to 58 families with botanical and local names, parts used, mode of recipes preparation, administration mechanism and TEMs uses were documented in systematic manner. It was explored that highest number (7.69%) of plants of Moraceae were used in TEMs and followed by species of Asteraceae (6.29%). The ethnobotanical data was analyzed by using quantitative ethnobotanical tools viz: informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), relative frequency of citation (RFC), use value index (UVI), relative importance of plants (RIP), relative populatiry level (RPL) and rank order of popularity (ROP). The leaf ranked first (36.49%) and fruit 2nd (12.07%) being used in TEMs while prevalent use-form was decoction (29.28%), followed by tea (23.05%) and preferably taken as oral (46.66%). ICF analysis proved that diabetes, hypertension, rabies, snake sting and joint pains were the most prevalent occurring infirmities. The highest RFC (0.95) was found for Acacia modesta, followed by Boerhavia procumbens (RFC:0.87) and Berberis lycium (RFC:0.85). The relative importance of MPs was calculated by using UVI and Moringa oleifera showed highest (1.38), followed by Zanthoxylum armatum (1.25) and Withania somnifera (1.24) use-values. High UVI of plants depicts that these species are predominantly used in local health care system. The plants Phyllanthus emblica, Morus macruora, Justicia adhatoda and Melia azedarach depicted high values (1.00) of FL and RPL proving that these taxa are commonly used in indigenous medicines by local inhabitants and have better potential for drug discovery by ethnopharmacological analysis. Out of total, 26 species had more than 50% ROP index and Phyllanthus emblica and Flacourtia indica (ROP = 100) followed by Morus macruora (ROP: 97) were used to cure 'hypertension and hyperlipidemia' and 'cough, chest infection', respectively. It was found that 30% of total species were previously reported as medicinal while 70% plants were first time reported to be used in TEMs and authenticated by using of quantitative ethnobotanical tools. Ethnopharmacological potential of indigenous plants was confirmed by RIP and RPL indices which had been used to cure one or more body systems and were promulgated in the local herbal medicine system. The research provides clues to screen these plant species by using latest phytochemical and pharmacological analysis for novel drug discovery. This study will also be useful for conservation of bioculture traditional knowledge of indigenous communities and the most important is to conserve medicinal plants of the study area for future generations.


Assuntos
Folclore , Medicina Tradicional , Plantas Medicinais , População Rural , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 267: 113634, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246113

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The conventional naturopaths of Punjab Province (Pakistan) have trivial usage of Anagallis arvensis Linn.(Primulaceae) for cure of diarrhea, constipation, asthma as well as hypertension. AIM: Present research was focused to discover comprehensive mechanism of spasmogenic, spasmolytic, bronchorelaxant and hypotensive folkloric usage of Anagallis arvensis Linn.. METHODOLOGY: The crude extract of Anagallis arvensis Linn. (Aa.Cr) & its (aqueous & organic) portions tested in-vitro on isolated jejunum, ileum, trachea, aorta, paired atria preparations as well as in-vivo in mice & normotensive anaesthetized rats. The responses have been noted by transducers (isotonic & isometric) coupled to Power Lab. RESULT: Anagallis arvensis Linn. (Aa.Cr; crude aqueous-alcoholic extract) produced contractile action at low concentrations but relaxant action was observed by increasing concentrations on spontaneous contractions of isolated jejunum of rabbit. But, pre-treatment of tissue with atropine prior extract caused suppression of contractile effect indicating presence of cholinergic muscarinic response of Aa.Cr. It also triggered relaxation of high Potassium -stimulated contractions of jejunum with subsequent non-parallel right move in Ca++ CRCs. Moreover, Aa.Cr relaxed carbachol - & high Potassium - stimulated contractions in trachea of rabbit but observed relaxant effect was powerful against CCh (1 µM)- stimulated contractions with rightside parallel move of CCh-curves succeeded by non-parallel move, like Dicyclomine, having dual activities. The Aa.Cr also showed relaxant result on Phenylephrine and High Potassium -prompted contractions in endothelium intact aorta. The fractionation revealed segregations of contractile & relaxant effects in relevant aqueous & organic portions. The Intravenous administration of Aa.Cr to ketamine-diazepam anaesthetized normo-tensive albino rats resulted in decreased MABP, SBP & DBP. The Aa.Cr applied negative (-) inotropic & chronotropic action on paired atria. The Aa.Cr also exhibited anti-diarrheal action in mice against castor oil prompted diarrhea and also mitigated distance covered by charcoal meal in gastrointestinal tract in a manner comparable with loperamide. CONCLUSION: These results revealed presence of CCB and selective muscarinic agonist activity in Aa.Cr, hence validating folkloric practice of Anagallis arvensis Linn. in diarrhea, constipation, asthma & hypertension.


