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1.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611898

RESUMO

Biofuels are clean and renewable energy resources gaining increased attention as a potential replacement for non-renewable petroleum-based fuels. They are derived from biomass that could either be animal-based or belong to any of the three generations of plant biomass (agricultural crops, lignocellulosic materials, or algae). Over 130 studies including experimental research, case studies, literature reviews, and website publications related to bioethanol production were evaluated; different methods and techniques have been tested by scientists and researchers in this field, and the most optimal conditions have been adopted for the generation of biofuels from biomass. This has ultimately led to a subsequent scale-up of procedures and the establishment of pilot, demo, and large-scale plants/biorefineries in some regions of the world. Nevertheless, there are still challenges associated with the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, such as recalcitrance of the cell wall, multiple pretreatment steps, prolonged hydrolysis time, degradation product formation, cost, etc., which have impeded the implementation of its large-scale production, which needs to be addressed. This review gives an overview of biomass and bioenergy, the structure and composition of lignocellulosic biomass, biofuel classification, bioethanol as an energy source, bioethanol production processes, different pretreatment and hydrolysis techniques, inhibitory product formation, fermentation strategies/process, the microorganisms used for fermentation, distillation, legislation in support of advanced biofuel, and industrial projects on advanced bioethanol. The ultimate objective is still to find the best conditions and technology possible to sustainably and inexpensively produce a high bioethanol yield.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Animais , Biomassa , Parede Celular , Produtos Agrícolas
2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(11): 5014-5023, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437169

RESUMO

Estimates of the land area occupied by wind energy differ by orders of magnitude due to data scarcity and inconsistent methodology. We developed a method that combines machine learning-based imagery analysis and geographic information systems and examined the land area of 318 wind farms (15,871 turbines) in the U.S. portion of the Western Interconnection. We found that prior land use and human modification in the project area are critical for land-use efficiency and land transformation of wind projects. Projects developed in areas with little human modification have a land-use efficiency of 63.8 ± 8.9 W/m2 (mean ±95% confidence interval) and a land transformation of 0.24 ± 0.07 m2/MWh, while values for projects in areas with high human modification are 447 ± 49.4 W/m2 and 0.05 ± 0.01 m2/MWh, respectively. We show that land resources for wind can be quantified consistently with our replicable method, a method that obviates >99% of the workload using machine learning. To quantify the peripheral impact of a turbine, buffered geometry can be used as a proxy for measuring land resources and metrics when a large enough impact radius is assumed (e.g., >4 times the rotor diameter). Our analysis provides a necessary first step toward regionalized impact assessment and improved comparisons of energy alternatives.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Humanos , Fazendas , Fenômenos Físicos
3.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120685, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552519

RESUMO

Fisheries social-ecological systems (SES) in the North Sea region confront multifaceted challenges stemming from environmental changes, offshore wind farm expansion, and marine protected area establishment. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of a Bayesian Belief Network (BN) approach in comprehensively capturing and assessing the intricate spatial dynamics within the German plaice-related fisheries SES. The BN integrates ecological, economic, and socio-cultural factors to generate high-resolution maps of profitability and adaptive capacity potential (ACP) as prospective management targets. Our analysis of future scenarios, delineating changes in spatial constraints, economics, and socio-cultural aspects, identifies factors that will exert significant influence on this fisheries SES in the near future. These include the loss of fishing grounds due to the installation of offshore wind farms and marine protected areas, as well as reduced plaice landings due to climate change. The identified ACP hotspots hold the potential to guide the development of localized management strategies and sustainable planning efforts by highlighting the consequences of management decisions. Our findings emphasize the need to consider detailed spatial dynamics of fisheries SES within marine spatial planning (MSP) and illustrate how this information may assist decision-makers and practitioners in area prioritization. We, therefore, propose adopting the concept of fisheries SES within broader integrated management approaches to foster sustainable development of inherently dynamic SES in a rapidly evolving marine environment.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Linguado , Animais , Mar do Norte , Estudos Prospectivos , Teorema de Bayes , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Vento , Ecossistema
4.
Sci Prog ; 107(1): 368504241231157, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373435

