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1.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 23(2): e13311, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38445543

RESUMO

ß-Casein, an important protein found in bovine milk, has significant potential for application in the food, pharmaceutical, and other related industries. This review first introduces the composition, structure, and functional properties of ß-casein. It then reviews the techniques for isolating ß-casein. Chemical and enzymatic isolation methods result in inactivity of ß-casein and other components in the milk, and it is difficult to control the production conditions, limiting the utilization range of products. Physical technology not only achieves high product purity and activity but also effectively preserves the biological activity of the components. The isolated ß-casein needs to be utilized effectively and efficiently for various purity products in order to achieve optimal targeted application. Bovine ß-casein, which has a purity higher than or close to that of breast ß-casein, can be used in infant formulas. This is achieved by modifying its structure through dephosphorylation, resulting in a formula that closely mimics the composition of breast milk. Bovine ß-casein, which is lower in purity than breast ß-casein, can be maximized for the preparation of functional peptides and for use as natural carriers. The remaining byproducts can be utilized as food ingredients, emulsifiers, and carriers for encapsulating and delivering active substances. Thus, realizing the intensive processing and utilization of bovine ß-casein isolation. This review can promote the industrial production process of ß-casein, which is beneficial for the sustainable development of ß-casein as a food and material. It also provides valuable insights for the development of other active substances in milk.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos , Leite , Humanos , Feminino , Lactente , Animais , Caseínas , Emulsificantes , Fórmulas Infantis
2.
J Oleo Sci ; 73(4): 411-418, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556276

RESUMO

In 2021, we published three papers related to the anti-inflammatory effects of food ingredients. The present paper reports the effects of vitamin E homologs and sweet basil powder. In these papers, we investigated whether inflammation occurs in the adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 16 weeks. Inflammatory cytokine gene expression was significantly higher in the epididymal fat of the high-fat and high-sucrose diet group than in that of the control diet group. However, the addition of α-tocopherol or δ-tocopherol to the diet could not restrain the inflammation of mice epididymal fats. Thereafter, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of α- and δ-tocopherols using the co-cultured cells. Consequently, we clarified that δ-tocopherol inhibited the increase in the gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines. We also examined the effect of sweet basil powder on a similar obese mice model. The final body weight in the high-fat and high-sucrose group that received sweet basil powder was significantly lower than that in the high-fat and high-sucrose diet group. Liver weights were also significantly lower in the high-fat and high-sucrose diet group that received sweet basil powder than in the high-fat and high-sucrose diet group, although adipose tissue weights were unchanged in both groups. Furthermore, sweet basil powder tended to inhibit in lipid synthesis in the mice livers. Therefore, we suggested that sweet basil powder inhibited fatty acid synthesis in mice livers, thereby suppressing liver enlargement, and resulting in body weight loss. Moreover, the gene expression of MCP-1 in the adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet added with sweet basil powder was significantly lower than that of mice fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 12 weeks. Therefore, sweet basil powder inhibited inflammation onset in the adipose tissue of mice. Taken together, the results suggested that food ingredients, especially vitamin E homologs and sweet basil powder, have anti-inflammatory effects on mice adipose tissue and mice adipocyte-induced inflammation.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos , Camundongos , Animais , Pós , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sacarose , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(11): 5503-5525, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442367

RESUMO

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been extensively characterized due to its many biological activities and health benefits, but conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) is still not well understood. However, CLnA has shown to be more effective than CLA as a potential functional food ingredient. Current research has not thoroughly investigated the differences and advantages between CLnA and CLA. This article compares CLnA and CLA based on molecular characteristics, including structural, chemical, and metabolic characteristics. Then, the in vivo research evidence of CLnA on various health benefits is comprehensively reviewed and compared with CLA in terms of effectiveness and mechanism. Furthermore, the potential of CLnA in production technology and product protection is analyzed. In general, CLnA and CLA have similar physicochemical properties of conjugated molecules and share many similarities in regulation effects and pathways of various health benefits as well as in the production methods. However, their specific properties, regulatory capabilities, and unique mechanisms are different. The superior potential of CLnA must be specified according to the practical application patterns of isomers. Future research should focus more on the advantageous characteristics of different isomers, especially the effectiveness and safety in clinical applications in order to truly exert the potential value of CLnA.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados , Ácido alfa-Linolênico/química , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/química , Isomerismo , Alimento Funcional
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(14): 7845-7860, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501913