Assuntos
Anagallis , Broncodilatadores/farmacologia , Folclore , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Parassimpatolíticos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Anagallis/química , Animais , Broncodilatadores/isolamento & purificação , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Agonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Paquistão , Parassimpatolíticos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Coelhos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/isolamento & purificação
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 267: 113200, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750461

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The full bibliometric records of data retrieved from ethnobotanical field studies carried out in Morocco (1991-2015) was quali-quantitatively analysed. Despite the importance of traditional medicinal uses in Morocco, any comments about the methodologies and approaches adopted by reviewed studies have been undertaken. Include more data about the importance of traditional medicinal uses in Morocco. AIM OF THE STUDY: Three key points were targeted in this review: (i) to contribute to original compilation of medicinal plants traditionally used by people at whole Morocco, by gathering and documenting the current status of these ancestral medical practices, (ii) to provide a novel insight into the relationship between local and biomedical disease concepts in Moroccan society, taking into account health-related beliefs, and their influences on medicinal plant uses, (iii) to figurout the weaknesses and the strengths of the conceptual approches and methods adopted by researchers in ethnobotanical field works. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With the help of a computerized database querying, we conducted an extensive literature search respecting our integration criteria. We performed this bibliographic research by using the following search engines available over the Web: Google Scholar, PUBMED, Sciencedirect, Current Content Connect, SCOPUS, SPRINGER LINK, GLOBAL PLANTS, Cochrane Library and SCIRUS. The scientific names listed in the present paper have been validated according to the "The Plant List" and the African Plants Database in order to standardize ethnobotanical data on an international level. For the analysis of data gathered, quali-quantitative analyses have been performed. RESULTS: A total of 905 medicinal plant species belonging to 116 families and 726 genera have been selected from 63 published articles. The dominant families were ASTERACEAE (111 species) followed by the FABACEAE (77 species), LAMIACEAE (75 species) and APIACEAE (46 species). The plant species listed are used to cure several public ailments. The digestive ailments represented the most important category (494 species) followed by dermatological diseases (407 species), diabetes (315 species) and urinary diseases (277 species). We assigned the importance of the plant species by several measures (including Frequency Cited (FC), Number of Uses (NU), Number of Respondents (NR) and Index of Performance (IP). The ICF (Informant Consensus Factor) calculated was important in all categories of diseases averaging 47%. CONCLUSION: The results obtained, which cover the whole country, delineate the profile of rich wealth of indigenous knowledge on traditional uses of medicinal plants heald by Moroccan society. The total number of 905 plant species listed in this paper, are currently being utilized as medicines and the number is expected to grow as infrastructure allows greater access to unexplored parts of the country. Furthermore, the know how, regarding the plants used, is consistent because the ICF has recorded important values for most diseases treated. Furthermore, in the present paper, we suggested, for authors, some useful recommendations for ethnobotanical field works such as the respect of ethnobotanical standards including checklist of plants with international data base, the deposited voucher specimens, sampling and collection methods.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Animais , Folclore , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Marrocos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/classificação
12.
Med J Aust ; 213(11): 525, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314110
13.
Menopause ; 27(12): 1444-1445, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109994
14.
Menopause ; 27(12): 1444, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109995
15.
Violence Against Women ; 26(14): 1817-1822, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869734

RESUMO

The poems selected here explore the hidden side of some of the most popular fairy tales. Girls become women guided by myths that define their passive role, their submission to violent behavior by men in their lives, be they fathers, husbands, or lovers. These poems look at a girl's fantasies from a different perspective: that a woman's life becomes the work of demystifying the myths that dominated her childhood to create a newly informed and subversive version of the myth.