RESUMO

The aerial habitat occupies an enormous three-dimensional space around Earth and is inhabited by trillions of animals. Humans have been encroaching on the aerial habitat since the time of the pyramids, but the last century ushered in unprecedented threats to aerial wildlife. Skyscrapers, jet-age transportation and recently huge wind turbines kill millions of flying animals annually and despite substantial efforts, our detection and mitigation capabilities are lagging far behind. Given the situation, our readiness to handle the impact of millions of drones buzzing through the sky carrying batteries, payloads and soon also people, is questionable at best. In radar aero-ecology, radars are used to document and analyse animal movement high above the ground, opening a hatch to ecological processes in the aerial habitat. Differentiating bats from birds, a simple task at ground level, was impossible aloft, which limited our ability to study and characterise high-altitude bat behaviour. Many high-altitude infrastructure developments around the world were thus planned and executed with no regard to possible impacts on bats and caused millions of bat fatalities. BATScan, the first automatic bat identifier for radar, demonstrates how artificial intelligence can be implemented together with ecological insight to solve basic scientific questions and minimise negative human impact on natural habitats. We demonstrate a facet of the complexity of bat aero-ecology using the Israeli BATScan database and substantiate the claim that activities taken by the wind energy industry to minimise bat mortality may prove limited and leave bats unprotected. We further discuss upcoming challenges in the face of a forthcoming transportation revolution that will change the human-aerial wildlife conflict from a conservation concern to a major human safety issue.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Quirópteros , Animais , Humanos , Inteligência Artificial , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Ecossistema
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(15): 22441-22452, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407705

RESUMO

The present study quantifies the environmental and sustainability impacts associated with municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in India which plays a vital environmental issue in recent times. The upsurge in population has resulted in massive waste generation, leading to a concerning rise in the level of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, the sustainable management of MSW has been discussed and highlights the conversion of MSW into refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to identify its potential for generating electricity in waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The life cycle assessment (LCA) study has been done to identify and compare the environmental impacts associated with different scenarios (SC) as SC1: landfilling without energy recovery, SC2: open burning and SC3: processing of RDF in WtE plant by considering the nine impact categories from the inventory data obtained over a period of 12 consecutive months (Jan 2021-Jan 2022). The results exhibited that the global warming potential caused by emissions of GHG are in the order of SC1 (1188 kg CO2 eq) > SC2 (752 kg CO2 eq) > SC3 (332 kg CO2 eq), respectively from 1 t of MSW. It is concluded that the WtE plant can help in the reduction of environmental issues, strengthening the capacity of electricity generation and improving the aesthetic view of the city which is socially acceptable as well. Thus, WtE technology can help in achieving sustainable development goal 12 to regenerate the sustainable secondary resources for the twenty-first century and minimize global climate change.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Fontes Geradoras de Energia
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(13): 19423-19438, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358634

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is twofold: analyzing stationarity of energy consumption by source in the United States and studying their cycles and pairwise synchronization. We study a panel of nine time series of monthly energy consumption for the period 1973-2022. Four of the series (namely coal, natural gas, petroleum, and nuclear electric power consumption) are non-renewables, whereas the remaining ones (hydroelectric power, geothermal, biomass, solar, and wind energy consumption) are renewable energy sources. We employ a nonparametric, panel stationarity testing approach. The results indicate that most of the series may be trend-stationarity, with nuclear and geothermal energy consumption being the only exceptions. Additionally, a study on potential cycles in the series of energy consumption by source is carried out, and subsequently we analyze pairwise concordance between states of different energy sources and between states of energy sources and the business cycle. Significant correlations are detected in the latter analysis, which are positive in the case of fossil fuel sources and negative for two renewable sources, namely geothermal and biomass energy consumption.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Energia Geotérmica , Estados Unidos , Vento , Gás Natural , Eletricidade , Energia Renovável , Dióxido de Carbono/análise
8.
J Environ Manage ; 351: 119821, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38169265