RESUMO

Ginseng is widely recognized for its diverse health benefits and serves as a functional food ingredient with global popularity. Ginsenosides with a broad range of pharmacological effects are the most crucial active ingredients in ginseng. This study aimed to derive ginseng glucosyl oleanolate (GGO) from ginsenoside Ro through enzymatic conversion and evaluate its impact on liver cancer in vitro and in vivo. GGO exhibited concentration-dependent HepG2 cell death and markedly inhibited cell proliferation via the MAPK signaling pathway. It also attenuated tumor growth in immunocompromised mice undergoing heterograft transplantation. Furthermore, GGO intervention caused a modulation of gut microbiota composition by specific bacterial populations, including Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Enterococcus, etc., and ameliorated SCFA metabolism and colonic inflammation. These findings offer promising evidence for the potential use of GGO as a natural functional food ingredient in the prevention and treatment of cancer.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ginsenosídeos , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Panax , Camundongos , Animais , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Panax/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Curr Opin Biotechnol ; 86: 103084, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394936

RESUMO

Precision fermentation involves the rewiring of metabolic pathways in generally recognized as safe microorganisms, fermentation scale-up, and downstream processing to produce food ingredients from abundant and inexpensive substrates. Using precise genome editing of food-fermenting microorganisms, precision fermentation can also produce fermented foods with more desirable properties. These genetic tools allow for the manipulation of flavors and nutritional content in fermented foods, the economic production of functional food ingredients, and the sustainable production of otherwise-costly macronutrients. By introducing the metabolic designs, genetic modifications, and resulting products of engineered microorganisms developed through academic and industrial research, this review aims to provide insights into the potentials and challenges of precision fermentation for the economic, safe, and sustainable production of foods.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fermentados , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Fermentação , Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos
6.
J Food Sci ; 89(3): 1582-1598, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317423

RESUMO

This work evaluated the interaction between micellar casein (MC) or whey protein (WP) in ultrafiltration retentate with curcumin (Cur), as well as the physicochemical and functional properties of Cur-MC and Cur-WP complexes. The MC had a higher affinity for Cur than WP, shown by higher binding constants of Cur-MC at various temperatures. Thermodynamic analysis of the binding process indicated that the interaction between Cur and MC or WP was hydrophobic in nature. Cur promoted the size and polydispersity index of MC and WP at 4 mM but did not alter the morphology of spray-dried MC and WP. The Cur-MC complexes showed better aqueous solubility at pH 2-3 and 6-10 compared to free MC. Combination with MC or WP improved the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical scavenging activity of Cur. In addition, combination with MC and WP promoted cumulative release of Cur during simulated gastrointestinal digestion, especially for WP. Thus, MC and WP in retentates can be good alternative protein-based carriers for Cur delivery, whereas their complexes in powder form have good functional properties that could be used as active food ingredients in several food formulations. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Microfiltration is a cheap and convenient approach that can be used to easily produce micellar casein (MC), with whey protein (WP) as one byproduct. In this study, we proved that MC and WP in retentates have strong interaction with curcumin (Cur), whereas their complexes have good functional properties. Thus, spray-dried MC-Cur or WP-Cur complexes could be used as active food ingredients in several food formulations.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Micelas , Curcumina/química , Caseínas/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite
7.
Science ; 383(6683): eado2352, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330114

RESUMO

"Dinner for One," a short black-and-white video performed in English from the 1960s, has become a cherished tradition in several German-speaking and Scandinavian countries, broadcast on TV every New Year's Eve for decades and gaining newfound popularity on social media among members of Generation Z. The narrative follows a British butler, James, whose employer, Miss Sophie, celebrates her 90th birthday as she has for many years by inviting her closest friends to dinner, though they have long since passed away. When asked by James throughout the dinner "The same procedure as last year?" while soup, fish, chicken, and fruit are being served, each with its corresponding beverage, Miss Sophie replies, "The same procedure as every year." But although it may be beloved as a work of comedic fiction, the same procedure as every year, the "business as usual" approach, is not sustainable in the real world when it comes to the food on our plates.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos , Química Verde , Humanos , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
8.
Curr Nutr Rep ; 13(1): 1-14, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172459