Assuntos
Folclore , Papel de Gênero , Violência de Gênero , Aprendizagem , Mitologia , Poder Psicológico , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poesia como Assunto , Violência , Mulheres
16.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 16(1): 49, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859227

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Southernwood, Artemisia abrotanum L., is a plant that has been cultivated for centuries. Most probable is that it has its origin in the eastern Mediterranean area. It has been kept for its fragrance and has a history of being a medicinal and insect-repellent plant. In earlier centuries, the plant was commonly found in peasants' gardens in Sweden and utilised especially as a component in the bouquets brought to church by women. The aim of this article is to bring together data about Artemisia abrotanum and to summarise its cultural history and folk botanical importance. In Sweden, it is still grown in some gardens in the countryside and is esteemed for its fragrance. METHODS: In the early twentieth century, various folklore archives in Sweden (Lund, Uppsala) distributed questionnaires about the use of church bouquets. These records provided interesting information about the importance of southernwood and other species. We have also used data found in ethnographic records and local historical reports. Between 2007 and 2017, a nationwide inventory organised by the Programme for Diversity of Cultivated Plants (POM) documented and gathered several heirloom varieties of southernwood. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Together with a few other domestic plants of foreign origin (e.g. Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Tanacetum balsamita L., and Tanacetum vulgare L.), Artemisia abrotanum has been cultivated throughout Sweden in peasants' gardens as a medicinal plant and for its fragrance. According to the sources, Artemisia abrotanum was one of the most common species cultivated by the Swedish peasantry. Although used in folk medicine and to some extent as a repellent, it was most esteemed for its fragrance. Peasant women would carry a twig of the plant in the obligatory church bouquet or in the hymnal when attending the services in the Lutheran church on Sundays. In Sweden, this custom with the church bouquet has been known since the time of the Reformation in the sixteenth century and survived until the late nineteenth century, when major changes took place in connection with industrialisation, modernisation, secularisation and urbanisation. Although the custom with the church bouquet disappeared, nationwide inventories conducted by the Programme for Diversity of Cultivated Plants in 2007-2015 revealed that the plant still exists in many gardens on the countryside throughout Sweden as a cultural relict and reminiscence plants. People care for the plant, have sentiments for it and it is spread from person-to-person. Several heirloom varieties have been discovered, which will be preserved ex situ for the future. CONCLUSIONS: Southernwood was probably the most commonly used herb in the peasant women's church bouquet until the end of the nineteenth century. It had a satisfying fragrance and was easy to grow. Although the custom has disappeared, the plant has survived until the present day in many gardens as a reminiscence of the custom of former times.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Etnobotânica/história , Feminino , Folclore , Jardins , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Repelentes de Insetos , Odorantes , Religião , Suécia
20.
Ir J Med Sci ; 189(2): 627-631, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A considerable amount of research has been put into the explanation of the origin of the vampire myth by focussing on possible symptoms of the vampire; however, very little attention has been given to the victims. AIMS: To elucidate whether the myth of vampire victims follows the course of disease of acute leukaemia. METHOD: We studied three classical vampire novels published 1819-1897, focusing on 8 victims and their symptoms. The novels were chosen based on their iconic status in classic vampire literature, which defined the vampire genre and the symptoms of the victims for many years. The symptoms and course of disease following vampire attacks described in these novels were then compared with symptoms commonly seen in untreated acute leukaemia and other contemporary disorders. RESULTS: The earliest novel (1819) did not provide a sufficient description of any symptoms in detail; however, the later novels (1872 and 1897) both provided elaborate portrayals of symptoms and course of the disease. The patients studied were all factitious-explaining the variation in symptoms; however, they share common features. One case, a young woman named Lucy Westenra, described by Bram Stoker, 1897, mirrors a textbook example of an acute leukaemia patient-despite being described before the time of common acknowledgment of the diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Victims in the gothic vampire novels from the nineteenth century could very likely be inspired by real-life acute leukaemia patients.


Assuntos
Folclore , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Automatismo/história , Feminino , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina na Literatura , Mitologia
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