RESUMO

Offshore wind development is in its nascent stages in the United States. Recent research indicates that the visual impacts of offshore wind farms are viewed negatively by the general population. This North Carolina application is the first US-focused discrete choice experiment that explicitly asks respondents to consider the positive local and global benefits from offshore wind development, such as job creation and greenhouse gas emission reductions, simultaneously with their visual impacts. We find significant willingness to pay (WTP) for reducing the visual impacts of offshore wind farms, and that the extent of disamenity varies in the population and with placement along developed tourist towns (as much as $783/year for three years) or preserved coastlines (as much as $451/year for three years). We also find that some preference classes value projects that create permanent jobs and reduce carbon emissions. We use our estimates of preferences for the positive and negative attributes to explore specific wind farm configurations and locations that could achieve positive consensus in a heterogenous population.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Humanos , Estados Unidos , North Carolina , Fazendas
9.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0296988, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38285650

RESUMO

The enhancement of energy efficiency in a distribution network can be attained through the adding of energy storage systems (ESSs). The strategic placement and appropriate sizing of these systems have the potential to significantly enhance the overall performance of the network. An appropriately dimensioned and strategically located energy storage system has the potential to effectively address peak energy demand, optimize the addition of renewable and distributed energy sources, assist in managing the power quality and reduce the expenses associated with expanding distribution networks. This study proposes an efficient approach utilizing the Dandelion Optimizer (DO) to find the optimal placement and sizing of ESSs in a distribution network. The goal is to reduce the overall annual cost of the system, which includes expenses related to power losses, voltage deviation, and peak load damand. The methods outlined in this study is implemented on the IEEE 33 bus distribution system. The outcomes obtained from the proposed DO are contrasted with those of the original system so as to illustrate the impact of ESSs location on both the overall cost and voltage profile. Furthermore, a comparison is made between the outcomes of the Ant Lion Optimizer (ALO) and the intended Design of Experiment DO, revealing that the DO has obtained greater savings in comparison to the ALO. The recommended methodology's simplicity and efficacy in resolving the researched optimization issue make the acquired locations and sizes of ESSs favorable for implementation within the system.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Taraxacum , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Renda , Fenômenos Físicos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(2)2024 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38279357

RESUMO

The storage and transfer of energy require a safe technology to mitigate the global environmental issues resulting from the massive application of fossil fuels. Fuel cells have used hydrogen as a clean and efficient energy source. Nevertheless, the storage and transport of hydrogen have presented longstanding problems. Recently, liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHCs) have emerged as a solution to these issues. The hydrogen storage technique in LOHCs is more attractive than those of conventional energy storage systems like liquefaction, compression at high pressure, and methods of adsorption and absorption. The release and acceptance of hydrogen should be reversible by LOHC molecules following favourable reaction kinetics. LOHCs comprise liquid and semi-liquid organic compounds that are hydrogenated to store hydrogen. These hydrogenated molecules are stored and transported and finally dehydrogenated to release the required hydrogen for supplying energy. Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation are conducted catalytically for multiple cycles. This review elaborates on the characteristics of different LOHC molecules, based on their efficacy as energy generators. Additionally, different catalysts used for both hydrogenation and dehydrogenation are discussed.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Hidrogênio , Hidrogenação , Catálise , Adsorção
11.
J Environ Manage ; 352: 120034, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232588

RESUMO

Although the literature predominantly emphasises the crucial role of technological innovation in alleviating resource dependence, limited attention has been given to the pivotal role of capital in driving such innovation. As a critical factor in technological advancements and productivity enhancement, venture capital has a substantial function in the utilisation of resources and the development of sustainable energy sources. Drawing upon panel data from 30 provinces in China, this study explores how venture capital and resource dependence are interrelated. Our research reveals that venture capital effectively mitigates regional resource dependence by facilitating increased investment in innovation channels. However, the weakening of regional human resources mitigates venture capital's diminishing impacts on resource dependence. These findings provide valuable insights for countries seeking to reduce their dependence on natural resources and achieve long-term economic sustainability.