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The liver is an important digestive gland in the body. Lifestyle and dietary habits are increasingly damaging our liver, leading to various diseases and health problems. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most serious liver disease problems in the world. Diet is one of the important factors in maintaining liver health. Functional foods and their components have been identified as novel sources of potential preventive agents in the prevention and treatment of liver disease in daily life. However, the effects of functional components derived from small molecules in food on different types of liver diseases have not been systematically summarized. RECENT FINDINGS: The components and related mechanisms in functional foods play a significant role in the development and progression of NAFLD and liver fibrosis. A variety of structural components are found to treat and prevent NAFLD and liver fibrosis through different mechanisms, including flavonoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, polysaccharides, unsaturated fatty acids, and peptides. On the other hand, the relevant mechanisms include oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune regulation, and a large number of literature studies have confirmed a close relationship between the mechanisms. The purpose of this article is to examine the current literature related to functional foods and functional components used for the treatment and protection against NAFLD and hepatic fibrosis, focusing on chemical properties, health benefits, mechanisms of action, and application in vitro and in vivo. The roles of different components in the biological processes of NAFLD and liver fibrosis were also discussed.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Alimento Funcional , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(2)2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38256064

RESUMO

Flavonoids have garnered attention because of their beneficial bioactivities. However, some flavonoids reportedly interact with drugs via transporters and may induce adverse drug reactions. This study investigated the effects of food ingredients on organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 4C1, which handles uremic toxins and some drugs, to understand the safety profile of food ingredients in renal drug excretion. Twenty-eight food ingredients, including flavonoids, were screened. We used ascorbic acid (AA) to prevent curcumin oxidative degradation in our method. Twelve compounds, including apigenin, daidzein, fisetin, genistein, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, luteolin, morin, quercetin, curcumin, resveratrol, and ellagic acid, altered OATP4C1-mediated transport. Kaempferol and curcumin strongly inhibited OATP4C1, and the Ki values of kaempferol (AA(-)), curcumin (AA(-)), and curcumin (AA(+)) were 25.1, 52.2, and 23.5 µM, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed that these compounds affected OATP4C1 transport in a competitive manner. Antioxidant supplementation was determined to benefit transporter interaction studies investigating the effects of curcumin because the concentration-dependent curve evidently shifted in the presence of AA. In this study, we elucidated the food-drug interaction via OATP4C1 and indicated the utility of antioxidant usage. Our findings will provide essential information regarding food-drug interactions for both clinical practice and the commercial development of supplements.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Quempferóis , Cinética , Ácido Ascórbico , Flavonoides , Peptídeos , Ânions
10.
Food Chem ; 441: 138322, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190793

RESUMO

The consumer demand for protein rich foods urges the exploration for novel products of natural origin. Algae can be considered as a gold mine of different bioactive compounds, among which protein is distributed in significant amounts i.e., around 30% and can even reach to 55-60% in some cyanobacteria. Bakery and dairy products are extensively consumed worldwide due to product diversification and innovation. However, incorporation of algae biomass can lead to the development of green colour and fishy flavour that usually is not accepted in such products. Therefore, isolation and application of algae-derived proteins opens a new door for food industry. The present review provides a comprehensive understanding of incorporation of algae as a protein-rich ingredient in bakery and dairy products. The paper provides a deep insight for all the possible recent trends related to production and extraction of algae proteins accompanied by their incorporation in bakery and dairy foods.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos , Laticínios , Indústria Alimentícia , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos
11.
J Food Prot ; 87(1): 100198, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38007093

RESUMO

In late 2020, dried wood ear mushrooms, a low-moisture food ingredient that had been imported and sold to restaurants, were linked to a foodborne outbreak of Salmonella Stanley, which sickened 55 individuals across the United States. These mushrooms are commonly used in Asian cuisine. It is unclear if the contaminated dried wood ear mushrooms that caused the foodborne illnesses were improperly handled during preparation. The objectives of this study are to assess the handling practices, risk perceptions, and food recall experiences of dried wood ear mushrooms in restaurant kitchens among Asian restaurant managers and chefs. We conducted a series of telephone interviews with managers and chefs of Asian restaurants in the United States who used dried wood ear mushrooms in making dishes. After reaching information saturation, a total of 25 restaurant managers and chefs participated in the interview. Our results showed that 76% of the participants did not keep track of package information, such as expiration date and lot number, and many participants reported using cold water for rehydration. Wood ear mushrooms were blanched before being used in all cold dishes and most stir-fry dishes, but less commonly in stew or ramen. Some participants (16%) did not view dried wood ear mushrooms as a raw food ingredient, and 16% did not perceive that low-moisture food ingredients constituted microbiological food safety risks. The majority of the participants had heard of food recalls, but only 17% knew about the dried wood ear mushroom recall, and even fewer had heard of food recalls of other low-moisture foods, like nuts and seeds (9%), and flour (4%). While this study shares similarities with previously published studies evaluating the handling practices of consumers and restaurant employees with respect to meat and poultry, it makes a distinctive contribution to the field of food safety as the first-of-its-kind to study the handling practices of a low-moisture food ingredient: dried wood ear mushrooms. This unique ethnic food ingredient has been associated with a past outbreak and multiple recalls in the United States. The findings of the study show the need to develop food safety educational programs that are tailored toward Asian restaurant food handlers and provide guidance to develop risk communication strategies for this niche audience.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Auricularia , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Restaurantes , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia
12.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 416(3): 611-620, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37542534