Assuntos
Investimentos em Saúde , Recursos Naturais , Humanos , China , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Invenções , Desenvolvimento Econômico
12.
J Environ Manage ; 352: 120070, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38266524

RESUMO

Wind power is one of the fastest growing renewable energy sectors and plays a focal role in the transition to a fossil fuel free society in Europe. Technological developments have enabled the construction of turbines within forested areas, which has raised concerns regarding the audio-visual impact on these landscapes. However, there is a paucity of research with regard to the role that forests may play in mitigating the negative impacts of wind farms. In this study, we created a simplified model for noise attenuation based on the ISO 9613-2 and Nord2000 noise models and a visibility model which both relates the audio-visual effect to forest stand structure and applied them in the GIS environment. Our findings suggest that forests can act as effective noise barriers, with the sound attenuation level dependent on the distance that sound travels through the forest, as well as the size and density of the trees. However, in the case of a high elevation sound source (such as wind turbines), the forest begins to act as a noise shield from a distance of between 500 and 1500 m, depending on the height of the forest and the land topography. While current noise models do not consider the impact of tree species, our visibility model accounts for tree size, density and species, as well as understorey and thinning. Our results indicate that spruce trees provide a better visual constraint whereas visibility distances within mature Calluna-type pine forests tend to be more extensive. Both models include variables that can be adjusted by forest management, thereby allowing integration with forest planning software. Overall, this study presents indicative methods for the evaluation of potential forest landscape shields, a concept that could have broad applications, including Landscape Value Trading.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Florestas , Árvores , Ruído
13.
Environ Res ; 246: 118163, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38215929

RESUMO

The ecological transition in the transport sector is a major challenge to tackle environmental pollution, and European legislation will mandate zero-emission new cars from 2035. To reduce the impact of petrol and diesel vehicles, much emphasis is being placed on the potential use of synthetic fuels, including electrofuels (e-fuels). This research aims to examine a levelised cost (LCO) analysis of e-fuel production where the energy source is renewable. The energy used in the process is expected to come from a photovoltaic plant and the other steps required to produce e-fuel: direct air capture, electrolysis and Fischer-Tropsch process. The results showed that the LCOe-fuel in the baseline scenario is around 3.1 €/l, and this value is mainly influenced by the energy production component followed by the hydrogen one. Sensitivity, scenario and risk analyses are also conducted to evaluate alternative scenarios, and it emerges that in 84% of the cases, LCOe-fuel ranges between 2.8 €/l and 3.4 €/l. The findings show that the current cost is not competitive with fossil fuels, yet the development of e-fuels supports environmental protection. The concept of pragmatic sustainability, incentive policies, technology development, industrial symbiosis, economies of scale and learning economies can reduce this cost by supporting the decarbonization of the transport sector.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Hidrogênio , Combustíveis Fósseis , Automóveis , Custos e Análise de Custo
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 394: 130289, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38181997

RESUMO

This study explores the viability of utilizing municipal solid waste (MSW) and legacy waste as a renewable energy source through pyrolysis, akin to solid fuels. The heating value of MSW and legacy waste were found to be 37737.89 and 40432.84 kJ/kg, respectively. Proximate analysis shows that MSW fits within Tanner diagram parameters, eliminating the need for auxiliary fuel in pyrolysis. With 47.6 % and 44.16 % lignin content in MSW and legacy waste were deemed suitable for char production. Thermal degradation resulted in mass losses of 68 % for MSW and 82 % for legacy waste. The kinetic and thermodynamic assessment indicates lower activation energy (Ea) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG) for MSW (5.72 kJ/mol and 170.37 kJ/mol, respectively) compared to fossil fuels, suggesting faster reactions without additional energy requirement. MSW emerges as a promising alternative to fossil fuels, aligning with the United Nations' 2030 Sustainable Development Goals.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Resíduos Sólidos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Pirólise , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Energia Renovável , Combustíveis Fósseis/análise
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(7): 11037-11080, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38217814

RESUMO

The large use of renewable sources and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) would play a critical part in achieving a low-carbon energy source and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, which are the primary cause of global warming. On the other hand, predicting the instability and intermittent nature of wind and solar power output poses significant challenges. To reduce the unpredictable and random nature of renewable microgrids (MGs) and additional unreliable energy sources, a battery energy storage system (BESS) is connected to an MG system. The uncoordinated charging of PEVs offers further hurdles to the unit commitment (UC) required in contemporary MG management. The UC problem is an exceptionally difficult optimization problem due to the mixed-integer structure, large scale, and nonlinearity. It is further complicated by the multiple uncertainties associated with renewable sources, PEV charging and discharging, and electricity market pricing, in addition to the BESS degradation factor. Therefore, in this study, a new variant of mixed-integer particle swarm optimizer is introduced as a reliable optimization framework to handle the UC problem. This study considers six various case studies of UC problems, including uncertainties and battery degradation to validate the reliability and robustness of the proposed algorithm. Out of which, two case studies defined as a multiobjective problem, and it has been transformed into a single-objective model using different weight factors. The simulation findings demonstrate that the proposed approach and improved methodology for the UC problem are effective than its peers. Based on the average results, the economic consequences of numerous scenarios are thoroughly examined and contrasted, and some significant conclusions are presented.


Assuntos
Energia Solar , Vento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Energia Renovável
16.
Nature ; 625(7993): 85-91, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172362

RESUMO

The world's population increasingly relies on the ocean for food, energy production and global trade1-3, yet human activities at sea are not well quantified4,5. We combine satellite imagery, vessel GPS data and deep-learning models to map industrial vessel activities and offshore energy infrastructure across the world's coastal waters from 2017 to 2021. We find that 72-76% of the world's industrial fishing vessels are not publicly tracked, with much of that fishing taking place around South Asia, Southeast Asia and Africa. We also find that 21-30% of transport and energy vessel activity is missing from public tracking systems. Globally, fishing decreased by 12 ± 1% at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and had not recovered to pre-pandemic levels by 2021. By contrast, transport and energy vessel activities were relatively unaffected during the same period. Offshore wind is growing rapidly, with most wind turbines confined to small areas of the ocean but surpassing the number of oil structures in 2021. Our map of ocean industrialization reveals changes in some of the most extensive and economically important human activities at sea.


Assuntos
Atividades Humanas , Indústrias , Oceanos e Mares , Imagens de Satélites , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Mapeamento Geográfico , Atividades Humanas/economia , Atividades Humanas/estatística & dados numéricos , Caça/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústrias/economia , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Navios/estatística & dados numéricos , Vento
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 256(Pt 1): 128365, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38000615

RESUMO

The collection and storage of renewable, sustainable and clean energy including wind, solar, and tidal energy has attracted considerable attention because of its promising potential to replace fossil energy sources. Advanced energy-storage materials are the core component for energy harvesters, affording the high-efficiency conversion of these new-style energy sources. Herein, originated from nature, a series of all-wood-derived carbon-assisted phase change materials (PCMs) were purposed by incorporating carbon dots-modified polyethylene glycol matrix into carbon skeletons via a vacuum-impregnation strategy. The resultant PCMs possessed desired anti-leakage capability and superior thermophysical behaviors. In particular, the optimum sample posed high latent heat (131.5 J/g) and well thermal stability, where the corresponding enthalpy still reserved 90 % over 100 heating/cooling cycles. More importantly, the as-fabricated thermal-energy harvester presented prominent capability to strorage and release multiple forms of thermal energy, as well as high-efficiency solar-energy utilization, corresponding to a photothermal conversion efficiency of 88 % in simulated sunlight irradiation, far exceeding some reported PCMs. Overall, with the introduction of wood-derived carbon dots and carbon skeletons, the assembled all-wood-derived carbon-assisted PCMs afforded trinity advantages on thermal performance, cycling stability, and energy conversion efficiency, which provide a promising potential for the practical application in thermal-energy harvesters.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Madeira , Carbono , Temperatura Baixa , Fontes Geradoras de Energia
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(1): 1356-1367, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38036907