RESUMO

Food safety and food security are two of the main concerns for the modern food manufacturing industry. Disruptions in the food supply and value chains have created the need to develop agile screening tools that will allow the detection of food pathogens, spoilage microorganisms, microbial contaminants, toxins, herbicides, and pesticides in agricultural commodities, natural products, and food ingredients. Most of the current routine analytical methods used to detect and identify microorganisms, herbicides, and pesticides in food ingredients and products are based on the use of reliable and robust immunological, microbiological, and biochemical techniques (e.g. antigen-antibody interactions, extraction and analysis of DNA) and chemical methods (e.g. chromatography). However, the food manufacturing industries are demanding agile and affordable analytical methods. The objective of this review is to highlight the advantages and limitations of the use of vibrational spectroscopy combined with chemometrics as proxy to evaluate and quantify herbicides, pesticides, and toxins in foods.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos , Herbicidas , Praguicidas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Praguicidas/análise , Análise Espectral , Herbicidas/análise , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 257(Pt 2): 128653, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38072345

RESUMO

The application of hydrophobic ß-carotene in the food industry are limited due to its susceptibility to light, high temperature, pH value, and other factors, leading to poor stability and low bioavailability. To address this problem, we adopt a more green and environmentally friendly reducing agent, 2-methylpyridine borane complex (pic-BH3), instead of traditional sodium borohydride, to achieve the simple green and efficient synthesis of amphiphilic oxidized sodium alginate grafted oleoamine derivatives (OSAOLA) through the reduction amination reaction of Schiff base. The resultant OSAOLA with the degree of substitution (DS) of 7.2 %, 23.6 %, and 38.8 % were synthesized, and their CMC values ranged from 0.0095 to 0.062 mg/mL, indicating excellent self-assembly capability in aqueous solution. Meanwhile, OSAOLA showed no obvious cytotoxicity to RAW 264.7 cells, thus revealing good biocompatibility. Furthermore, ß-carotene, as the hydrophobic active ingredients in foods was successfully encapsulated in the OSAOLA micelles by ultrasonic-dialysis method. The prepared drug-loaded OSAOLA micelles could maintain good stability when stored at room temperature for 7 d. Additionally, they were able to continuously release ß-carotene and exert long-term effects in pH 7.4 PBS at 37 °C, effectively improving the bioavailability of ß-carotene, which exhibited tremendous application potential in functional food and biomedical fields.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos , Micelas , Alginatos , beta Caroteno/química , Aminação , Bases de Schiff , Diálise Renal , Portadores de Fármacos/química
14.
J Med Food ; 27(2): 145-153, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38079198

RESUMO

Pequi is a native and popular fruit in Cerrado biome. The internal yellow-orange mesocarp is the edible fraction of the fruit, but its shell (peel and external mesocarp), which comprises 80% of the fruit, is not used by the agro-industry during fruit processing. There is a growing interest in the reduction of food loss and waste because of environmental, economic, and social impacts. So this study evaluated the chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and in vitro prebiotic activity of pequi shell flour. Pequi shell flour was obtained from the lyophilization and milling of pequi shell. The content of dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, sugars, organic acids, total phenolics and tannins, polyphenol profile, and antioxidant capacity was determined in pequi shell flour. In addition, its prebiotic activity was evaluated on growth and metabolism of probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains. Pequi shell flour has a high content of dietary fibers (47.92 g/100 g), soluble fibers (18.65 g/100 g), raffinose (2.39 g/100 g), and phenolic compounds (14,062.40 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g). For the first time, the polyphenols epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 were identified in this by-product. Pequi shell flour promoted greater growth of Lacticaseibacillus casei L-26 (at 24-48 h) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, as well as higher prebiotic activity scores than fructooligosaccharides (standard prebiotic). Pequi shell flour is rich in prebiotic compounds and has a high antioxidant and prebiotic potential. The promising results encourage its use as an ingredient with antioxidant and potential prebiotic properties to elaborate new functional foods and nutraceuticals.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos , Malpighiales , Antioxidantes , Lactobacillus , Bifidobacterium , Fibras na Dieta
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38083267

RESUMO

The foods' ingredients and nutrition are of great significance for human health so that people can meet their fitness needs or avoid consuming allergenic and post-operative contraindicated foods. However, the diversity of recipes and the randomness of combinations in Chinese cuisine make great challenges for Chinese food identification. To address the above issues, we built a new lightweight end-to-end food query and nutrition recognition system, which is based on knowledge distillation and deep learning methods. Firstly, well-performed DenseNet-121 is used to recognize the categories of food. At the same time, ResNet-50 is used as the Net-T, and pre-trained VGG-16 is used as the Net-S in the knowledge distillation framework, which is used to recognize the ingredients of the food. Finally, ingredient nutrition is obtained by querying the ingredient table. Experiments illustrate the good performance of the proposed method, with 91.65% Accuracy of food classification and 92.01% Accuracy of ingredients recognition.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos , Humanos , Alimentos , Estado Nutricional , Alérgenos
16.
Molecules ; 28(24)2023 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38138505

RESUMO

Soybean meal (SBM) is a high-quality vegetable protein, whose application is greatly limited due to its high molecular weight and anti-nutritional properties. The aim of this study was to modify the protein of soybean meal via solid-state fermentation of Bacillus subtilis. The fermentation conditions were optimized as, finally, the best process parameters were obtained, namely fermentation temperature of 37 °C, inoculum amount of 12%, time of 47 h, and material-liquid ratio of 1:0.58, which improved the content of acid-soluble protein. To explore the utilization of modified SBM as a food ingredient, the protein structure and properties were investigated. Compared to SBM, the protein secondary structure of fermented soybean meal (FSBM) from the optimal process decreased by 8.3% for α-helix content, increased by 3.08% for ß-sheet, increased by 2.71% for ß-turn, and increased by 2.51% for random coil. SDS-PAGE patterns showed that its 25-250 KDa bands appeared to be significantly attenuated, with multiple newborn peptide bands smaller than 25 KDa. The analysis of particle size and zeta potential showed that fermentation reduced the average particle size and increased the absolute value of zeta potential. It was visualized by SEM and CLSM maps that the macromolecular proteins in FSBM were broken down into fragmented pieces with a folded and porous surface structure. Fermentation increased the solubility, decreased the hydrophobicity, increased the free sulfhydryl content, decreased the antigenicity, improved the protein properties of SBM, and promoted further processing and production of FSBM as a food ingredient.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos , Proteínas de Soja , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Farinha , Ração Animal/análise
17.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 18809, 2023 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37914744

RESUMO

Understanding precisely what is in food products is not always straightforward due to food fraud, differing labelling regulations, naming inconsistencies and the hierarchical nature of ingredients. Despite this, the need to detect and substitute ingredients in consumer food products is far-reaching. The cultivation and production of many ingredients is unsustainable, and can lead to widespread deforestation and biodiversity loss. Understanding the presence and replaceability of these ingredients is an important step in reducing their use. Furthermore, certain ingredients are critical to consumer food products, and identifying these ingredients and evaluating supply-chain resilience in the event of losing access to them is vital for food security analysis. To address these issues, we first present a novel machine learning approach for detecting the presence of unlabelled ingredients. We then characterise the unsolved problem of proposing viable food substitutions as a directed link prediction task and solve it with a graph neural network (GNN).