RESUMO

South Korea has legislated "2050 carbon neutrality" in 2021 and is currently implementing it, and debate is brewing over which to focus on as the main means of achieving it in the power generation sector: renewable energy (RE) or nuclear power (NP). This article aims to collect and analyze data on the public preference for RE versus NP. In a national survey of 1000 people, respondents were first asked which was preferred, RE or NP, and then asked to indicate the preference intensity along a 5-point scale. Of all the respondents, 60.3% preferred RE and 27.7% preferred NP. The preference for the former was about 2.2 times more than that for the latter. However, the intensity of the preference for NP was 1.3 times more than that for RE. Both the two-limit Tobit model and ordered probit model have been applied to analyzing the factors influencing the preference. The effects of some variables on the preference for RE over NP are explained, and implications from this are discussed. The findings can be used as a reference to determine the main means of implementation of carbon neutrality or to increase the public acceptance of the specified means.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Energia Renovável , Humanos , Condições Sociais , República da Coreia , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(1): 293-311, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38012490

RESUMO

This study is an attempt to comparatively analyze the impact of renewable energy sources on air quality represented by particulate matter 2.5 concentrations utilizing panel data of 60 countries which are divided into two sub-panels industrialized economies and emerging industrial economies over the period 2010-2019. The study adopts both demand- and supply-side approaches and hence renewable sources are handled in two different structures, i.e., renewable energy consumption and production. Empirical results from both demand- and supply-side regressions strongly confirm the positive impact of renewable sources on air quality in all country groups, meaning that higher renewable energy production and consumption bring about improvement in air quality. In addition, this positive impact of renewables on air quality turned out to be higher in emerging industrial economies than that in industrialized ones. To be more precise, as all control variables are considered, a 10% increase in the production of renewable energy sources brings about a 0.66% improvement in air quality in industrialized economies while its impact is a value of 1.33% in emerging industrial economies. On the other hand, a 10% increase in consumption of renewable energy sources leads to a 0.62% improvement in air quality in industrialized economies and a 1.97% improvement in emerging industrial economies. As for control variables, industrialization gives rise to an increase in air pollution in all country groups, whereas economic growth and trade openness function as favorable factors for air quality. Although population density improves air quality in industrialized economies, it is found as one of the main pollutant factors in emerging industrial economies. Overall results proved that renewable sources improve air quality by reducing particulate matter 2.5 concentrations. Therefore, these countries, especially emerging industrial economies, should replace primitive energy sources like fossil fuels with renewables to bring down environmental degradation up to a reasonable level and increasingly continue to invest in renewable energy domain to reach their environmental sustainability targets. The study also provides some additional policy implications.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Energia Renovável , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Material Particulado , Dióxido de Carbono/análise
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(1): 249-261, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38012499

RESUMO

Trade in environmental goods and financial development may harness factors such as green investment, technological development, and renewable energy production, which are crucial in reducing energy security risks by diversifying energy sources. However, not many empirics have shed light on the impact of digitalization, environmental trade, and financial development on energy security risks in top energy-consuming countries. To fill this vacuum, this study intends to investigate the influence of digitalization, environmental trade, and financial development on energy security risk in top energy-consuming countries from 2003 to 2021. The study employs the 2SLS and GMM estimates for empirical estimation of top energy-consuming developed and developing economies. The results show that ICT negatively affects energy security risks in developed economies. The findings of the analysis also suggest that environmental trade and financial development cause energy security risks to be reduced in both developed and developing economies. Likewise, the energy security risks in both developed and developing nations are mitigated by ICT, GDP, carbon emissions, and renewable energy production. In contrast, the energy security risks are escalated by the rise in natural resource rents. In order to fully capitalize on the potential advantages of these elements and eventually ensure a more sustainable and secure energy future, governments, businesses, and financial institutions must work together.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Energia Renovável , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Investimentos em Saúde
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