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos , Análise de Alimentos , Segurança Alimentar
18.
Nutrients ; 15(20)2023 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37892453

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory disease with an unknown pathogenesis and increasing incidence. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of prophylactic treatment with Cordyceps militaris on UC. The findings demonstrate that prophylactic supplementation of C. militaris powder effectively mitigates disease symptoms in DSS-injured mice, while also reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, C. militaris powder enhances the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier by up-regulating MUC2 protein expression and improving tight junction proteins (ZO-1, occludin, and claudin 1) in DSS-injured mice. Multiomics integration analyses revealed that C. militaris powder not only reshaped gut microbiota composition, with an increase in Lactobacillus, Odoribacter, and Mucispirillum, but also exerted regulatory effects on various metabolic pathways including amino acid, glyoxylates, dicarboxylates, glycerophospholipids, and arachidonic acid. Subsequent analysis further elucidated the intricate interplay of gut microbiota, the intestinal mucosal barrier, and metabolites, suggesting that the microbiota-metabolite axis may involve the effect of C. militaris on intestinal mucosal barrier repair in UC. Moreover, in vitro experiments demonstrated that peptides and polysaccharides, derived from C. militaris, exerted an ability to change the gut microbiota structure of UC patients' feces, particularly by promoting the growth of Lactobacillus. These findings suggest that regulatory properties of C. militaris on gut microbiota may underlie the potential mechanism responsible for the protective effect of C. militaris in UC. Consequently, our study will provide support for the utilization of C. militaris as a whole food-based ingredient against the occurrence and development of UC.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Cordyceps , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Pós , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Colo
19.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 16627, 2023 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37789026

RESUMO

The study investigated the effect of germination on pigeon pea flour's physico-functional (pH, color, water and oil absorption capacities, swelling and foaming capacities and bulk densities) and proximate, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The physico-functional and proximate parameters were determined using standard protocols. The color analysis showed that germination significantly increased the flour samples' lightness (L*) (70.7; p = 0.009) by almost 1.5-fold. Germination resulted in almost 1.1 times higher oil absorption capacity than the control (219.9%; p = 0.022). The foaming capacity of the germinated samples significantly (p = 0.015) increased by 6.4%. Germination significantly reduced the loose bulk density (0.54 vs 0.63; p = 0.012) but significantly increased the tapped bulk density (0.84 vs 0.77; p = 0.002). The germinated samples recorded significantly (1.62%; p = 0.010) lower crude fat, about 1.2 times lower than the raw flour. Germination significantly increased the flour's total ash (4.2% vs 3.6%; p = 0.003) and crude protein (11.6% vs 9.4%; p = 0.047) content. Germinated pigeon pea flour will perform better in formulating baked products, aerated foods and food extenders than non-germinated pigeon pea flour. Hence, the germination of pigeon peas should be encouraged because it harnesses the functional and proximate attributes measured.


Assuntos
Cajanus , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Cajanus/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Alimento Funcional , Antioxidantes/metabolismo
20.
Microb Cell Fact ; 22(1): 200, 2023 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37777723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacillus subtilis has been established as model microorganism for fundamental research in the laboratory on protein production/secretion and sporulation and as model bacterium for controlling spoilage in the food industry. It has also been used for production of (commercial) enzymes and several secondary metabolites such as vitamins. However, this doesn't fully reflect the potential of B. subtilis as a cell-factory. Here, various strains of B. subtilis, including food-grade, spore-deficient strains and industrially used strains, were compared for their growth and metabolic potential. Industry-relevant parameters were analyzed for all strains under various aeration regimes, under anaerobic conditions, in various nutritious and nutrient-limited cultivation media, with and without organic nitrogen sources, and with and without sugar. RESULTS: Practical experiments were conducted to compare industrial relevant properties like growth rates, intracellular components and extracellular metabolite profile of different B. subtilis strains. Based on growth flexibility in different media, we found that some strains like NCIB3610 and DSM1092 are adapted to inorganic or organic nitrogen source utilization, which is highly relevant when considering a biorefinery approach using various cheap and abundant waste/sidestreams. Secondly, spore-deficient strains such as 3NA, 168 S and PY79S, showed advantages in microbial protein and acetolactate pathway expression, which is associated with applications in food industry for protein supplement and diacetyl production. Lastly, WB800 and PY79S exhibited potential for fermentative production of dipicolinic acid, 2,3-butanediol and lactic acid that could serve as precursors for biopolymers. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the broad potential for more extensive industrial use of Bacillus subtilis in the (bio-based) chemical industry for use of sidestreams, in the personal care industry, in the food industry for food additive production, and in the bio-sustainable industry for biofuel and bio-degradable plastic precursors production. In addition, selecting different B. subtilis strains for specific purposes makes full use of the diversity of this species and increases the potential of B. subtilis in its contribution to the bio-based economy.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Biopolímeros , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
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